Table of contents for Culture of cells for tissue engineering / R. Ian Freshney, Gordana Vunjak Novakovic.

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Chapter 1 Structure and Development of the Plant Body-an Overview	1
	Internal organization of the plant body	3
	The body of a vascular plant is composed of three tissue systems	4
	Structurally stem, leaf, and root differ primarily in the relative distribution of the vascular and ground tissues	5
	Summary of types of cells and tissues	7
	Development of the plant body	8
	The body plan of the plant is established during embryogenesis	8
	With germination of the seed, the embryo resumes growth and gradually develops into an adult plant	11
Chapter 2 The Protoplast: Plasma Membrane, Nucleus, and Cytoplasmic Organelles	25
	Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells	28
	Cytoplasm	31
	Plasma membrane	32
	Nucleus	37
	Actively dividing somatic cells pass through a regular sequence of events known as the cell cycle	40
	Plastids	43
	Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments	44
	Chromoplasts contain only carotenoid pigments	47
	Leucoplasts are nonpigmented plastids	48
	All plastids are derived initially from proplastids	49
	Mitochondria	51
	Peroxisomes	54
	Vacuoles	56
	Ribosomes	60
Chapter 3 The Protoplast: Endomembrane System, Secretory Pathways, Cytoskeleton, and Stored Compounds	98
	Endomembrane system	98
	The endoplasmic reticulum is a continuous, three-dimensional membrane system that permeates the entire cytosol	99
	The Golgi apparatus is a highly polarized membrane system involved in secretion	101
	Cytoskeleton	104
	Microtubules are cylindrical structures composed of tubulin subunits	104
	Actin filaments consist of two linear chains of actin molecules in the form of a helix	106
	Stored compounds	107
	Starch develops in the form of grains in plastids	108
	The site of protein body assembly depends on their protein composition	109
	Oil bodies bud from smooth ER membranes by an oleosin-mediated process	110
	Tannins typically occur in vacuoles but also are found in cell walls	112
	Crystals of calcium oxalate usually develop in vacuoles but also are found in the cell wall and cuticle	114
	Silica most commonly is deposited in cell walls	118
Chapter 4 Cell Wall	144
	Macromolecular components of the cell wall	146
	Cellulose is the principal component of plant cell walls	146
	The cellulose microfibrils are embedded in a matrix of noncellulosic molecules	147
	Principal hemicelluoses	147
	Pectins	149
	Proteins	150
	Callose is a widely distributed cell wall polysaccharide	153
	Lignins are phenolic polymers deposited mainly in cell walls of supporting and conducting tissues	153
	Cutin and suberin are insoluble lipid polymers found most commonly in the protective surface tissues of the plant	156
	Cell wall layers	157
	The middle lamella frequently is difficult to distinguish from the primary wall	158
	The primary wall is deposited while the cell is increasing in size	158
	The secondary wall is deposited inside the primary wall largely, if not entirely, after the primary wall has stopped increasing in surface area	160
	Pits and primary pit-fields	162
	There are two principal types of pits, simple and bordered	163
	Origin of cell wall during cell division	164
	Cytokinesis occurs by the formation of a phragmoplast and cell plate	164
	Initially, callose is the principal cell wall polysaccharide present in the developing cell 
plate		167
	The preprophase band indicates the plane of the future cell plate	168
	Growth of the cell wall	169
	The orientation of cellulose microfibrils within the primary wall influences the direction of cell expansion	171
	When considering the mechanism of wall growth, it is necessary to distinguish between growth in surface (wall expansion) and growth in thickness	173
	Expansion of the primary cell wall	173
	Cessation of wall expansion	176
	Intercellular spaces	177
	Plasmodesmata	178
	Plasmodesmata may be classified as primary or secondary according to their origin	179
	Plasmodesmata contain two types of membranes: plasma membrane and desmotubule	181
	Plasmodesmata enable cells to communicate	183
	The symplast undergoes reorganization throughout the course of plant growth and development	187
Chapter 5 Meristems and Differentiation	241
	Meristems	241
	Classification of meristems	243
	A common classification of meristems is based on their position in the plant body	243
	Meristems are also classified according to the nature of cells that give origin to their 
initial cells		244
	Characteristics of meristematic cells	245
	Growth patterns in meristems	247
	Meristematic activity and plant growth	248
	Differentiation	250
	Terms and concepts	250
	Senescence (programmed cell death) is an integral part of plant development	252
	Cellular changes in differentiation	255
	A cytologic phenomenon commonly observed in differentiating cells of angiosperms is endopolyploidy	256
