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```CONTENTS
Preface xiv
Chapter 1 Introduction 3
1.1	Why Study Physics? 4
1.2	Talking Physics 4
1.3	The Use of Mathematics 5
1.4	Scientific Notation and Significant Figures 6
1.5	Units 9
1.6	Dimensional Analysis 12
1.7	Problem-Solving Techniques 13
1.8	Approximations 14
1.9	Graphs 16
Master the Concepts 18
Conceptual Questions 19
Multiple Choice Questions 19
Problems 20
Comprehensive Problems 23
Part ONE
Mechanics
Chapter 2 Forces and Introduction to Vectors 25
2.1	Forces 26
2.2	Fundamental Forces 30
2.3	Newton's Laws of Motion 32
2.4	Net Force: Vector Addition 37
2.5	Gravitational Forces 41
2.6	Contact Forces 44
2.7	Tension 49
Master the Concepts 52
Conceptual Questions 53
Multiple Choice Questions 54
Problems 54
Comprehensive Problems 57
Chapter 3 Forces and Motion Along a Line 61
3.1	Position and Displacement 62
3.2	Velocity 65
3.3	Acceleration 71
3.4	Newton's Second Law: Force and Acceleration 74
3.5	Motion with Constant Acceleration 79
3.6	Falling Objects 86
3.7	Apparent Weight 90
Master the Concepts 93
Conceptual Questions 93
Multiple Choice Questions 94
Problems 95
Comprehensive Problems 99
Chapter 4 Forces and Motion in Two Dimensions 103
4.1	Addition and Subtraction of Vectors in Two Dimensions 104
4.2	Components of Vectors in Two Dimensions 107
4.3	Equilibrium 110
4.4	Velocity and Acceleration 116
4.5	Motion of Projectiles 118
4.6	Other Examples of Constant Acceleration 125
4.7	Relative Velocity 128
Master the Concepts 132
Conceptual Questions 133
Multiple Choice Questions 133
Problems 134
Comprehensive Problems 139
Chapter 5 Circular Motion 145
5.1	Description of Uniform Circular Motion 146
5.2	Centripetal Acceleration 151
5.3	Banked Curves 156
5.4	Circular Orbits 160
5.5	Nonuniform Circular Motion 163
5.6	Angular Acceleration 167
5.7	Artificial Gravity 169
Master the Concepts 171
Conceptual Questions 172
Multiple Choice Questions 172
Problems 173
Comprehensive Problems 176
Chapter 6 Energy 179
6.1	A Conservation Law 180
6.2	Work Done by Constant Forces 180
6.3	Kinetic Energy 187
6.4	Work Done by Variable Forces 189
6.5	Potential Energy 192
6.6	Conservation of Mechanical Energy 196
6.7	General Law of Energy Conservation 202
6.8	Power 204
Master the Concepts 206
Conceptual Questions 207
Multiple Choice Questions 207
Problems 208
Comprehensive Problems 212
Chapter 7 Linear Momentum 217
7.1	A Vector Conservation Law 218
7.2	Momentum 218
7.3	The Impulse-Momentum Theorem 221
7.4	Conservation of Momentum 226
7.5	Center of Mass 230
7.6	Motion of the Center of Mass 233
7.7	Collisions in One Dimension 235
7.8	Collisions in Two Dimensions 239
Master the Concepts 242
Conceptual Questions 243
Multiple Choice Questions 244
Problems 245
Comprehensive Problems 247
Chapter 8 Torque and Angular Momentum 251
8.1	Rotational Kinetic Energy and Rotational Inertia 252
8.2	Torque 256
8.3	Work Done by a Torque 262
8.4	Equilibrium Revisited 263
8.5	Equilibrium in the Human Body 270
8.6	Rotational Form of Newton's
Second Law 275
8.7	The Dynamics of Rolling Objects 276
8.8	Angular Momentum 279
8.9	The Vector Nature of Angular Momentum 282
Master the Concepts 285
Conceptual Questions 286
Multiple Choice Questions 288
Problems 288
Comprehensive Problems 294
Chapter 9 Fluids 301
9.1	States of Matter 302
9.2	Pressure 302
9.3	Pascal's Principle 304
9.4	The Effect of Gravity on Fluid Pressure 306
9.5	Measuring Pressure 309
9.6	Archimedes' Principle 312
9.7	Fluid Flow 316
