Table of contents for Biology / Sylvia S. Mader.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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chapter	1
A View of Life 1
1.1	How to Define Life 2
1.2	How the Biosphere Is Organized 6
1.3	How Living Things Are Classified 8
1.4	The Process of Science 10
The Cell 18
chapter	2
Basic Chemistry 19
2.1	Chemical Elements 20
2.2	Elements and Compounds 24
2.3	Chemistry of Water 27
chapter	3
The Chemistry of Organic Molecules 35
3.1	Organic Molecules 36
3.2	Carbohydrates 39
3.3	Lipids 42
3.4	Proteins 46
3.5	Nucleic Acids 50
chapter	4
Cell Structure and Function 57
4.1	Cellular Level of Organization 58
4.2	Prokaryotic Cells 62
4.3	Eukaryotic Cells 64
chapter	5
Membrane Structure and Function 83
5.1	Membrane Models 84
5.2	Plasma Membrane Structure and Function 85
5.3	Permeability of the Plasma Membrane 88
5.4	Modification of Cell Surfaces 96
chapter	6
Metabolism: Energy and Enzymes 101
6.1	Cells and the Flow of Energy 102
6.2	Metabolic Reactions and Energy Transformations 104
6.3	Metabolic Pathways and Enzymes 106
6.4	Oxidation-Reduction and the Flow of Energy 110
chapter	7
Photosynthesis 115
7.1	Photosynthetic Organisms 116
7.2	Plants as Solar Energy Converters 118
7.3	Light Reactions 120
7.4	Calvin Cycle Reactions 124
7.5	Other Types of Photosynthesis 126
chapter	8
Cellular Respiration 131
8.1	Cellular Respiration 132
8.2	Outside the Mitochondria: Glycolysis 134
8.3	Inside the Mitochondria 136
8.4	Fermentation 142
8.5	Metabolic Pool 144
Genetic Basis of Life 148
chapter	9
The Cell Cycle and Cellular Reproduction 149
9.1	The Cell Cycle 150
9.2	Mitosis and Cytokinesis 153
9.3	The Cell Cycle and Cancer 158
9.4	Prokaryotic Cell Division 162
chapter	10
Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction 167
10.1	Halving the Chromosome Number 168
10.2	Genetic Recombination 170
10.3	The Phases of Meiosis 172
10.4	Comparison of Meiosis with Mitosis 174
10.5	The Human Life Cycle 176
chapter	11
Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance 181
11.1	Gregor Mendel 182
11.2	One-Trait Inheritance 184
11.3	Two-Trait Inheritance 189
11.4	Human Genetic Disorders 193
11.5	Beyond Mendelian Genetics 196
chapter	12
Chromosomal Patterns of Inheritance 203
12.1	Chromosomal Inheritance 204
12.2	Gene Linkage 209
12.3	Changes in Chromosome Number 212
12.4	Changes in Chromosome Structure 218
chapter	13
DNA Structure and Functions 223
13.1	The Genetic Material 224
13.2	The Structure of DNA 227
13.3	Replication of DNA 230
chapter	14
Gene Activity: How Genes Work 237
14.1	The Function of Genes 238
14.2	The Genetic Code 241
14.3	The First Step: Transcription 243
14.4	The Second Step: Translation 244
chapter	15
Regulation of Gene Activity and Gene Mutations 251
15.1	Prokaryotic Regulation 252
15.2	Eukaryotic Regulation 255
15.3	Genetic Mutations 260
chapter	16
Biotechnology and Genomics 267
16.1	DNA Cloning 268
16.2	Biotechnology Products 270
16.3	The Human Genome Project 273
16.4	Gene Therapy 276
Evolution 280
chapter	17
Darwin and Evolution 281
17.1	History of Evolutionary Thought 282
17.2	Darwin's Theory of Evolution 285
17.3	Evidence for Evolution 292
chapter	18
Process of Evolution 301
18.1	Evolution in a Genetic Context 302
18.2	Natural Selection 306
18.3	Speciation 310
chapter	19
Origin and History of Life 319
19.1	Origin of Life 320
19.2	History of Life 324
19.3	Factors That Influence Evolution 334
chapter	20
Classification of Living Things 341
20.1	Taxonomy 342
20.2	Phylogenetic Trees 346
20.3	Systematics Today 351
20.4	Classification Systems 354
Microbiology and Evolution 360
chapter	21
Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea 361
21.1	The Viruses 362
21.2	The Prokaryotes 367
21.3	The Bacteria 371
21.4	The Archaea 373
chapter	22
The Protists 379
22.1	General Biology of Protists 380
22.2	Diversity of Protists 382
chapter	23
The Fungi 397
23.1	Characteristics of Fungi 398
23.2	Evolution of Fungi 400
23.3	Symbiotic Relationships of Fungi 408
Plant Evolution and Biology 412
chapter	24
Evolution and Diversity of Plants 413
24.1	Evolutionary History of Plants 414
24.2	Nonvascular Plants 417
24.3	Vascular Plants 420
24.4	Seedless Vascular Plants 421
24.5	Seed Plants 424
24.6	Gymnosperms 424
24.7	Angiosperms 428
chapter	25
Structure and Organization of Plants 437
25.1	Plant Organs 438
