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Table of Contents Chapter 1 Mise en Place Introduction Organizational Skills Needed for Baking How to Measure the Ingredients in This Book The Correct Tools of Measurement How to Use a Baker's Scale How to Use a Digital Scale Baker's Percentages Baking Tools and Equipment Defined Helpful Hints in Using This Text Procedure to Make Parchment Cake Pan Liners for Round Cake Pans How to Line Sheet Pans with Parchment Paper Proper Preparation of Cake Pans before Baking Preparing Muffin Tins Forming a Parchment Cone Sifting Dry Ingredients Storing Baked Goods Properly Wrapping Baked Goods to be Frozen Chapter 2 Ingredients Introduction Wheat Flour Sugar Starches Gelatins Fats Fats in Solid Form Liquid Fats Storage of Fats Dairy Products Common Dairy Products Used in Baking and Their Approximate Milk Fat Percentages Spices Processed Flavorings Seeds Salt Peanut Butter Nuts Products Derived from Nuts Coconut Toasting Coconut and Sliced or Chopped Nuts Toasting Whole Nuts Fruits Chapter 3 Wheat Flour¿The Essential Grain (and Other Flours) Introduction Flour Defined Composition of a Wheat Kernel Types of Wheat The Milling Process Different Varieties of Wheat Flour Grains and Flours Other Than Wheat The Ancient Art of Stone Milling Getting Flour Ready for Baking: Flour Treatments Components of Flour Important to the Baker Defining Gluten and Its Role in Baking The Importance of Gluten Controlling Gluten Deciding Which Flour Is Best Storage of Flours Chapter 4 The Science of Mixing Introduction Four Mixing Factors That Affect Baked Goods The Physical Act of Mixing The Tools Used for Mixing The Order the Ingredients Are Added The Mixing Method Used The Three Main Reasons for Mixing Gluten Revisited Fats and Their Role in Mixing The Correct Tools for Mixing Five of the Most Common Mixing Terms Properly Folding in Ingredients Chapter 5 Thickeners and Stabilizers Introduction Starches Defined The Three Stages of Gelatinization Several Factors That Affect Gelatinization Characteristics of Different Starches Choosing the Best Starch for the Job Some Interesting Facts about Starches Gelatin Defined How Gelatin Forms a Gel How to use Gelatin Other Types of Gelatin Factors and Ingredients That Interfere with Gelatinization Chapter 6 Eggs as Thickeners Introduction Composition of an Egg Egg Products Other Than Fresh Shell Eggs Eggs as Thickeners Custards Defined Coagulation of Proteins Ways to Prevent Curdling of Custards Steps to Prepare a Stirred Custard Steps to Prepare a Baked Custard Problems to Avoid with Custards Chapter 7 Eggs as Leaveners and Meringues Introduction Egg Foams Defined Three Types of Meringues Some Helpful Hints to Get the Fluffiest Meringues Using a Stainless Steel versus a Copper Bowl to Prepare Meringues Separating Eggs One Method to Separate Eggs Substituting Pasteurized Egg Whites How to Prepare a Safe Meringue Using Fresh Shell Eggs The Trouble with Under- and Overbeaten Egg Whites Defining Key Terms Incorporating Egg Foams into Other Ingredients Defining Soufflés Chapter 8 Working with Yeast in Straight Doughs Introduction Defining Yeast Yeast and Fermentation The Correct Temperature to Ferment Yeast Doughs How Gluten Traps Carbon Dioxide Gas Developing Flavor in Yeast Breads How the Amount of Water in a Yeast Dough Can Affect Hole Structure Ingredients That Negatively Affect Yeast Breads The 12 Steps of Yeast Dough Production Two Basic Types of Yeast Doughs Chapter 9 Preferments Introduction Two Categories of Preferments Yeast and Bacteria Living Together Reliability and Hardiness of Starters Developing Flavor in Sourdough Breads Retarding the Dough Chapter 10 Laminated Doughs Introduction Laminated Doughs Defined Solid Fats and Plasticity Preparing a Base Dough Enclosing the Fat Inside the Dough Folding and Layering How Laminated Doughs Puff Up