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Contents GENERAL REFERENCES Chapter 1 Structure and Development of the Plant Body-an Overview 1 Internal organization of the plant body 3 The body of a vascular plant is composed of three tissue systems 4 Structurally stem, leaf, and root differ primarily in the relative distribution of the vascular and ground tissues 5 Summary of types of cells and tissues 7 Development of the plant body 8 The body plan of the plant is established during embryogenesis 8 With germination of the seed, the embryo resumes growth and gradually develops into an adult plant 11 REFERENCES 14 Chapter 2 The Protoplast: Plasma Membrane, Nucleus, and Cytoplasmic Organelles 25 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 28 Cytoplasm 31 Plasma membrane 32 Nucleus 37 Actively dividing somatic cells pass through a regular sequence of events known as the cell cycle 40 Plastids 43 Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments 44 Chromoplasts contain only carotenoid pigments 47 Leucoplasts are nonpigmented plastids 48 All plastids are derived initially from proplastids 49 Mitochondria 51 Peroxisomes 54 Vacuoles 56 Ribosomes 60 REFERENCES 63 Chapter 3 The Protoplast: Endomembrane System, Secretory Pathways, Cytoskeleton, and Stored Compounds 98 Endomembrane system 98 The endoplasmic reticulum is a continuous, three-dimensional membrane system that permeates the entire cytosol 99 The Golgi apparatus is a highly polarized membrane system involved in secretion 101 Cytoskeleton 104 Microtubules are cylindrical structures composed of tubulin subunits 104 Actin filaments consist of two linear chains of actin molecules in the form of a helix 106 Stored compounds 107 Starch develops in the form of grains in plastids 108 The site of protein body assembly depends on their protein composition 109 Oil bodies bud from smooth ER membranes by an oleosin-mediated process 110 Tannins typically occur in vacuoles but also are found in cell walls 112 Crystals of calcium oxalate usually develop in vacuoles but also are found in the cell wall and cuticle 114 Silica most commonly is deposited in cell walls 118 REFERENCES 119 Chapter 4 Cell Wall 144 Macromolecular components of the cell wall 146 Cellulose is the principal component of plant cell walls 146 The cellulose microfibrils are embedded in a matrix of noncellulosic molecules 147 Principal hemicelluoses 147 Pectins 149 Proteins 150 Callose is a widely distributed cell wall polysaccharide 153 Lignins are phenolic polymers deposited mainly in cell walls of supporting and conducting tissues 153 Cutin and suberin are insoluble lipid polymers found most commonly in the protective surface tissues of the plant 156 Cell wall layers 157 The middle lamella frequently is difficult to distinguish from the primary wall 158 The primary wall is deposited while the cell is increasing in size 158 The secondary wall is deposited inside the primary wall largely, if not entirely, after the primary wall has stopped increasing in surface area 160 Pits and primary pit-fields 162 There are two principal types of pits, simple and bordered 163 Origin of cell wall during cell division 164 Cytokinesis occurs by the formation of a phragmoplast and cell plate 164 Initially, callose is the principal cell wall polysaccharide present in the developing cell plate 167 The preprophase band indicates the plane of the future cell plate 168 Growth of the cell wall 169 The orientation of cellulose microfibrils within the primary wall influences the direction of cell expansion 171 When considering the mechanism of wall growth, it is necessary to distinguish between growth in surface (wall expansion) and growth in thickness 173 Expansion of the primary cell wall 173 Cessation of wall expansion 176 Intercellular spaces 177 Plasmodesmata 178 Plasmodesmata may be classified as primary or secondary according to their origin 179 Plasmodesmata contain two types of membranes: plasma membrane and desmotubule 181 Plasmodesmata enable cells to communicate 183 The symplast undergoes reorganization throughout the course of plant growth and development 187 REFERENCES 189 Chapter 5 Meristems and Differentiation 241 Meristems 241 Classification of meristems 243 A common classification of meristems is based on their position in the plant body 243 Meristems are also classified according to the nature of cells that give origin to their initial cells 244 Characteristics of meristematic cells 245 Growth patterns in meristems 247 Meristematic activity and plant growth 248 Differentiation 250 Terms and concepts 250 Senescence (programmed cell death) is an integral part of plant development 252 Cellular changes in differentiation 255 A cytologic phenomenon commonly observed in differentiating cells of angiosperms is endopolyploidy 256 One of the early visible changes in