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OLIVE OIL AND HEALTH Jos¿ L. Quiles, M. Carmen Ramírez-Tortosa and Parveen Yaqoob, Editors. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Olive oil in Mediterranean food Jos¿ Mataix and Francisco Jos¿ Barbancho 1. Introduction 2. The olive and the wild olive 3. The origin and spread of the olive, a complex question 4. Olive cultivation in the earliest historical times 5. Olive cultivation in the great civilizations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel, Phoenicia, Crete and Mycenae 6. The olive tree and olive oil in the classical greco-roman world 6.1. The olive harvest 6.2. Milling 6.3. Pressing 6.4. Decanting of the oil 6.5. Types of oils 6.6. Food products from the olive 6.7. Olives: preparation methods 6.8. Non-dietary uses of olive oil 6.9. Nutritional, dietary, and therapeutic properties of olive oil 6.10. Other vegetable oils and animal fats 7. The olive and olive oil in the medieval and modern eras 7.1. Products from the olive in medieval and modern food 7.2. Nutritional, dietary, and therapeutic properties of olive oil 7.3. Non-dietary uses of olive oil 8. Olive oil in contemporary times 9. References Chapter 2: Chemical composition, classification and varieties of olive oil M. Carmen Ramírez-Tortosa, Sergio Granados and Jos¿ L. Quiles 1. Introduction 2. Types and characteristics of olive oil 2.1. Virgin olive oils 2.2. Refined olive oil 2.3. Olive oil 2.4. Crude olive-pomace oil 2.5. Refined olive-pomace oil 2.6. Olive-pomace oil 3. Chemical composition 3.1. Major components 3.2. Minor components 3.2.1. Non-glyceride esters 3.2.2. Aliphatic alcohols 3.2.3. Terpenic alcohols 3.2.4. Sterols 3.2.5. Hydrocarbons 3.2.6. Pigments 3.2.7. Lipophilic phenolics 3.2.8. Hydrophilic phenolics 3.2.9. Volatile compounds 4. References Chapter 3: Total antioxidant activity of olive oils Nicoletta Pellegrini and Maurizio Battino 1. Introduction 2. Antioxidant capacity of olive oil 3. Total antioxidant capacity of oils 4. The utilisation of TAC for measuring the stability of oils 5. Conclusions 6. References Chapter 4: Effect of frying and thermal oxidation on olive oil and food quality Francisco J. S nchez-Muniz and Sara Bastida 1. Introduction 2. Frying methods 3. Changes that occur during heating and frying 4. Frying changes assessment. Present legislation 5. Advantages of frying 5.1. Very common culinary procedure 5.2. Reduced cooking time 5.3. Increased palatability 5.4. Changes in food composition 5.4.1. Changes in fatty acid profile 5.4.2. Changes in other food components 5.5. Thermal damage no greater than that produced by other culinary techniques 6. Disadvantages of frying 6.1. Decreased food palatability and acceptability 6.2. Loss of foodstuff weight and energy enrichment 6.3. Changes in fatty acid composition and minor compounds 6.4. Adsorption of altered compounds 7. Frying in the culinary process chain 8. Social aspects of oil consumption and frying 9. Advantages of frying with olive oils 9.1. Oil composition 9.2. Resistance to thermal oxidation of olive oil during frying 9.3. Long frying-life 9.4. Crust formation 9.5. Cardio-healthier food production 10. Conclusions 11. References Chapter 5: Antioxidant properties of olive oil phenolics Francesco Visioli, Simona Grande, Paola Bogani and Claudio Galli 1. Introduction 2. Is oleic acid fully responsible for cardioprotection associated with olive oil consumption? 3. Olive oil minor constituents 3.1. Olive oil phenolic components 3.2. Characteristics of phenolic-rich olive oils 4. Olive oil phenolics as antioxidants 4.1. In vitro studies 4.2. In vivo studies 5. Conclusions 6. References Chapter 6: Olive oil and mitochondrial oxidative stress: studies on adriamycin toxicity, physical exercise and ageing Jos¿ L. Quiles, Julio J. Ochoa, Jesús R. Huertas, Magdalena López-Frías and Jos¿ Mataix 1. Oxidative stress and mitochondria 2. Dietary fat type and mitochondrial oxidative stress 3. Olive oil in the prevention of adriamycin-mediated oxidative stress 3.1. Importance of adriamycin in mitochondrial oxidative stress 3.2. Virgin olive oil and adriamycin 4. Oxidative stress related to physical exercise and olive oil 4.1. Oxidative stress and physical exercise 4.2. Free radicals sources during physical exercise 4.3. Antioxidants and physical exercise 4.4. Training and exercise-induced oxidative stress 4.5. Virgin olive oil and physical exercise-related oxidative stress 5. Olive oil, mitochondrial oxidative stress and ageing 5.1. Concepts and theories 5.2. The role of mitochondria in ageing 5.3. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in ageing 5.4. Nutrition and ageing 5.5. Olive oil, dietary fatty acids and oxidative stress. A new approach to the study of ageing 5.5.1. Effects on general oxidative stress status 5.5.2. Effects on liver mitochondrial DNA deletions and ultrastructural abnormalities 5.5.3. Differences between mitotic and non-mitotic tissues 6. References Chapter 7: Epidemiology of olive oil and cardiovascular disease Marika Massaro, Egeria Scoditti, Maria Annunziata Carluccio and Raffaele De Caterina 1. Introduction 2. Ecological studies: the Seven Countries Study and the "Albanian paradox" 3. Cohort studies (see Table 2) 4. Case-control studies (see Table 4) 5. Clinical studies 6. Studies in vitro, in experimental animals and on intermediate endpoints in humans 7. Conclusions 8. References Chapter 8: Olive