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CONTENTS List of illustrations 12 List of maps 22 Preface 23 Glossary 28 Place names: alternative spellings 40 1 Introduction: situating India 41 India as a world region 50 India¿s physical and human landscapes 56 Regional cultures of India, 1000¿1200 61 Mahmud of Ghazni and the Islamic world, ca. 1000 71 2 The expansion of Turkish power, 1180¿1350 83 Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: 84 The Ghurid conquest 84 Early Sultans of Delhi 94 The Delhi Sultanate¿s expansionist phase 98 Reign of Ala al-Din Khalji 98 Muhammad and Firuz Shah Tughluq: a rise & fall of fortunes 107 Impact of the Delhi Sultanate 115 Delhi Sultanate as a conquest state 115 India in a growing world system 124 3 Southern India in the age of Vijayanagara, 1350¿1550 131 Rise and decline of the Vijayanagara kingdom 132 Political history of the Deccan 132 Vijayanagara¿s militarism 142 Cultural orientations in peninsular India 148 Vijayanagara kings as exemplary Hindu rulers 148 Islamicate influence at Vijayanagara 156 Creation of a pan-south Indian culture 160 The Bahmani court 163 Trade and commerce in the Vijayanagara period 167 Maritime trade 167 Domestic economy 174 4 North India between empires: history, society, and culture, 1350¿1550 181 Regional sultanates 182 On the eastern periphery: Bengal 183 Maritime region to the west: Gujarat 190 In the mid Gangetic plain: Jaunpur 199 Inside central India: Malwa 202 Rajput states and culture 204 Mewar kingdom of the fifteenth century 205 Temple construction under the Rajputs 210 Religious trends in north India 214 Spread of Sufism 214 Kabir and the Sant tradition 218 Growth of Krishna worship 221 5 Sixteenth-century north India: empire reformulated 231 Toward empire 232 Delhi under the Lodis 232 Babur and Humayun: the first Mughals 233 The Sur interregnum 239 Humayun¿s return to India 243 The career of Akbar 244 Securing the empire 244 Creating an enduring state 249 Akbar¿s religious policies 254 Akbar as patron of the arts 259 Architecture as visual manifestation of dynamic leadership 260 Painting the imperial image 265 Music at the court 274 The careers and patronage of two nobles 275 6 Expanding political and economic spheres, 1550¿1650 284 Part I: the Mughal north 286 Careers of Jahangir and Shah Jahan 286 The Mughals and maritime trade 295 Part II: the peninsular south 302 Successor states to the Bahmanis 302 Vijayanagara and the Nayaka states 317 7 Elite cultures in seventeenth-century South Asia 334 The Mughal court 335 Court culture under Jahangir and Shah Jahan 335 Shahjahanabad: the new capital 344 Gender roles and lifestyles of the Mughal elite 349 European perceptions of Mughal India, 1600¿1658 356 Rajput courts 360 Rajput counterpoint: the court of Mewar 360 Rajput allies: the court of Amber 364 Women in the Rajput courts 367 Pious constructions 370 Terracotta temples of seventeenth-century Bengal 370 The Ajmer shrine 374 Madurai¿s Minakshi temple 377 8 Challenging central authority, 1650¿1750 382 Religious and cultural trends 383 Religious policies of Jahangir and Shah Jahan 383 Aurangzeb¿s rule: a cultural assessment 386 Shivaji and the Deccan wars 394 The Marathas 402 The Marathas as a warrior community 402 Shivaji¿s rule 405 Marathas in the eighteenth century 409 Cultural contributions of the Marathas 411 Disintegration of the Mughal empire 414 Internal response to the crisis of empire 414 Emergence of independent regional states 419 New political centers 425 9 Changing socio-economic formations, 1650¿1750 433 The European trading companies 434 Peasants and zamindars 444 Transformations of the Mughal economy 458 Bengal: India¿s agrarian and commercial frontier 469 Epilogue 484 Biographical notes 494 Bibliography 502 Index 000
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
India -- History -- 1000-1765.
South Asia -- History.
India -- Civilization -- 1200-1765.
South Asia -- Civilization.