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Table of Contents: Webster's New World Punctuation Guide Introduction General rationale for punctuation Why styles may differ in various manuals or grammar books British and American usage How to use the book searching for a particular punctuation mark looking at a sample form avoiding pitfalls Part I: The Punctuation Marks Chapter 1: The Period As an endmark In quotations In abbreviations within a sentence at the end of a sentence In lists and bullet points In memos In PowerPoint presentations In web addresses Pitfalls no periods outside the quotation mark (American usage) no more than one endmark in a sentence only one period when an abbreviation ends a sentence Chapter 2: The Question Mark As an endmark To show doubt (in a date, for example) In quotations Pitfall: confusion when a quotation is a question Chapter 3: The Exclamation Point As an endmark In quotations Pitfall: overuse Chapter 4: The Comma To create a series To indicate direct address In personal titles (Jr., Esq, etc.) Before conjunctions joining independent clauses To set off interrupters In addresses and dates In letters (salutation, etc.) After introductory words participles prepositional phrases adverbial clauses Restrictive, non-restrictive elements appositives adjective clauses adverbial clauses Short, interrogative elements Mild interjections Speaker tags (he said, she explained, etc.) In quotations To mark an omission To separate coordinate modifiers Pitfalls no commas in compounds or between subjects and verbs no comma after so no comma before a parenthesis comma splices random placement no comma with a period, question mark, or exclamation point Chapter 5: The Semicolon To join sentences without a conjunction In compound-complex sentences To separate items in a series With conjunctive adverbs (nevertheless, then, however, etc.) Pitfall joining unrelated clauses no semicolon to separate subordinate and independent clauses Chapter 6: The Colon In memos In business letters In a two-clause sentence To introduce a list To introduce a quotation a long, blocked quotation a quotation without a speaker tag With formal appositives To indicate time (3:00) Pitfalls no colon after a linking verb no colon after a preposition Chapter 7: Quotation Marks Difference between British and American system With speaker tags Without speaker tags With several paragraphs For a quotation within another quotation For titles For slang or jargon (distancing quotation marks) Pitfalls avoiding run-on sentences no quotation marks in block quotations placing commas and periods incorrectly position of semicolons and colons position of question marks and exclamation points no quotation marks for centered titles of art works Chapter 8: The Dash and the Hyphen The dash To set off interrupting remarks To indicate summaries For special emphasis For clarity when comma would blend into the sentence Pitfalls no dash replacing a semicolon no dash substituting for a period overuse distinguishing between dashes and hyphens The hyphen To separate a word at end of line To join words that are modifying a noun To create compound words Pitfall: confusing dashes and hyphens Chapter 9: Parentheses and Brackets Parentheses To insert extra information To indicate remarks straying from the main point In citations and bibliographies Pitfalls placing punctuation in and around the parenthesis overuse Brackets To insert material into a quotation In bibliographies Pitfall: punctuation in and around brackets Chapter 10: Ellipses To replace omitted words within a quotation at the end of a quotation To indicate a trailing thought Pitfall: three dots or four Chapter 11: The Slash To indicate alternatives In web addresses Pitfall: dividing web addresses Chapter 12: The Apostrophe To create a contraction To show possession single owner regular plural irregular plural hyphenated words dual ownership To form the plural of numbers and symbols Part II: Punctuation in Common Writing Formats Chapter 13: Personal Letters Thank you note Invitation Letter of complaint Letter to the editor Opinion to an elected official Chapter 14: Business Letters Cover letters for a job application for enclosed information Performance review Ordering and returns Proposals and plans Chapter 15: Memos To a supervisor To a subordinate To a group of people Chapter 16: E-Mails and Faxes Informal e-mail to a friend Job-related e-mails Fax cover sheet Chapter 17: Presentations PowerPoint slides Bulleted lists In visual aids Chapter 18: School Assignments Book reports Term Papers Essays Lab reports Footnotes and endnotes Bibliographies Chapter 19: Desktop Publishing Newsletter article Web site postings Pamphlet cover Advertising flyer Part III: Citations Chapter 20: Modern Language Association Citation Citations in the text Citing an Idea Citing a Quotation Some Special Cases Citations in the List of Works Cited Books Articles Nonprint Sources Paragraph and Page Numbers Chapter 21: American Psychological Associaiton Citation Citations in Text Citing Previous Studies Citations in the Reference List Journals and Other Periodicals Books Nonprint Sources Abbreviations for APA References Chapter 22: The Chicago Manual of Style Citation Citations in the Text Author-Date Parenthetical Citations Footnotes and Endnotes Format and Contents of Notes Extinct Latin Abbreviations The Reference List or Bibliography Titles in a Reference List Electronic Sources Notes/Bibliography System Electronic Sources
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
English language -- Punctuation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.