Table of contents for Analytical electrochemistry / Joseph Wang.

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CONTENTS
PREFACE xi
ABBREVATIONS AND SYMBOLS xiii
Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS....................................................... 1
1-1 Why Electroanalysis? ...................................................................... 1
1-2 Faradaic Processes ........................................................................... 3
1-2.1 Mass Transport Controlled Reactions ................................ 6
1-2.1.1 Potential Step Experiment .....................................11
1-2.1.2 Potential Sweep Experiments................................13
1-2.2 Reactions Controlled by the Rate of Electron Transfer......19
1-2.2.1 Activated Complex Theory ...................................26
1-3 Electrical Double Layer...................................................................30
1-4 Electrocapillary Effect .....................................................................38
1-5 Supplementary Reading ...................................................................43
Questions..........................................................46
Chapter 2 STUDY OF ELECTRODE REACTIONS AND INTERFACIAL
PROPERTIES 47
2-1 Cyclic Voltammetry ......................................................................47
2-1.1 Data Interpretation ..............................................................50
2-1.1.1 Reversible Systems................................................52
2-1.1.2 Irreversible and Quasi-reversible Systems............55
2-1.2 Study of Reaction Mechanisms ..........................................57
2-1.3 Study of Adsorption Processes ...........................................63
2-1.4 Quantitative Applications ...................................................67
2-2 Spectroelectrochemistry ................................................................69
2-2.1 Experimental Arrangement.................................................70
2-2.2 Principles and Applications ................................................72
2-2.3 Electrochemiluminescence ................................. 77
2-2.4 Optical Probing of Electrode/Solution Interfaces ..........78
2-3 Scanning Probe Microscopy..........................................................81
2-3.1 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy........................................82
2-3.2 Atomic Force Microscopy ..................................................87
2-3.3 Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy ..............................88
2-4 Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance..............................95
2-5 Impedance Spectroscopy................................................97
Examples and Questions........................................106
Chapter 3 CONTROLLED POTENTIAL TECHNIQUES..............................111
3-1 Chronoamperometry......................................................................111
3-2 Polarography..................................................................................114
3-3 Pulse Voltammetry ........................................................................124
3-3.1 Normal Pulse Voltammetry ................................................125
3-3.2 Differential Pulse Voltammetry..........................................127
3-3.3 Square-Wave Voltammetry ................................................132
3-3.4 Staircase Voltammetry........................................................137
3-4 AC Voltammetry ...........................................................................139
3-5 Stripping Analysis .........................................................................140
3-5.1 Anodic Stripping Voltammetry ..........................................141
3-5.2 Potentiometric Stripping Analysis......................................147
3-5.3 Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry and Potentiometry......149
3-5.4 Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry..............................154
3-5.5 Abrasive Stripping Voltammetry..............................157
3-5.5 Applications ........................................................................157
3-6 Flow Analysis ................................................................................162
3-6.1 Principles ............................................................................162
3-6.2 Cell Design .........................................................................166
3-6.3 Mass Transport and Current Response...............................172
3-6.4 Detection Modes .................................................................174
Examples and Questions.........................................186
Chapter 4. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 194
4-1 Electrochemical Cells....................................................................194
4-2 Solvents and Supporting Electrolytes............................................198
4-3 Oxygen Removal ...........................................................................199
4-4 Instrumentation..............................................................................200
4-5 Working Electrodes .......................................................................208
4-5.1 Mercury Electrodes.............................................................208
4-5.2 Solid Electrodes ..................................................................214
4-5.2.1 Rotating Disk and Ring-Disk Electrodes ...............217
4-5.2.2 Carbon Electrodes .................................................220
4-5.2.2.1 Glassy Carbon Electrodes...........................221
4-5.2.2.2 Carbon Paste Electrodes .............................222
4-5.2.2.3 Carbon Fiber Electrodes .............................224
4-5.2.2.4 Diamond Electrodes...........................225
4-5.2.3 Metal Electrodes....................................................227
4-5.3 Chemically Modified Electrodes ........................................229
4-5.3.1 Self-Assembled Monolayers .........................232
4-5.3.2 Carbon-Nantube Modified Electrodes...............235
4-5.3.3 Sol-gel Encapsulation of Reactive Species..........235
4-5.3.4 Electrocatalytic Modified Electrodes ....................237
4-5.3.5 Preconcentrating Electrodes ..................................240
4-5.3.6 Prermselective Coatings ........................................243
4-5.3.7 Conducting Polymers ............................................244
4-5.4 Microelectrodes ..................................................................254
4-5.4.1 Diffusion at Microelectrodes.................................258
4-5.4.2 Configurations of Microelectrodes........................262
4-5.4.3 Composite Electrodes............................................264
Examples and Questions................................ 278
Chapter 5 POTENTIOMETRY........................................................................280
5-1 Principles of Potentiometric Measurements..................................280
5-2 Ion Selective Electrodes ................................................................293
5-2.1 Glass Electrodes..................................................................294
5-2.1.1 pH Electrodes ........................................................294
5-2.1.2 Glass Electrodes for Other Cations .......................300
5-2.2 Liquid Membrane Electrodes .............................................301
5-2.2.1 Ion-Exchanger Electrodes .....................................303
5-2.2.2 Neutral Carrier Electrodes.....................................310
5-2.3 Solid-state Electrodes .........................................................317
5-2.4 Coated Wire Electrodes ......................................................320
5-3 On-Line and In-vivo Potentiometric Measurements.....................324
Examples and Questions.........................................337
Chapter 6 ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSORS................................................341
6-1 Electrochemical Biosensors...........................................................341
6-1.1 Enzyme-based Electrodes...................................................342
6-1.1.1 Practical and Theoretical Considerations..............343
6-1.1.2 Enzyme Electrodes of Analytical Significance.....352
6-1.1.2.1 Glucose Sensors..........................................352
6-1.1.2.2 Ethanol Electrodes......................................360
6-1.1.2.3 Urea Electrodes...........................................362
6-1.1.2.4 Toxin Biosensors...............................365
6-1.1.3 Tissue and Bacteria Electrodes .............................365
6-1.2 Affinity Biosensors.............................................................367
6-1.2.1 Immunosensors......................................................369
6-1.2.2 DNA Hybridization Biosensors.......................373
6-1.2.2.1 Background and Principles........................373
6-1.2.2.2 Electrical Transduction of DNA Hybridization 375
6-1.2.2.3 Other Electrochemical DNA Biosensors.........379
6-1.2.3 Receptor-based Electrodes .....................................379
6-1.2.4 Electrochemical Sensors based on Molecularly-Imprinted
Polymers.................................................383
6-2 Gas Sensors............................................................................384
5-2.1 Carbon Dioxide Sensors...........................................385
5-2.2 Oxygen Electrodes ...................................................387
6-3 Solid State Devices ................................................................391
6-3.1Microfabrication of Solid-State Sensor Assemblies..394
6-3.2 Microfabrication Techniques...........................394
6-3.3 Micromachined Analytical Microsystems ................400
6-4 Sensor Arrays.........................................................................402
Examples and Questions..................................416
INDEX 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Electrochemical analysis.