	One of the early visible changes in differentiating tissues is the unequal increase in cell size		257
	Intercellular adjustment in differentiating tissue involves coordinated and intrusive
growth			258
	Causal factors in differentiation	260
	Tissue culture techniques have been useful for the determination of requirements for growth and differentiation	260
	The analysis of genetic mosaics can reveal patterns of cell division and cell fate in developing plants	263
	Gene technologies have dramatically increased our understanding of plant development	264
	Polarity is a key component of biological pattern formation and is related to the phenomenon of gradients	265
	Plant cells differentiate according to position	267
	Plant hormones control many aspects of growth and development	268
	Auxins	270
	Cytokinins	272
	Ethylene	273
	Abscisic acid	274
	Gibberellins	274
Chapter 6 Apical Meristems	314
	Evolution of the concept of apical organization	315
	Apical meristems originally were envisioned as having a single initial cell	315
	The apical-cell theory was superseded by the histogen theory	316
	The tunica-corpus concept of apical organization applies largely to angiosperms	317
	The shoot apices of most gymnosperms and angiosperms show a cytohistological zonation	318
	Inquiries into the identity of apical initials	319
	Vegetative shoot apex	322
	The presence of an apical cell is characteristic of the shoot apices in the seedless vascular 
plants		323
	The zonation found in the Ginkgo apex has served as a basis for the interpretation of shoot apices in other gymnosperms	326
	The presence of a zonation superimposed on a tunica-corpus configuration is characteristic of angiosperm shoot apices	328
	The vegetative shoot apex of Arabidopsis thaliana	331
	Origin of leaves	333
	Throughout the vegetative period, the shoot apical meristem produces leaves in a regular 
order		334
	The initiation of a leaf primordium is associated with an increase in the frequency of periclinal divisions at the initiation site	338
	Leaf primordia arise at sites that are correlated with the phyllotaxis of the shoot	341
	Origin of branches	343
	In most seed plants axillary meristems originate from detached meristems	344
	Root apex	347
	Apical organization in roots may be either open or closed	348
	The quiescent center is not completely devoid of divisions under normal conditions	354
	The root apex of Arabidopsis thaliana	357
	Growth of the root tip	360
Chapter 7 Parenchyma and Collenchyma	419
	Parenchyma	419
	Parenchyma cells may occur in continuous masses as parenchyma tissue or be associated with other cell types in morphologically heterogeneous tissues	420
	The contents of parenchyma cells are a reflection of the activities of the cells	422
	The cell walls of parenchyma cells may be thick or thin	424
	Transfer cells	425
	Parenchyma cells vary greatly in shape and arrangement	427
	Aerenchyma	429
	Collenchyma	431
	The structure of the cell walls of collenchyma is the most distinctive characteristic of this 
tissue		432
	Collenchyma characteristically occurs in a peripheral position	435
	Collenchyma appears to be particularly well adapted for support of growing leaves and 
stems		437
Chapter 8 Sclerenchyma	457
	Fibers	458
	Fibers are widely distributed in the plant body	459
	Fibers may be divided into two large groups, xylary and extraxylary	460
	Both xylary and extraxylary fibers may be septate or gelatinous	463
	Commercial fibers are separated into soft fibers and hard fibers	464
	Sclereids	465
	Based on shape and size sclereids may be classified into a number of types	466
	Sclereids like fibers are widely distributed in the plant body	467
	Sclereids in stems	467
	Sclereids in leaves	468
	Sclereids in fruits	469
	Sclereids in seeds	470
	Origin and development of fibers and sclereids	471
	Factors controlling development of fibers and sclereids	476
Chapter 9 Epidermis	495
	Ordinary epidermal cells	499
	Epidermal cell walls vary in thickness	500
	The most distinctive feature of the outer epidermal wall is the presence of a cuticle	501
	Stomata	505
	Stomata occur on all aerial parts of the plant	505
	Guard cells are generally kidney-shaped	507
	Guard cells typically have unevenly thickened walls with radially arranged cellulose microfibrils	510
	Blue light and abscisic acid are important signals in the control of stomatal movement	512
	Development of stomatal complexes involves one or more asymmetric cell divisions	514
	Different developmental sequences result in different configurations of stomatal complexes	517
	Trichomes	519
	Trichomes have a variety of functions	520
	Trichomes may be classified into different morphological categories	521
	A trichome is initiated as a protuberance from an epidermal cell	521
	The cotton fiber	522
	Root hairs	524
	The Arabidopsis trichome	527
	Cell patterning in the epidermis	529
	The spatial distribution of stomata and trichomes in leaves is non-random	529