9.8	Bernoulli's Equation 319
9.9	Viscosity 324
9.10	Viscous Drag 327
9.11	Surface Tension 328
Master the Concepts 330
Conceptual Questions 331
Multiple Choice Questions 332
Problems 333
Comprehensive Problems 337
Chapter 10 Elasticity and Oscillations 341
10.1	Elastic Deformations of Solids 342
10.2	Hooke's Law for Tensile and Compressive Forces 342
10.3	Beyond Hooke's Law 344
10.4	Shear and Volume Deformations 347
10.5	Simple Harmonic Motion 351
10.6	The Period and Frequency for SHM 353
10.7	Graphical Analysis of SHM 358
10.8	The Pendulum 360
10.9	Damped Oscillations 364
10.10	Forced Oscillations and Resonance 364
Master the Concepts 366
Conceptual Questions 367
Multiple Choice Questions 368
Problems 369
Comprehensive Problems 371
Chapter 11 Waves 375
11.1	Waves and Energy Transport 376
11.2	Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 379
11.3	Speed of Transverse Waves on a String 381
11.4	Periodic Waves 382
11.5	Mathematical Description of a Wave 383
11.6	Graphing Waves 385
11.7	Principle of Superposition 386
11.8	Reflection and Refraction 388
11.9	Interference and Diffraction 391
11.10	Standing Waves 394
Master the Concepts 396
Conceptual Questions 397
Multiple Choice Questions 397
Problems 398
Comprehensive Problems 401
Chapter 12 Sound 405
12.1	Sound Waves 406
12.2	The Speed of Sound Waves 408
12.3	Amplitude and Intensity of Sound Waves 409
12.4	Standing Sound Waves 414
12.5	The Human Ear 418
12.6	Timbre 421
12.7	Beats 422
12.8	The Doppler Effect 424
12.9	Shock Waves 428
12.10	Echolocation and Medical Imaging 430
Master the Concepts 432
Conceptual Questions 433
Multiple Choice Questions 434
Problems 434
Comprehensive Problems 437
Part TWO
Thermal Physics
Chapter 13 Temperature and the Ideal Gas 441
13.1	Temperature 442
13.2	Temperature Scales 443
13.3	Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 445
13.4	Molecular Picture of a Gas 449
13.5	Absolute Temperature and the Ideal Gas Law 451
13.6	Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas 455
13.7	Temperature and Reaction Rates 460
13.8	Collisions between Gas Molecules 462
Master the Concepts 465
Conceptual Questions 466
Multiple Choice Questions 467
Problems 467
Comprehensive Problems 470
Chapter 14 Heat 473
14.1	Internal Energy 474
14.2	Heat 475
14.3	Heat Capacity and Specific Heat 478
14.4	Specific Heat of Ideal Gases 481
14.5	Phase Transitions 483
14.6	Conduction 489
14.7	Convection 492
Master the Concepts 501
Conceptual Questions 502
Multiple Choice Questions 503
Problems 504
Comprehensive Problems 508
Chapter 15 Thermodynamics 511
15.1	The First Law of Thermodynamics 512
15.2	Thermodynamic Processes 513
15.3	Constant Pressure Expansion of an Ideal Gas 518
15.4	Reversible and Irreversible Processes 519
15.5	Heat Engines 521
15.6	Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 524
15.7	Reversible Engines and Heat Pumps 526
15.8	Carnot Cycle 529
15.9	Entropy 530
15.10	Statistical Interpretation of Entropy 533
15.11	The Third Law of Thermodynamics 536
Master the Concepts 537
Conceptual Questions 538
Multiple Choice Questions 538
Problems 539
Comprehensive Problems 542
Part THREE
Electromagnetism
Chapter 16 Electric Forces and Fields 545
16.1	Electric Charge 546
16.2	Conductors and Insulators 549
16.3	Coulomb's Law 554
16.4	The Electric Field 558
16.5	Motion of a Point Charge in a Uniform Electric Field 565
16.6	Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium 568
16.7	Gauss's Law for Electric Fields 571
Master the Concepts 575
