Table of contents for Marketing : an introduction / Gary Armstrong & Phil Kotler.

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CHAPTER 1
MARKETING: MANAGING PROFITABLE CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS
ROAD MAP: PREVIEWING THE CONCEPTS
WHAT IS MARKETING?
Marketing Defined
The Marketing Process
UNDERSTANDING THE MARKETPLACE AND CUSTOMER NEEDS
Customer Needs, Wants, and Demands
Market Offerings?Products, Services, and Experiences
Customer Value and Satisfaction
Exchanges and Relationships
Markets
DESIGNING A CUSTOMER-DRIVEN MARKETING STRATEGY
Selecting Customers to Serve
Choosing a Value Proposition
Marketing Management Orientations
The Production Concept
The Product Concept
The Selling Concept
The Marketing Concept
The Societal Marketing Concept
PREPARING A MARKETING PLAN AND PROGRAM
BUILDING CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS
Customer Relationship Management
Relationship Building Blocks: Customer Value and Satisfaction
Customer Relationship Levels and Tools
The Changing Nature of Customer Relationships
Relating with More Carefully Selected Customers
Relating for the Long-Term
Relating Directly
Partner Relationship Management
Partners Inside the Company
Marketing Partners Outside the Firm
CAPTURING VALUE FROM CUSTOMERS
Creating Customer Loyalty and Retention
Growing Share of Customer
Building Customer Equity
What Is Customer Equity?
Building the Right Relationships with the Right Customers
THE NEW MARKETING LANDSCAPE
The New Digital Age
The Internet
Rapid Globalization
The Call for More Ethics and Social Responsibility
The Growth of Not-for-Profit Marketing
SO, WHAT IS MARKETING? PULLING IT ALL TOGETHER
CHAPTER 2
COMPANY AND MARKETING STRATEGY: PARTNERING TO BUILD 
CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPSCOMPANYWIDE STRATEGIC PLANNING: 
DEFINING
MARKETING?S ROLE
Defining a Market-Oriented Mission
Setting Company Objectives and Goals
Designing the Business Portfolio
Analyzing the Current Business Portfolio
Developing Strategies for Growth and Downsizing
PLANNING MARKETING: PARTNERING TO BUILD CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS
Partnering with Other Company Departments
Partnering with Others in the Marketing System
MARKETING STRATEGY AND THE MARKETING MIX
Customer-Centered Marketing Strategy
Market Segmentation
Target Marketing
Market Positioning
Developing the Marketing Mix
MANAGING THE MARKETING EFFORT
Marketing Analysis
Marketing Planning
Marketing Implementation
Marketing Department Organization
Marketing Control
The Marketing Environment
MEASURING AND MANAGING RETURN ON MARKETING
CHAPTER 3
THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT
THE COMPANY?S MICROENVIRONMENT
The Company
Suppliers
Marketing Intermediaries
Customers
Competitors
Publics
THE COMPANY?S MACROENVIRONMENT
Demographic Environment
Changing Age Structure of the Population
The Changing American Family
Geographic Shifts in Population
A Better-Educated, More White-Collar, More professional Population
Increasing Diversity
Economic Environment
Changes in Income
Changing Consumer Spending Patterns
Natural Environment
Technological Environment
Political Environment
Legislation Regulating Business
Increased Emphasis on Ethics and Socially Responsible Actions
Cultural Environment
Persistence of Cultural Values
Shifts in Secondary Cultural Values
RESPONDING TO THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT
CHAPTER 4
MANAGING MARKETING INFORMATION
ASSESSING MARKETING INFORMATION NEEDS
DEVELOPING MARKETING INFORMATION
Internal Data
Marketing Intelligence
MARKETING RESEARCH
Defining the Problem and Research Objectives
Developing the Research Plan
Gathering Secondary Data
Primary Data Collection
Research Approaches
Contact Methods
Sampling Plan
Research Instruments
Implementing the Research Plan
Interpreting and Reporting the Findings
ANALYZING MARKETING INFORMATION
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
DISTRIBUTING AND USING MARKETING INFORMATION
OTHER MARKETING INFORMATION CONSIDERATIONS
Marketing Research in Small Businesses and Nonprofit Organizations
International Marketing Research
Public Policy and Ethics in Marketing Research
Intrusions on Consumer Privacy
