Table of contents for Abnormal psychology / Thomas F. Oltmanns, Robert E. Emery.

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Table of Contents
Preface
About the Authors
1: Examples and Definitions of Abnormal Behavior
Overview
Case Study: A Husband's Paranoid Schizophrenia
Recognizing the Presence of Disorder
Defining Abnormal Behavior
Harmful Dysfunction
Critical Thinking Matters: Is Sexual Addiction a Meaningful Concept?
Cultural and Diagnostic Practice
Who Experiences Abnormal Behavior?
Case Study: A college Student's Eating Disorder
Frequency in and Impact on Community Populations
Cross-cultural Comparisons
The Mental Health Professions
Psychopathology in Historical Context
The Greek Tradition in Medicine
Creation of the Asylum
Worcester Lunatic Hospital: A Model Institution
Lessons from the History of Psychopathology
Methods for the Scientific Study of Mental Disorders
Research Methods: The Null Hypothesis and the Burden of Proof
Uses and Limitations of Case Studies
Clinical Research Methods
Getting Help
2: Causes of Abnormal Behavior
Chapter Outline
Chapter Opening Questions
Overview
Case Study: Meghan's Many Hardships
Brief Historical Perspective: Twentieth-Century Paradigms
The Biological Paradigm
The Psychodynamic Paradigm
The Cognitive Behavioral Paradigm
The Humanistic Paradigm
The Problem with Paradigms
Systems Theory
Holism
Reductionism
Levels of Analysis
Causality
Equifinality and Multifinality
Reciprocal Causality
The Diathesis-Stress Model
Developmental Psychopathology
Biological Factors
The Neuron and Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters and Psychopathology
Major Brain Structures
Cerebral Hemispheres
Major Brain Structures and Psychopathology
Psychophysiology
Endocrine System
Autonomic Nervous System
Psychophysiology and Psychopathology
Behavior Genetics
Some Basic Principles of Genetics
Family Incidence Studies
Twin Studies
Adoption Studies
Misinterpreting Behavior Genetics Findings
Genetics and Psychopathology
Psychological Factors
Human Nature and Temperament
Evolutionary Psychology
Attachment Theory
Dominance
Temperament
Emotions
Learning and Cognition
Modeling
Cognition and Social Cognition
The Sense of Self
Stages of Development
Social Factors
Relationships and Psychopathology
Marital Status and Psychopathology
Social Relationships
Gender and Gender Roles
Prejudice and Poverty
Societal Values
Summary
Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Research Methods: Does Psychology Make You Smarter?
Further Thoughts: Mind-Body Dualism
Critical Thinking Matters: Do Vaccinations Cause Autism?
Getting Help
3: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Chapter Outline
Chapter Opening Questions
Overview
Case Study: Why Is Frances Depressed?
Frances and the Four Paradigms
Brief Historical Perspective
Biological Treatments
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Psychosurgery
Psychopharmacology
Psychodynamic Psychotherapies
Freudian Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalytic Techniques
The Decline of Freudian Psychoanalysis
Ego Analysis
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Systematic Desensitization
Other Exposure Therapies
Aversion Therapy
Contingency Management
Social Skills Training
Cognitive Techniques
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
Rational-Emotive Therapy
Integration and Research
Humanistic Therapies
Client-Centered Therapy
A Means, Not an End?
Research on Psychotherapy
Does Psychotherapy Work?
Do People Improve without Treatment?
The Placebo Effect
Placebo Control Groups
Efficacy and Effectiveness
When Does Psychotherapy Work?
Psychotherapy Process Research
Common Factors
Therapy as Social Support
Therapy as Social Influence
Couples, Family, and Group Therapy
Couples Therapy
Family Therapy
Group Therapy
Prevention
Specific Treatments for Specific Disorders
Summary
Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Further Thoughts: Ethnic Minorities in Psychotherapy
Research Methods: Does Therapy Work?
Critical Thinking Matters: Are All Therapies Created Equal?