Conceptual Questions 575
Multiple Choice Questions 576
Problems 578
Comprehensive Problems 581
Chapter 17 Electric Potential 585
17.1	Electric Potential Energy 586
17.2	Electric Potential 589
17.3	The Relationship between Electric Field and Potential 596
17.4	Conservation of Energy for Moving Charges 600
17.5	Capacitors 601
17.6	Dielectrics 606
17.7	Energy Stored in a Capacitor 611
Master the Concepts 614
Conceptual Questions 615
Multiple Choice Questions 616
Problems 617
Comprehensive Problems 621
Chapter 18 Electric Current and Circuits 625
18.1	Electric Current 626
18.2	Emf and Circuits 628
18.3	Microscopic View of Current in a Metal 631
18.4	Resistance and Resistivity 633
18.5	Kirchhoff's Rules 639
18.6	Series and Parallel Circuits 640
18.7	Circuit Analysis Using Kirchhoff's Rules 647
18.8	Power and Energy in Circuits 648
18.9	Measuring Currents and Voltages 651
18.10	RC Circuits 653
18.11	Electrical Safety 656
Master the Concepts 660
Conceptual Questions 660
Multiple Choice Questions 661
Problems 662
Comprehensive Problems 668
Chapter 19 Magnetic Forces and Fields 673
19.1	Magnetic Fields 674
19.2	Magnetic Force on a Point Charge 678
19.3	Charged Particle Moving Perpendicular to a Uniform Magnetic Field 684
19.4	Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field: General 689
19.5	A Charged Particle in Crossed #\$E and #\$B Fields 691
19.6	Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Wire 695
19.7	Torque on a Current Loop 697
19.8	Magnetic Field Due to an Electric Current 700
19.9	AmpSre's Law 706
19.10	Magnetic Materials 708
Master the Concepts 712
Conceptual Questions 713
Multiple Choice Questions 714
Problems 715
Comprehensive Problems 721
Chapter 20 Electromagnetic Induction 725
20.1	Motional Emf 726
20.2	Electric Generators 728
20.4	Lenz's Law 738
20.5	Back Emf in a Motor 740
20.6	Transformers 741
20.7	Eddy Currents 742
20.8	Induced Electric Fields 745
20.9	Mutual- and Self-Inductance 747
20.10	LR Circuits 751
Master the Concepts 755
Conceptual Questions 756
Multiple Choice Questions 757
Problems 758
Comprehensive Problems 762
Chapter 21 Alternating Current 767
21.1	Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages; Resistors in AC Circuits 768
21.2	Electricity in the Home 770
21.3	Capacitors in AC Circuits 772
21.4	Inductors in AC Circuits 775
21.5	RLC Series Circuits 777
21.6	Resonance in an RLC Circuit 781
21.7	Converting AC to DC; Filters 783
Master the Concepts 786
Conceptual Questions 787
Multiple Choice Questions 788
Problems 789
Comprehensive Problems 791
Part FOUR
Electromagnetic Waves and Optics
Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Waves 795
22.1	Accelerating Charges Produce Electromagnetic Waves 796
22.2	Maxwell's Equations 798
22.3	Antennas 799
22.4	The Electromagnetic Spectrum 802
22.5	Speed of EMWaves in Vacuum and in Matter 806
22.6	Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum 811
22.7	Energy Transport by EMWaves 813
22.8	Polarization 817
22.9	The Doppler Effect for EMWaves 824
Master the Concepts 827
Conceptual Questions 828
Multiple Choice Questions 829
Problems 830
Comprehensive Problems 832
Chapter 23 Reflection and Refraction of Light 835
23.1	Wavefronts, Rays, and Huygens's Principle 836
23.2	The Reflection of Light 838
23.3	The Refraction of Light: Snell's Law 840
23.4	Total Internal Reflection 846
23.5	Brewster's Angle 851
23.6	The Formation of Images through Reflection or Refraction 852
23.7	Plane Mirrors 854
23.8	Spherical Mirrors 856