differentiating tissues is the unequal increase in cell size 257 Intercellular adjustment in differentiating tissue involves coordinated and intrusive growth 258 Causal factors in differentiation 260 Tissue culture techniques have been useful for the determination of requirements for growth and differentiation 260 The analysis of genetic mosaics can reveal patterns of cell division and cell fate in developing plants 263 Gene technologies have dramatically increased our understanding of plant development 264 Polarity is a key component of biological pattern formation and is related to the phenomenon of gradients 265 Plant cells differentiate according to position 267 Plant hormones control many aspects of growth and development 268 Auxins 270 Cytokinins 272 Ethylene 273 Abscisic acid 274 Gibberellins 274 REFERENCES 277 Chapter 6 Apical Meristems 314 Evolution of the concept of apical organization 315 Apical meristems originally were envisioned as having a single initial cell 315 The apical-cell theory was superseded by the histogen theory 316 The tunica-corpus concept of apical organization applies largely to angiosperms 317 The shoot apices of most gymnosperms and angiosperms show a cytohistological zonation 318 Inquiries into the identity of apical initials 319 Vegetative shoot apex 322 The presence of an apical cell is characteristic of the shoot apices in the seedless vascular plants 323 The zonation found in the Ginkgo apex has served as a basis for the interpretation of shoot apices in other gymnosperms 326 The presence of a zonation superimposed on a tunica-corpus configuration is characteristic of angiosperm shoot apices 328 The vegetative shoot apex of Arabidopsis thaliana 331 Origin of leaves 333 Throughout the vegetative period, the shoot apical meristem produces leaves in a regular order 334 The initiation of a leaf primordium is associated with an increase in the frequency of periclinal divisions at the initiation site 338 Leaf primordia arise at sites that are correlated with the phyllotaxis of the shoot 341 Origin of branches 343 In most seed plants axillary meristems originate from detached meristems 344 Root apex 347 Apical organization in roots may be either open or closed 348 The quiescent center is not completely devoid of divisions under normal conditions 354 The root apex of Arabidopsis thaliana 357 Growth of the root tip 360 REFERENCES 365 Chapter 7 Parenchyma and Collenchyma 419 Parenchyma 419 Parenchyma cells may occur in continuous masses as parenchyma tissue or be associated with other cell types in morphologically heterogeneous tissues 420 The contents of parenchyma cells are a reflection of the activities of the cells 422 The cell walls of parenchyma cells may be thick or thin 424 Transfer cells 425 Parenchyma cells vary greatly in shape and arrangement 427 Aerenchyma 429 Collenchyma 431 The structure of the cell walls of collenchyma is the most distinctive characteristic of this tissue 432 Collenchyma characteristically occurs in a peripheral position 435 Collenchyma appears to be particularly well adapted for support of growing leaves and stems 437 REFERENCES 440 Chapter 8 Sclerenchyma 457 Fibers 458 Fibers are widely distributed in the plant body 459 Fibers may be divided into two large groups, xylary and extraxylary 460 Both xylary and extraxylary fibers may be septate or gelatinous 463 Commercial fibers are separated into soft fibers and hard fibers 464 Sclereids 465 Based on shape and size sclereids may be classified into a number of types 466 Sclereids like fibers are widely distributed in the plant body 467 Sclereids in stems 467 Sclereids in leaves 468 Sclereids in fruits 469 Sclereids in seeds 470 Origin and development of fibers and sclereids 471 Factors controlling development of fibers and sclereids 476 REFERENCES 479 Chapter 9 Epidermis 495 Ordinary epidermal cells 499 Epidermal cell walls vary in thickness 500 The most distinctive feature of the outer epidermal wall is the presence of a cuticle 501 Stomata 505 Stomata occur on all aerial parts of the plant 505 Guard cells are generally kidney-shaped 507 Guard cells typically have unevenly thickened walls with radially arranged cellulose microfibrils 510 Blue light and abscisic acid are important signals in the control of stomatal movement 512 Development of stomatal complexes involves one or more asymmetric cell divisions 514 Different developmental sequences result in different configurations of stomatal complexes 517 Trichomes 519 Trichomes have a variety of functions 520 Trichomes may be classified into different morphological categories 521 A trichome is initiated as a protuberance from an epidermal cell 521 The cotton fiber 522 Root hairs 524 The Arabidopsis trichome 527 Cell patterning in the epidermis 529 The spatial distribution of stomata and trichomes in leaves is non-random 529 There are