25.2	Monocot Versus Eudicot Plants 440
25.3	Plant Tissues 441
25.4	Organization of Roots 444
25.5	Organization of Stems 448
25.6	Organization of Leaves 454
chapter	26
Nutrition and Transport in Plants 459
26.1	Plant Nutrition and Soil 460
26.2	Water and Mineral Uptake 464
26.3	Transport Mechanisms in Plants 466
chapter	27
Control of Growth and Responses 
in Plants 477
27.1	Plant Responses 478
27.2	Plant Hormones 482
27.3	Photoperiodism 488
chapter	28
Reproduction in Plants 493
28.1	Reproductive Strategies 494
28.2	Seed Development 501
28.3	Fruit Types and Seed Dispersal 502
28.4	Asexual Reproduction in Plants 508
Animal Evolution 516
chapter	29
Introduction to Invertebrates 517
29.1	Evolution of Animals 518
29.2	Multicellularity 520
29.3	True Tissue Layers 522
29.4	Bilateral Symmetry 526
29.5	Tube-within-a-Tube 530
chapter	30
The Protostomes 535
30.1	Advantages of Coelom in Protostomes and Deuterostomes 536
30.2	Molluscs 538
30.3	Annelids 542
30.4	Arthropods 544
chapter	31
The Deuterostomes 555
31.1	Echinoderms 556
31.2	Chordates 557
31.3	Vertebrates 560
chapter	32
Human Evolution 577
32.1	Evolution of Primates 579
32.2	Evolution of Hominids 583
32.3	Evolution of Modern Humans 588
Comparative Animal Biology 594
chapter	33
Animal Organization and Homeostasis 595
33.1	Types of Tissues 596
33.2	Organs and Organ Systems 602
33.3	Homeostasis 606
chapter	34
Circulation 611
34.1	Transport in Invertebrates 612
34.2	Transport in Vertebrates 614
34.3	Transport in Humans 616
34.4	Cardiovascular Disorders 622
34.5	Blood, a Transport Medium 625
chapter	35
Lymph Transport and Immunity 631
35.1	The Lymphatic System 632
35.2	The Immune System 634
35.3	Induced Immunity 644
35.4	Immunity Side Effects 646
chapter	36
Digestion and Nutrition 653
36.1	Digestive Tracts 654
36.2	Human Digestive Tract 657
36.3	Nutrition 664
chapter	37
Respiration 669
37.1	Gas Exchange Surfaces 670
37.2	Human Respiratory System 674
37.3	Respiration and Health 678
chapter	38
Body Fluid Regulation and Excretion 683
38.1	Body Fluid Regulation 684
38.2	Nitrogenous Waste Products 686
38.3	Organs of Excretion 687
38.4	Urinary System in Humans 688
chapter 39	
Neurons and Nervous Systems 697
39.1	Evolution of the Nervous System 698
39.2	Nervous Tissue 701
39.3	Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord 706
39.4	Peripheral Nervous System 710
chapter	40
Sense Organs 719
40.1	Chemical Senses 720
40.2	Sense of Vision 722
40.3	Senses of Hearing and Balance 728
chapter	41
Support Systems and Locomotion 735
41.1	Diversity of Skeletons 736
41.2	The Human Skeletal System 738
41.3	The Human Muscular System 745
chapter	42
Hormones and the Endocrine System 753
42.1	Chemical Signals 754
42.2	Human Endocrine System 756
chapter	43
Reproduction 773
43.1	How Animals Reproduce 774
43.2	Male Reproductive System 776
43.3	Female Reproductive System 780
43.4	Control of Reproduction 784
43.5	Sexually Transmitted Diseases 788
chapter	44
Development 795
44.1	Early Developmental Stages 796
44.2	Developmental Processes 800
44.3	Human Embryonic and Fetal Development 805
Behavior and Ecology 816
chapter	45
Animal Behavior 817
45.1	Behavior Has a Genetic Basis 818
45.2	Behavior Undergoes Development 820
45.3	Behavior Is Adaptive 823
45.4	Animal Societies 828
45.5	Sociobiology and Animal Behavior 830
chapter	46
Ecology of Populations 835
46.1	Scope of Ecology 836
46.2	Characteristics of Populations 838
46.3	Regulation of Population Size 844
46.4	Life History Patterns 846
46.5	Human Population Growth 849
chapter	47
Community Ecology 857
47.1	Concept of the Community 858
47.2	Structure of the Community 861
47.3	Community Development 872
47.4	Community Biodiversity 874
chapter	48
Ecosystems and Human Interferences 879
48.1	The Nature of Ecosystems 880
48.2	Energy Flow 885
48.3	Global Biogeochemical Cycles 886
chapter	49
The Biosphere 899
49.1	Climate and the Biosphere 900
49.2	Terrestrial Communities 903
49.3	Aquatic Communities 913
chapter	50
Conservation Biology 925
50.1	Conservation Biology and Biodiversity 926
50.2	Value of Biodiversity 928
50.3	Causes of Extinction 932
50.4	Conservation Techniques 937
appendix	A
Answer Key 945
appendix	B
Classification of Organisms 951
appendix	C
Metric System 953
appendix	D
Periodic Table of the Elements 955
Glossary G-1
Credits C-1
Index I-1

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Biology.