23.9	Thin Lenses 863
Master the Concepts 868
Conceptual Questions 869
Multiple Choice Questions 870
Problems 871
Comprehensive Problems 875
Chapter 24 Optical Instruments 879
24.1	Lenses in Combination 880
24.2	Cameras 883
24.3	The Eye 885
24.4	The Simple Magnifier 890
24.5	Compound Microscopes 893
24.6	Telescopes 895
24.7	Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors 899
Master the Concepts 901
Conceptual Questions 902
Multiple Choice Questions 902
Problems 903
Comprehensive Problems 906
Chapter 25 Interference and Diffraction 909
25.1	Constructive and Destructive Interference 910
25.2	The Michelson Interferometer 914
25.3	Thin Films 916
25.4	Young's Double-Slit Experiment 921
25.5	Gratings 925
25.6	Diffraction and Huygens's Principle 928
25.7	Diffraction by a Single Slit 931
25.8	Diffraction and the Resolution of Optical Instruments 934
25.9	X-Ray Diffraction 937
25.10	Holography 939
Master the Concepts 941
Conceptual Questions 942
Multiple Choice Questions 942
Problems 943
Comprehensive Problems 947
Part FIVE
Quantum and Particle Physics and Relativity
Chapter 26 Relativity 951
26.1	Postulates of Relativity 952
26.2	Simultaneity and Ideal Observers 955
26.3	Time Dilation 957
26.4	Length Contraction 960
26.5	Velocities in Different Reference Frames 963
26.6	Relativistic Momentum 965
26.7	Mass and Energy 967
26.8	Relativistic Kinetic Energy 969
Master the Concepts 972
Conceptual Questions 973
Multiple Choice Questions 973
Problems 974
Comprehensive Problems 976
Chapter 27 Early Quantum Physics and the Photon 979
27.1	Quantization 980
27.3	The Photoelectric Effect 981
27.4	X-Ray Production 986
27.5	Compton Scattering 988
27.6	Spectroscopy and Early Models of the Atom 990
27.7	The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom; Atomic Energy Levels 993
27.8	Pair Annihilation and Pair Production 1000
Master the Concepts 1003
Conceptual Questions 1004
Multiple Choice Questions 1005
Problems 1006
Comprehensive Problems 1008
Chapter 28 Quantum Physics 1011
28.1	The Wave-Particle Duality 1012
28.2	Matter Waves 1013
28.3	Electron Microscopes 1017
28.4	The Uncertainty Principle 1018
28.5	Wave Functions for a Confined Particle 1020
28.6	The Hydrogen Atom: Wave Functions and Quantum Numbers 1023
28.7	The Exclusion Principle; Electron Configurations for Atoms other than
Hydrogen 1025
28.8	Electron Energy Levels in a Solid 1029
28.9	Lasers 1031
28.10	Tunneling 1036
Master the Concepts 1039
Conceptual Questions 1040
Multiple Choice Questions 1041
Problems 1042
Comprehensive Problems 1044
Chapter 29 Nuclear Physics 1047
29.1	Nuclear Structure 1048
29.2	Binding Energy 1050
29.4	Radioactive Decay Rates and Half-Lives 1062
29.5	Biological Effects of Radiation 1068
29.6	Induced Nuclear Reactions 1072
29.7	Fission 1075
29.8	Fusion 1080
Master the Concepts 1083
Conceptual Questions 1084
Multiple Choice Questions 1085
Problems 1085
Comprehensive Problems 1088
Chapter 30 Particle Physics 1091
30.1	Fundamental Particles 1092
30.2	Fundamental Interactions 1094
30.3	Unification 1096
30.4	"Who Ordered That?" 1098
30.5	Twenty-First-Century Particle Physics 1100
Master the Concepts 1102
Conceptual Questions 1102
Multiple Choice Questions 1102
Comprehensive Problems 1103
Appendix A
Mathematics Review 1105
Appendix B
Table of Selected Nuclides 1119
Answers to Selected Questions and Problems 1121
Credits 1137
Index 1141
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Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Physics.