Misuse of Research Findings
 CHAPTER 5
CONSUMER AND BUSINESS BUYER BEHAVIOR
CONSUMER MARKETS AND CONSUMER BUYER BEHAVIOR
Model of Consumer Behavior
Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
Cultural Factors
Social Factors
Personal Factors
Psychological Factors
The Buyer Decision Process
Need Recognition
Information Search
Evaluation of Alternatives
Purchase Decision
Postpurchase Behavior
The Buyer Decision Process for New Products
Stages in the Adoption Process
Individual Differences in Innovativeness
Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption
Consumer Behavior Across International Borders
BUSINESS MARKETS AND BUSINESS BUYER BEHAVIOR
Business Markets
Characteristics of Business Markets
Market Structure and Demand
Nature of the Buying Unit
Types of Decisions and the Decision Process
Business Buyer Behavior
Major Types of Buying Situations
Participants in the Business Buying Process
Major Influences on Business Buyers
The Business Buying Process
E-Procurement: Buying Electronically and on the Internet
CHAPTER 6
SEGMENTATION, TARGETING, AND POSITIONING: BUILDING THE 
RIGHT RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE RIGHT CUSTOMERS
MARKET SEGMENTATION
Segmenting Consumer Markets
Geographic Segmentation
Demographic Segmentation
Psychographic Segmentation
Behavioral Segmentation
Using Multiple Segmentation Bases
Segmenting Business Markets
Segmenting International Markets
Requirements for Effective Segmentation
TARGET MARKETING
Evaluating Market Segments
Selecting Target Market Segments
Undifferentiated Marketing
Differentiated Marketing
Concentrated Marketing
Micromarketing
Choosing a Target Marketing Strategy
Socially Responsible Target Marketing
POSITIONING FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
Positioning Maps
Choosing a Positioning Strategy
Identifying Possible Competitive Advantages
Choosing the Right Competitive Advantages
Selecting an Overall Positioning Strategy
Developing a Positioning Statement
Communicating and Delivering the Chosen Position
CHAPTER 7
PRODUCT, SERVICES, AND BRANDING STRATEGY
WHAT IS A PRODUCT?
Products, Services, and Experiences
Levels of Product and Services
Product and Service Classifications
Consumer Products
Industrial Products
Organizations, Persons, Places, and Ideas
PRODUCT AND SERVICE DECISIONS
Individual Product and Service Decisions
Product and Service Attributes
Branding
Packaging
Labeling
Product Support Services
Product Line Decisions
Product Mix Decisions
BRANDING STRATEGY: BUILDING STRONG BRANDS
Brand Equity
Building Strong Brands
Brand Positioning
Brand Name Selection
Brand Sponsorship
Brand Development
Managing Brands
SERVICES MARKETING
Nature and Characteristics of a Service
Marketing Strategies for Service Firms
The Service-Profit Chain
Managing Service Differentiation
Managing Service Quality
Managing Service Productivity
ADDITIONAL PRODUCT CONSIDERATIONS
Product Decisions and Social Responsibility
International Product and Services Marketing
CHAPTER 8
NEW-PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCT
LIFE-CYCLE STRATEGIES
NEW-PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
Idea Generation
Internal Idea Sources
External Idea Sources
Idea Screening
Concept Development and Testing
Concept Development
Concept Testing
Marketing Strategy Development
Business Analysis
Product Development
Test Marketing
Commercialization
Organizing for New-Product Development
PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE STRATEGIES
Introduction Stage
Growth Stage
Maturity Stage
Decline Stage
CHAPTER 8
NEW-PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCT
LIFE-CYCLE STRATEGIES
NEW-PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
Idea Generation
Internal Idea Sources
External Idea Sources
Idea Screening
Concept Development and Testing
Concept Development
Concept Testing
Marketing Strategy Development
Business Analysis
Product Development
Test Marketing
Commercialization
Organizing for New-Product Development
PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE STRATEGIES
Introduction Stage
Growth Stage
Maturity Stage
Decline Stage
CHAPTER 9
PRICING: UNDERSTANDING AND CAPTURING CUSTOMER VALUE
WHAT IS A PRICE?
FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SETTING PRICES
Customer Perceptions of Value
Value-Based Pricing
Company and Product Costs
Types of Costs
Cost-Based Pricing
Other Internal and External Considerations Affecting Price Decisions
Overall Marketing Strategy, Objectives, and Mix
Organizational Considerations
The Market and Demand
Competitors? Strategies and Prices
Other External Factors
NEW-PRODUCT PRICING STRATEGIES
Market-Skimming Pricing
Market-Penetration Pricing
PRODUCT MIX PRICING STRATEGIES
Product Line Pricing
Optional-Product Pricing
Captive-Product Pricing
By-Product Pricing
Product Bundle Pricing
PRICE-ADJUSTMENT STRATEGIES
Discount and Allowance Pricing
Segmented Pricing
Psychological Pricing
Promotional Pricing
Geographical Pricing
Dynamic Pricing
International Pricing
PRICE CHANGES
Initiating Price Changes
Initiating Price Cuts
Initiating Price Increases
Buyer Reactions to Price Changes
Competitor Reactions to Price Changes
Responding to Price Changes
PUBLIC POLICY AND PRICING
Pricing Within Channel Levels
Pricing Across Channel Levels
CHAPTER 10
MARKETING CHANNELS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
ROAD MAP: PREVIEWING THE CONCEPT
SUPPLY CHAINS AND THE VALUE DELIVERY NETWORK
THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING CHANNELS
How Channel Members Add Value
Number of Channel Levels
CHANNEL BEHAVIOR AND ORGANIZATION
Channel Behavior
Vertical Marketing Systems
Corporate VMS
Contractual VMS
Administered VMS
Horizontal Marketing Systems
Multichannel Distribution Systems
Changing Channel Organization
CHANNEL DESIGN DECISIONS
Analyzing Consumer Needs
Setting Channel Objectives
Identifying Major Alternatives
Types of Intermediaries
Number of Marketing Intermediaries
Responsibilities of Channel Members
Evaluating the Major Alternatives
Designing International Distribution Channels
CHANNEL MANAGEMENT DECISIONS
Selecting Channel Members
Managing and Motivating Channel Members
Evaluating Channel Members
PUBLIC POLICY AND DISTRIBUTION DECISIONS
MARKETING LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Nature and Importance of Marketing Logistics
Goals of the Logistics System
Major Logistics Functions
Warehousing
Inventory Management
Transportation
Logistics Information Management
Integrated Logistics Management
Cross-Functional Teamwork Inside the Company
Building Logistics Partnerships
Third-Party Logistics
CHAPTER 11
RETAILING AND WHOLESALING
RETAILING
Types of Retailers
Amount of Service
Product Line
Relative Prices
Organizational Approach
Retailer Marketing Decisions
Target Market and Positioning Decision
Product Assortment and Services Decision
Price Decision
Promotion Decision
Place Decision
The Future of Retailing
New Retail Forms and Shortening Retail Life Cycles
Growth of Nonstore Retailing
Retail Convergence
The Rise of Megaretailers
Growing Importance of Retail Technology
Global Expansion of Major Retailers
Retail Stores as ?Communities? or ?Hangouts?