	There are three main types of patterning in the epidermis of angiosperm roots	532
	Other specialized epidermal cells	535
	Silica and cork cells frequently occur together in pairs	535
	Bulliform cells are highly vacuolated cells	537
	Some epidermal hairs contain cystoliths	538
Chapter 10 Xylem: Cell Types and Developmental Aspects	595
	Cell types of the xylem	596
	Tracheary elements-tracheids and vessel elements-are the conducting cells of the 
xylem		597
	The secondary walls of most tracheary elements contain pits	600
	Vessels are more efficient conduits of water than tracheids	603
	Fibers are specialized as supporting elements in the xylem	608
	Living parenchyma cells occur in both the primary and secondary xylem	609
	In some species the parenchyma cells develop protrusions-tyloses-that enter the 
vessels		611
	Phylogenetic specialization of tracheary elements and fibers	612
	The major trends in the evolution of the vessel element are correlated with decrease in vessel element length	614
	Deviations exist in trends of vessel element evolution	616
	Like vessel elements and tracheids, fibers have undergone a phylogenetic shortening	618
	Primary xylem	619
	Some developmental and structural differences exist between the earlier and later formed parts of the primary xylem	619
	The primary tracheary elements have a variety of secondary wall thickenings	621
	Tracheary element differentiation	624
	Plant hormones are involved in the differentiation of tracheary elements	629
	Isolated mesophyll cells in culture can transdifferentiate directly into tracheary elements	630
Chapter 11 Xylem: Secondary Xylem and Variations in Wood Structure	672
	Basic structure of secondary xylem	674
	The secondary xylem consists of two distinct systems of cells, axial and radial	674
	Some woods are storied and others are nonstoried	675
	Growth rings result from the periodic activity of the vascular cambium	676
	As wood becomes older it gradually becomes nonfunctional in conduction and storage	679
	Reaction wood is a type of wood that develops in branches and leaning or crooked stems	683
	Woods	688
	The wood of conifers is relatively simple in structure	689
	The axial system of conifer woods consists mostly or entirely of tracheids	689
	The rays of conifers may consist of both parenchyma cells and tracheids	690
	The wood of many conifers contains resin ducts	691
	The wood of angiosperms is more complex and varied than that of conifers	694
	On the basis of porosity, two main types of angiosperm wood are recognized: diffuse porous and ring porous	695
	The distribution of axial parenchyma shows many intergrading patterns	698
	The rays of angiosperms typically contain only parenchyma cells	699
	Intercellular spaces similar to the resin ducts of gymnosperms occur in angiosperm
 woods		703
	Some aspects of secondary xylem development	703
	During development, each cell of the xylem must receive information about its position within the tissue and express the appropriate genes	707
	Identification of wood	708
Chapter 12 Vascular Cambium	743
	Organization of the cambium	743
	The vascular cambium contains two types of initials: fusiform initials and ray initials	744
	The cambium may be storied or nonstoried	745
	Formation of secondary xylem and secondary phloem	746
	Many attempts have been made to distinguish the initials from their immediate derivatives	748
	Developmental changes	752
	Formation of new ray initials from fusiform initials, or their segments, is a common phenomenon	754
	Domains can be recognized within the cambium	758
	Seasonal changes in cambial cell ultrastructure	759
	Cytokinesis of fusiform cells	763
	Seasonal activity	766	
	The size of the xylem increment produced during one year generally exceeds that of the 
phloem		768
	A distinct seasonality in cambial activity also occurs in many tropical regions	771
	Causal relations in cambial activity	773
Chapter 13 Phloem: Cell Types and Developmental Aspects	816
	Cell types of the phloem	818
	Sieve elements are the conducting cells of the phloem	819
	The angiospermous sieve-tube element	820
	In some taxa the sieve-tube element walls are remarkably thick	821
	Sieve plates usually occur on end walls	822
	Callose apparently plays a role in sieve-pore development	823
	Changes in the appearance of the plastids and the appearance of P-protein are early indicators of sieve-tube element development	825
	Nuclear degeneration may be chromatolytic or pycnotic	828
	Companion cells	830
	The companion cell is the life-support system of the sieve-tube element	832
	The mechanism of phloem transport in angiosperms	833
	The sieve tube-companion cell complexes are functional units	835
	The source leaf and minor vein phloem	836
	Several types of minor veins occur in dicotyledonous leaves	837
	Type 1 species with specialized companion cells, termed intermediary cells, are symplastic loaders	839