three main types of patterning in the epidermis of angiosperm roots 532 Other specialized epidermal cells 535 Silica and cork cells frequently occur together in pairs 535 Bulliform cells are highly vacuolated cells 537 Some epidermal hairs contain cystoliths 538 REFERENCES 541 Chapter 10 Xylem: Cell Types and Developmental Aspects 595 Cell types of the xylem 596 Tracheary elements-tracheids and vessel elements-are the conducting cells of the xylem 597 The secondary walls of most tracheary elements contain pits 600 Vessels are more efficient conduits of water than tracheids 603 Fibers are specialized as supporting elements in the xylem 608 Living parenchyma cells occur in both the primary and secondary xylem 609 In some species the parenchyma cells develop protrusions-tyloses-that enter the vessels 611 Phylogenetic specialization of tracheary elements and fibers 612 The major trends in the evolution of the vessel element are correlated with decrease in vessel element length 614 Deviations exist in trends of vessel element evolution 616 Like vessel elements and tracheids, fibers have undergone a phylogenetic shortening 618 Primary xylem 619 Some developmental and structural differences exist between the earlier and later formed parts of the primary xylem 619 The primary tracheary elements have a variety of secondary wall thickenings 621 Tracheary element differentiation 624 Plant hormones are involved in the differentiation of tracheary elements 629 Isolated mesophyll cells in culture can transdifferentiate directly into tracheary elements 630 REFERENCES 634 Chapter 11 Xylem: Secondary Xylem and Variations in Wood Structure 672 Basic structure of secondary xylem 674 The secondary xylem consists of two distinct systems of cells, axial and radial 674 Some woods are storied and others are nonstoried 675 Growth rings result from the periodic activity of the vascular cambium 676 As wood becomes older it gradually becomes nonfunctional in conduction and storage 679 Reaction wood is a type of wood that develops in branches and leaning or crooked stems 683 Woods 688 The wood of conifers is relatively simple in structure 689 The axial system of conifer woods consists mostly or entirely of tracheids 689 The rays of conifers may consist of both parenchyma cells and tracheids 690 The wood of many conifers contains resin ducts 691 The wood of angiosperms is more complex and varied than that of conifers 694 On the basis of porosity, two main types of angiosperm wood are recognized: diffuse porous and ring porous 695 The distribution of axial parenchyma shows many intergrading patterns 698 The rays of angiosperms typically contain only parenchyma cells 699 Intercellular spaces similar to the resin ducts of gymnosperms occur in angiosperm woods 703 Some aspects of secondary xylem development 703 During development, each cell of the xylem must receive information about its position within the tissue and express the appropriate genes 707 Identification of wood 708 REFERENCES 712 Chapter 12 Vascular Cambium 743 Organization of the cambium 743 The vascular cambium contains two types of initials: fusiform initials and ray initials 744 The cambium may be storied or nonstoried 745 Formation of secondary xylem and secondary phloem 746 Many attempts have been made to distinguish the initials from their immediate derivatives 748 Developmental changes 752 Formation of new ray initials from fusiform initials, or their segments, is a common phenomenon 754 Domains can be recognized within the cambium 758 Seasonal changes in cambial cell ultrastructure 759 Cytokinesis of fusiform cells 763 Seasonal activity 766 The size of the xylem increment produced during one year generally exceeds that of the phloem 768 A distinct seasonality in cambial activity also occurs in many tropical regions 771 Causal relations in cambial activity 773 REFERENCES 778 Chapter 13 Phloem: Cell Types and Developmental Aspects 816 Cell types of the phloem 818 Sieve elements are the conducting cells of the phloem 819 The angiospermous sieve-tube element 820 In some taxa the sieve-tube element walls are remarkably thick 821 Sieve plates usually occur on end walls 822 Callose apparently plays a role in sieve-pore development 823 Changes in the appearance of the plastids and the appearance of P-protein are early indicators of sieve-tube element development 825 Nuclear degeneration may be chromatolytic or pycnotic 828 Companion cells 830 The companion cell is the life-support system of the sieve-tube element 832 The mechanism of phloem transport in angiosperms 833 The sieve tube-companion cell complexes are functional units 835 The source leaf and minor vein phloem 836 Several types of minor veins occur in dicotyledonous leaves 837 Type 1 species with specialized companion cells, termed intermediary cells, are symplastic loaders 839 Species with type 2 