WHOLESALING
Types of Wholesalers
Wholesaler Marketing Decisions
Target Market and Positioning Decision
Marketing Mix Decisions
Trends in Wholesaling
CHAPTER 12
COMMUNICATING CUSTOMER VALUE: ADVERTISING, SALES 
PROMOTION, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS
THE PROMOTION MIX
INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS
The New Marketing Communications Landscape
The Shifting Marketing Communications Model
The Need for Integrated Marketing Communications
SHAPING THE OVERALL PROMOTION MIX
The Nature of Each Promotion Tool
Advertising
Personal Selling
Sales Promotion
Public Relations
Direct Marketing
Promotion Mix Strategies
ADVERTISING
Setting Advertising Objectives
Setting the Advertising Budget
Affordable Method
Percentage-of-Sales Method
Competitive-Parity Method
Objective-and-Task Method
Developing Advertising Strategy
Creating the Advertising Message
Selecting Advertising Media
Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness and Return on Advertising Investment
Other Advertising Considerations
Organizing for Advertising
International Advertising Decisions
SALES PROMOTION
Rapid Growth of Sales Promotion
Sales Promotion Objectives
Major Sales Promotion Tools
Consumer Promotion Tools
Trade Promotion Tools
Business Promotion Tools
Developing the Sales Promotion Program
PUBLIC RELATIONS
The Role and Impact of Public Relations
Major Public Relations Tools
CHAPTER 13
COMMUNICATING CUSTOMER VALUE: PERSONAL SELLING AND 
DIRECT MARKETING
PERSONAL SELLING
The Nature of Personal Selling
The Role of the Sales Force
Designing Sales Force Strategy and Structure
Sales Force Structure
Sales Force Size
Other Sales Force Strategy and Structure Issues
Recruiting and Selecting Salespeople
Training Salespeople
Compensating Salespeople
Supervising and Motivating Salespeople
Evaluating Salespeople and Sales-Force Performance
THE PERSONAL SELLING PROCESS
Steps in the Selling Process
Prospecting and Qualifying
Preapproach
Approach
Presentation and Demonstration
Handling Objections
Closing
Follow-Up
Personal Selling and Customer Relationship Management
DIRECT MARKETING
The New Direct-Marketing Model
Benefits and Growth of Direct Marketing
Customer Databases and Direct Marketing
Forms of Direct Marketing
Telephone Marketing
Direct-Mail Marketing
Catalog Marketing
Direct-Response Television Marketing
Kiosk Marketing
Integrated Direct Marketing
Public Policy and Ethical Issues in Direct Marketing
Irritation, Unfairness, Deception, and Fraud
Invasion of Privacy
CHAPTER 14
MARKETING IN THE DIGITAL AGE
THE DIGITAL AGE
MARKETING STRATEGY IN THE DIGITAL AGE
E-business, E-commerce, and E-marketing in the Digital Age
Benefits to Buyers
Benefits to Sellers
E-MARKETING DOMAINS
B2C (Business to Consumer)
Online Consumers
B2C Web Sites
B2B (Business to Business)
C2C (Consumer to Consumer)
C2B (Consumer to Business)
MARKETING ON THE WEB
Click-Only Companies
Click-and-Mortar Companies
Setting Up an Online Marketing Presence
Creating a Web Site
Placing Ads and Promotions Online
Creating or Participating in Web Communities
Using E-Mail
THE PROMISE AND CHALLENGES OF E-COMMERCE
The Continuing Promise of E-Commerce
The Web?s Darker Side
Internet Profitability
Legal and Ethical Issues
CHAPTER 15
THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE
GLOBAL MARKETING IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
LOOKING AT THE GLOBAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT
The International Trade System
The World Trade Organization and GATT
Regional Free Trade Zones
Economic Environment
Political-Legal Environment
Cultural Environment
The Impact of Culture on Marketing Strategy
The Impact of Marketing Strategy on Cultures
DECIDING WHETHER TO GO INTERNATIONAL
DECIDING WHICH MARKETS TO ENTER
DECIDING HOW TO ENTER THE MARKET
Exporting
Joint Venturing
Licensing
Contract Manufacturing
Management Contracting
Joint Ownership
Direct Investment
DECIDING ON THE GLOBAL MARKETING PROGRAM
Product
Promotion
Price
Distribution Channels
DECIDING ON THE GLOBAL MARKETING ORGANIZATION
CHAPTER 16
MARKETING ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY 
SOCIAL CRITICISMS OF MARKETING
Marketing?s Impact on Individual Consumers
High Prices
Deceptive Practices
High-Pressure Selling
Shoddy, Harmful, or Unsafe Products
Planned Obsolescence
Poor Service to Disadvantaged Consumers
Marketing?s Impact on Society as a Whole
False Wants and Too Much Materialism
Too Few Social Goods
Cultural Pollution
Too Much Political Power
Marketing?s Impact on Other Businesses
CITIZEN AND PUBLIC ACTIONS TO REGULATE MARKETING
Consumerism
Environmentalism
Public Actions to Regulate Marketing
BUSINESS ACTIONS TOWARD SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE MARKETING
Enlightened Marketing
Consumer-Oriented Marketing
Innovative Marketing
Customer-Value Marketing
Sense-of-Mission Marketing
Societal Marketing
Marketing Ethics
APPENDIX Marketing Plan
{h1}The Marketing Plan: An Introduction

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Marketing.