oil, blood lipids and postprandial lipaemia Javier S. Perona and Valentina Ruiz-Guti¿rrez 1. Introduction 2. Induction of atherosclerosis by chylomicron remnants 2.1 The development of atherosclerosis 2.2. Involvement of chylomicron remnants in atherogenesis 2.3. Influence of dietary lipid composition on chylomicron formation 2.4. Influence of dietary lipid composition on chylomicron clearance 3. Effect of olive oil on the clearance of serum remnants 3.1. Evidence of the beneficial effects of olive oil on health 3.2. Olive oil in oxidative stress 3.3. The favorable effects of olive oil minor components 3.4. The influence of olive oil on the clearance of CM from plasma 4. Conclusion 5. References Chapter 9: Effect of olive oil on cardiovascular risk factor, LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis development M. Dolores Mesa, M. Carmen Ramirez-Tortosa, Concepción M. Aguilera, Cesar L. Ramirez-Tortosa and Angel Gil 1. Introduction 2. Pathophysiology of atherosclerosis 2.1. Endothelial dysfunction 2.1.1. Lipids infiltration and oxidation 2.1.2. Cell infiltration 2.2. Fatty streak formation 2.3. Fibrous cap formation 2.4. Formation of advanced lesions 2.5. Plaque regression 3. Effects of virgin olive oil on cardiovascular risk factors 3.1. Genetic predisposition 3.2. Tobacco 3.3. Hypertension 3.4. Obesity 3.5. Insulin resistance and insulin-independent diabetes mellitus 3.6. Infecting agents 3.7. Menopause 3.8. HDL 3.9. Homocysteine 4. Mechanisms of action of olive oil in the prevention of atherosclerosis 4.1. Resistance of LDL against oxidation 5. References Chapter 10: Olive oil and haemostasis Jos¿ López Miranda, Angeles Blanco Molina and Francisco Perez Jim¿nez 1. Introduction 2. Main factors in blood thrombogenicity 2.1. Coagulation 2.2. Fibrinolysis 3. Dietary monounsaturated fat and hemostasis 3.1. Effect on platelet function. 3.2. Effect on coagulation factors. 3.3. Effect on postprandial coagulation factors. 3.4. Effect on tissue factor. 3.5. Effect on fibrinolysis. 4. References Chapter 11: Monounsaturated fat and diabetes John Wright 1. Introduction 1.1. Prevalence and pathogenesis of diabetes 1.2. Complications of diabetes 1.3. Dietary management of diabetes 2. The effect of dietary MUFA on insulin sensitivity and carbohydrate metabolism and the risk of diabetes 2.1. Observational studies 2.2. Prospective and intervention studies 3. The effect of dietary mufa on lipid abnormalities in diabetes 3.1. Dietary intervention studies 3.2. Postprandial lipid metabolism 3.2.1. Type 2 diabetes 3.2.2. Type 1 diabetes 4. Effects of MUFA on composition and function of lipoproteins 4.1. Glycation and Oxidation 5. The effect of dietary MUFA on insulin sensitivity and carbohydrate metabolism in diabetes 6. Effects of MUFA on B-cell function and the enteroinsular axis 6.1. Direct protective effects on B-cell function. 6.2. Effects on the enteroinsular axis 7. References Chapter 12: Olive oil and immune function Parveen Yaqoob 1. Introduction 2. Effects of olive oil on ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation 3. Effects of olive oil on ex vivo natural killer cell activity 4. Effects of olive oil on expression of adhesion molecules 5. Effects of olive oil on in vivo immune responses 6. Olive oil and host defense 7. Olive oil-containing emulsions in clinical nutrition 8. Olive oil and inflammatory disease 9. Are the effects of olive oil on immune function due to oleic acid or to non-lipid components? 10. Conclusion 11. References Chapter 13: Olive oil and gastrointestinal system Mariano Mañas, M. Dolores Yago and Emilio Martínez-Victoria 1. Introduction 2. Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract 2.1. Structure of the gastrointestinal tract wall 2.2. Overall functions 2.3. Regulation 2.4. Digestion and absorption of the dietary fat 3. Olive oil and digestive system 3.1. Olive oil and gastrointestinal secretions 3.1.1. Studies in animal models 22.214.171.124. Pancreatic and bile secretion in dogs 126.96.36.199. Pancreatic secretion in rats. In vivo and in vitro studies 3.1.2. Human studies 188.8.131.52. Olive oil and gastrointestinal hormones 184.108.40.206. Olive oil and secretion of pancreatic enzymes 220.127.116.11. Olive oil and biliary secretion 18.104.22.168. Olive oil and gastric secretion Chapter 14: The effect of olive oil on Immflamatory Bowel Disease Xavier Llor, Eduard Cabr¿ and Miquel A. Gassull 1. Introduction 2. Oleic acid in the cell 3. Oleic acid on lymphocyte function 4. Human trials of olive oil and oleic acid on inflammatory bowel disease 5. References Chapter 15: Olive oil, and other dietary lipids, in cancer: experimental approaches Eduard Escrich, Montserrat Solanas and Raquel Moral 1. Cancer 1.1. Molecular mechanisms of cancer 1.2. Carcinogenesis stages 2. The diet 3. Diet and cancer 4. Experimental data about the effects of olive oil and other dietary lipids in cancer 4.1. Breast cancer 4.2. Colorectal cancer 4.3. Prostate cancer 5. Mechanisms of the modulating action of dietary lipids on cancer 5.1. Influence on the carcinogenesis stages 5.2. Effects on the hormonal levels 5.3. Modification of cell membranes 5.4. Actions on the signal transduction pathways 5.5. Effects on the gene expression and the protein activity 5.6. Immunosuppressor effect 6. Final considerations on olive oil in the cancer prevention 7. References
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Olive oil -- Health aspects.