	Species with type 2 minor veins are apoplastic loaders	840
	The collection of photoassimilate by the minor veins in some leaves may not involve an active step	842
	Some minor veins contain more than one kind of companion cell	842
	The minor veins in leaf blades of the Poaceae contain two types of metaphloem sieve 
tubes		843
	The gymnospermous sieve cell	844
	The walls of sieve cells are characterized as primary	845
	Callose does not play a role in sieve-pore development in gymnosperms	846
	Little variation exists in sieve-cell differentiation among gymnosperms	847
	Strasburger cells	848
	The mechanism of phloem transport in gymnosperms	849
	Parenchyma cells	850
	Sclerenchyma cells	852
	Longevity of sieve elements	852
	Trends in specialization of sieve-tube elements	854
	Sieve elements of seedless vascular plants are neither sieve-tube elements nor sieve cells	856
	Primary phloem	858
Chapter 14 Phloem: Secondary Phloem and Variations in Its Structure	905
	Conifer phloem	908
	The distribution of cells in conifer phloem shows two major patterns	909
	Angiosperm phloem	911
	The patterns formed by the fibers can be of taxonomic significance	912
	Secondary sieve-tube elements show considerable variation in form and distribution	912
	Differentiation in the secondary phloem	915
	Sclerenchyma cells in the secondary phloem commonly are classified as fibers, sclereids, and fiber-sclereids	916
	The conducting phloem constitutes only a small part of the inner bark	918
	Nonconducting phloem	920
	The nonconducting phloem differs structurally from the conducting phloem	921
	Dilatation is the means by which the phloem is adjusted to the increase in circumference of the axis resulting from secondary growth	922
Chapter 15 Periderm	937
	Occurrence	938
	Characteristics of the components	939
	The phellogen is relatively simple in structure	939
	Several kinds of phellem cells may arise from the phellogen	939
	Considerable variation exists in the width and composition of phelloderm	943
	Development of periderm	944
	The sites of origin of the phellogen are varied	944
	The phellogen is initiated by divisions of various kinds of cells	946
	The time of appearance of the first and subsequent periderms varies	946
	Morphology of periderm and rhytidome	949
	Polyderm	951
	Protective tissue in monocotyledons	951
	Wound periderm	952
	Lignification precedes suberization of the boundary-cell walls	953
	Lenticels	954
	Three structural types of lenticels are recognized in woody angiosperms	956
	The first lenticels frequently appear under stomata	957
Chapter 16 External Secretory Structures	975
	Salt glands	978
	Salt bladders secrete ions into a large central vacuole	979
	Other glands secrete salt directly to the outside	979
	The two-celled glands of the Poaceae	979
	The multicellular glands of eudicotyledons	980
	Hydathodes	981
	Nectaries	984
	The nectaries of Lonicera japonica exude nectar from unicellular trichomes	987
	The nectaries of Abutilon striatum exude nectar from multicellular trichomes	988
	The nectaries of Vicia faba exude nectar via stomata	989
	The most common sugars in nectar are sucrose, glucose, and fructose	990
	Structures intermediate between nectaries and hydathodes also exist	992
	Colleters	993
	Osmophores	995
	Glandular trichomes secreting lipophilic substances	997
	Glandular trichome development begins at an early stage of leaf development	999
	The glandular structures of carnivorous plants	1000
	Stinging hairs	1003
Chapter 17 Internal Secretory Structures	1035
	Secretory cells	1035
	Oil cells secrete their oils into an oil cavity	1037
	Mucilage cells deposit their mucilage between the protoplast and the cellulosic cell wall	1038
	Tannin is the most conspicuous inclusion in numerous secretory cells	1039
	Secretory cavities and ducts	1040
	The best known secretory ducts are the resin ducts of conifers	1041
	Development of secretory cavities appears to be schizogenous	1043
	Secretory ducts and cavities may arise under the stimulus of injury	1046
	Kino veins are a special type of traumatic duct	1047
	Laticifers	1048
	On the basis of their structure, laticifers are grouped in two major classes: articulated and nonarticulated	1049
	Latex varies in appearance and in composition	1051
	Articulated and nonarticulated laticifers apparently differ from one another cytologically	1054
	Laticifers are widely distributed in the plant body, reflecting their mode of development	1056
	Nonarticulated laticifers	1056
	Articulated laticifers	1060
	The principal source of commercial rubber is the bark of the para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis	1062
	The function of laticifers is not clear	1065
Addendum: other pertinent references not cited in the text	1103
Author Index	
Subject Index	

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Tissue engineering.
Cell culture.
Tissue Engineering -- Laboratory Manuals.
Cell Culture Techniques -- Laboratory Manuals.