minor veins are apoplastic loaders 840 The collection of photoassimilate by the minor veins in some leaves may not involve an active step 842 Some minor veins contain more than one kind of companion cell 842 The minor veins in leaf blades of the Poaceae contain two types of metaphloem sieve tubes 843 The gymnospermous sieve cell 844 The walls of sieve cells are characterized as primary 845 Callose does not play a role in sieve-pore development in gymnosperms 846 Little variation exists in sieve-cell differentiation among gymnosperms 847 Strasburger cells 848 The mechanism of phloem transport in gymnosperms 849 Parenchyma cells 850 Sclerenchyma cells 852 Longevity of sieve elements 852 Trends in specialization of sieve-tube elements 854 Sieve elements of seedless vascular plants are neither sieve-tube elements nor sieve cells 856 Primary phloem 858 REFERENCES 862 Chapter 14 Phloem: Secondary Phloem and Variations in Its Structure 905 Conifer phloem 908 The distribution of cells in conifer phloem shows two major patterns 909 Angiosperm phloem 911 The patterns formed by the fibers can be of taxonomic significance 912 Secondary sieve-tube elements show considerable variation in form and distribution 912 Differentiation in the secondary phloem 915 Sclerenchyma cells in the secondary phloem commonly are classified as fibers, sclereids, and fiber-sclereids 916 The conducting phloem constitutes only a small part of the inner bark 918 Nonconducting phloem 920 The nonconducting phloem differs structurally from the conducting phloem 921 Dilatation is the means by which the phloem is adjusted to the increase in circumference of the axis resulting from secondary growth 922 REFERENCES 924 Chapter 15 Periderm 937 Occurrence 938 Characteristics of the components 939 The phellogen is relatively simple in structure 939 Several kinds of phellem cells may arise from the phellogen 939 Considerable variation exists in the width and composition of phelloderm 943 Development of periderm 944 The sites of origin of the phellogen are varied 944 The phellogen is initiated by divisions of various kinds of cells 946 The time of appearance of the first and subsequent periderms varies 946 Morphology of periderm and rhytidome 949 Polyderm 951 Protective tissue in monocotyledons 951 Wound periderm 952 Lignification precedes suberization of the boundary-cell walls 953 Lenticels 954 Three structural types of lenticels are recognized in woody angiosperms 956 The first lenticels frequently appear under stomata 957 REFERENCES 959 Chapter 16 External Secretory Structures 975 Salt glands 978 Salt bladders secrete ions into a large central vacuole 979 Other glands secrete salt directly to the outside 979 The two-celled glands of the Poaceae 979 The multicellular glands of eudicotyledons 980 Hydathodes 981 Nectaries 984 The nectaries of Lonicera japonica exude nectar from unicellular trichomes 987 The nectaries of Abutilon striatum exude nectar from multicellular trichomes 988 The nectaries of Vicia faba exude nectar via stomata 989 The most common sugars in nectar are sucrose, glucose, and fructose 990 Structures intermediate between nectaries and hydathodes also exist 992 Colleters 993 Osmophores 995 Glandular trichomes secreting lipophilic substances 997 Glandular trichome development begins at an early stage of leaf development 999 The glandular structures of carnivorous plants 1000 Stinging hairs 1003 REFERENCES 1004 Chapter 17 Internal Secretory Structures 1035 Secretory cells 1035 Oil cells secrete their oils into an oil cavity 1037 Mucilage cells deposit their mucilage between the protoplast and the cellulosic cell wall 1038 Tannin is the most conspicuous inclusion in numerous secretory cells 1039 Secretory cavities and ducts 1040 The best known secretory ducts are the resin ducts of conifers 1041 Development of secretory cavities appears to be schizogenous 1043 Secretory ducts and cavities may arise under the stimulus of injury 1046 Kino veins are a special type of traumatic duct 1047 Laticifers 1048 On the basis of their structure, laticifers are grouped in two major classes: articulated and nonarticulated 1049 Latex varies in appearance and in composition 1051 Articulated and nonarticulated laticifers apparently differ from one another cytologically 1054 Laticifers are widely distributed in the plant body, reflecting their mode of development 1056 Nonarticulated laticifers 1056 Articulated laticifers 1060 The principal source of commercial rubber is the bark of the para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis 1062 The function of laticifers is not clear 1065 REFERENCES 1067 Addendum: other pertinent references not cited in the text 1103 Glossary Author Index Subject Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Tissue Engineering -- Laboratory Manuals.
Cell Culture Techniques -- Laboratory Manuals.