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Contents Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Constructing Volcanoes Simple and Complex Volcanoes Lavas Fluid Lavas: Flows and Lava Lakes Pahoehoe Flows, `A`a Flows, and Ropey Lavas Lava Tunnels Columnar Jointing Viscous Lavas: Domes and Petaloid Flows Simple Domes, Complex Domes, and Cryptodomes Prismatic Columns in Viscous Lava Volcanic Ejecta Bombs, Lapilli, and Ash Inclusions or Xenoliths Pyroclastic Formations Ignimbrites Why Explosive Eruptions Occur Volcanic Gases Gas expansion Strombolian Eruptions and Lava Fountains Plinian Eruptions Pel¿an Eruptions Surges When Rising Magma Meets Groundwater Carbonic Eruptions Percolation of Carbon Dioxide through Earth's Crust Disruption of Deep Aquifer Layers Overturn of Water in Crater Lakes The Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Climate Repose Period of a Volcano and Fumarolic Activity Submarine Volcanoes: Eruptions Beneath the Sea Hyaloclastites Pillow Lavas and Lava Ponds Black Smokers Volcanic Collapse Lahars Flank Slides Calderas Where Magma Originates The Earth's Concentric Structure Partial Melting of Rocks Migration of a Melt Formation of Magma Chambers The Conditions of Partial Melting Mantle Convection and Plate Tectonics Seafloor Spreading Subduction Mantle Upwelling: Partial Melting Due to Reduced Pressure Formation of the Oceanic Crust Hot Spot Volcanism Subduction: Partial Melting Due to the Addition of Water Magma Pooling: Partial Melting Due to Increased Temperature Volcanic Rock Diversity Cooling History Obsidian Microlitic and Doleritic Textures Aphyric Versus Porphyritic Texture Chemical Diversity Differences in Source Material and Degree of Partial Melting Magma Mixing and Contamination Bimodal Volcanism Magma Mixing or Hybridization Contamination Magmatic Differentiation by Fractional Crystallization Crystallization in a Magma Chamber Unraveling a Lava's History Trace Elements Isotopic ratios Dating Volcanic Events History Relative Chronology Absolute Chronology Carbon-14 Dating Potassium-Argon Dating Thermoluminescence Predicting Volcanic Eruptions Estimating the Threat Precursors of Eruptions Seismic Precursors Inflation of Volcanoes Tilt meters Displacement Meters Electronic Distance Meters Spatial Altimetry Thermal and Chemical Precursors Magnetic Precursors Volcano Surveillance Networks Glossary
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Volcanoes -- Popular works.
Volcanic eruptions -- Popular works.