and Rise Choosing a Flour for the Base Dough Dimensions of the Base Dough Tips for Successful Laminated Pastries Freezing Laminated Doughs Chapter 11 Working with Fats in Pies and Tarts Introduction The Difference between Tenderness and Flakiness in a Pastry Crust Choosing the Right Fat Three Different Types of Pastry Doughs Six Ways to Ensure a Tender, Flaky Pastry Crust Blind Baking Some Helpful Tips to Roll Out a Pastry Crust Preventing a Soggy Bottom Crust Chapter 12 Using Chemical and Steam Leaveners Introduction Chemical Leaveners The Important Role of Air in Leavening Steam Leavening Chapter 13 Quick Bread Mixing Methods Introduction Differences between Yeast Breads and Quick Breads Different Mixing Methods Preparation of Muffin Pans Chapter 14 Cake Mixing Methods Introduction Two Categories of Cakes Cake Batters as Emulsions Mixing Methods for Cakes High in Fat Knowing Which Fat to Use in High Fat Cakes Mixing Methods for Cakes Low in Fat How to Tell When a Cake Is Done Additional Ideas That Use the Recipes in This Chapter Chapter 15 Frostings Introduction Frosting Defined Four Reasons to Use Frostings The Seven Categories of Frostings Pairing the Cake with the Appropriate Frosting Basic Tools to Properly Frost a Cake How to Frost a Layer Cake Chapter 16 Cookies Introduction Categories of Cookies Three Basic Cookie Mixing Methods Understanding the Characteristics of Cookies and How to Manipulate Them Tips for Making Successful Cookies Chapter 17 Building Blocks with Sugar Introduction Three Basic Steps in Preparing Sugar Syrups for Desserts and Confections Two Ways to Determine When a Sugar Syrup Is Done Characteristics and Comparisons of the Cold-Water Test versus Sugar Syrup Temperatures Understanding the Process of Crystallization Ways to Control Crystallization Two Methods to Prepare Caramel Where Caramel Gets Its Flavor Tips When Preparing Sugar Syrups Chapter 18 Frozen Desserts Introduction The Importance of Good Sanitation When Preparing Frozen Desserts Two Categories of Frozen Desserts Churn Frozen Desserts Why Churning Is So Important In Between Churn Frozen and Still Frozen Still Frozen Desserts Factors That Contribute to Texture Summing Up Texture with Mouth Feel Building Flavors in Frozen Desserts The Power of Sugar and Salt in Preparing Frozen Desserts Tips for Preparing Successful Frozen Desserts Chapter 19 Chocolate Introduction The Origins of Chocolate Cocoa Butter and Mouth Feel The Most Common Types of Chocolate Water and Chocolate Properly Melting Chocolate The Fat Crystals in Cocoa Butter Why Chocolate Is Tempered Determining When Tempering Is Necessary Tempering Correct Temperature Ranges for Each Stage of Tempering Two Methods of Tempering Determining When the Chocolate Is Tempered Commercial Tempering Machines What to Do With Tempered Chocolate Blooming Ganache Dense versus Light Truffle Centers Molding Chocolate Chapter 20 Dessert Sauces and Plating Introduction The Purpose of Dessert Sauces Types of Dessert Sauces Painting a Plate with Sauces How to Layer Different Sauces on One Plate Tips to Follow When Painting Plates with Sauces Garnishes: Adding Depth and Dimension to a Dessert Plate Chapter 21 Healthy Baking Introduction How to Modify Refined Grains with Healthier Alternatives to Enrich Baked Goods Fats¿Why They Are Necessary Substituting Healthy Fats for Unhealthy Fats The Various Roles Fats Play Some Healthy Fat Substitutions Substituting Sugar Substitutes for Sugar Easy Substitutions What to Look For in a Recipe to See If It Would Be Conducive to Fat Modification Antioxidants and Health The Health Benefits of Chocolate Chapter 22 Troubleshooting Introduction What Can Go Wrong Custards Yeast Breads Pies and Tarts Quick Breads Cakes Frostings Cookies Working with Sugar Frozen Desserts Chocolate Glossary Bibliography
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