Further Thoughts: The Allegiance Effect
Getting Help
4: Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior
Overview
Case Study: Obsessions, Compulsions, and Other Unusual Behaviors
Basic Issues in Classification
Categories versus Dimensions
From Description to Theory
Classifying Abnormal Behavior
Brief Historical Perspective
Labeling Theory
The DSM-IV-TR System
Culture and Classification
Evaluating Classification Systems
Reliability
Validity
Research Methods: Diagnostic Reliability
Unresolved Questions
Problems and Limitations of the DSM-IV-TR System
Basic Issues in Assessment
Purposes of Clinical Assessment
Assumptions About Consistency of Behavior
Evaluating the Usefulness of Assessment Procedures
Critical Thinking Matters: Should We Always Trust Clinical Judgments?
Types of Assessment Procedures
Assessing Psychological Systems
Interviews
Observational Procedures
Personality Tests and Self-Report Inventories
Projective Personality Tests
Assessing Social Systems
Assessing Biological Systems
Psychophysiological Assessment
Brain Imaging Techniques
Getting Help
5: Mood Disorders and Suicide
Overview
Case Study: An attorney's major depressive episode
Case Study: Debbie's manic episode
Symptoms
Emotional symptoms
Cognitive symptoms
Somatic symptoms
Behavioral symptoms
Other problems commonly associated with depression
Diagnosis
Brief historical perspective
Contemporary diagnostic systems
Course and outcome
Frequency
Incidence and prevalence
Gender differences
Cross-cultural differences
Risk for mood disorders across the life-span
Comparisons across generations
Causes
Social factors
Psychological factors
Biological factors
The Interaction of social, psychological, and biological factors
Research Methods: Analogue Studies of Psychopathology
Treatment
Unipolar disorders
Critical Thinking Matters: Do Anti-Depressant Drugs Cause Violent Behavior?
Bipolar disorders
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Seasonal mood disorders
Suicide
Brief Case Study: An Admiral's Suicide
Classification of suicide
Frequency of suicide
Causes of suicide
Common Elements of Suicide
Treatment of suicidal people
Getting Help
6: Anxiety Disorders
Overview
Case study: A writer's panic disorder with agoraphobia
Symptoms
Anxiety
Excessive worry
Panic attacks
Phobias
Obsessions and compulsions
Case study: Ed's obsessive-compulsive disorder
Diagnosis
Brief historical perspective
Contemporary diagnostic systems
"Lumpers" and "Splitters"
Course and Outcome
Frequency
Prevalence
Comorbidity
Gender differences
Anxiety across the lifespan
Cross-cultural comparisons
Causes
Adaptive and maladaptive fears
Social factors
Psychological factors
Biological factors
Critical Thinking Matters: Can a Strep Infection Trigger OCD in Children?
Treatment
Brief Case Study: Ed's Treatment
Psychological interventions
Research Methods: Statistical Significance and Clinical Iimportance
Biological interventions
Getting Help
7: Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders, Dissociative Disorders, and Somatoform Disorders
Chapter Outline
Chapter Opening Questions
Overview
Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders
Case Study: Sexual Assault and Stephanie's PTSD
Symptoms of ASD and PTSD
Reexperiencing
Avoidance
Arousal or Anxiety
Dissociative Symptoms
Diagnosis of ASD and PTSD
Brief Historical Perspective
Contemporary Classification
Frequency of Trauma, PTSD, and ASD
Trauma and PTSD Are Not Random
Course and Outcome
Causes of PTSD and ASD
Social Factors in ASD and PTSD
Biological Factors in ASD and PTSD
Psychological Factors in ASD and PTSD
Integration and Alternative Pathways
Prevention and Treatment of ASD and PTSD
Emergency Help for Trauma Victims
Treatment of ASD
Cognitive Behavior Therapy for PTSD
EMDR
Antidepressant Medication
Dissociative Disorders
Case Study: Dissociative Fugue: Dallae's Journey
Hysteria and the Unconscious
Charcot, Freud, and Janet
Cognitive Science and the Unconscious
Hypnosis: Altered State or Social Role?
Symptoms of Dissociative Disorders
Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms
Diagnosis of Dissociative Disorders
Brief Historical Perspective
Contemporary Classification
Brief Case Study: A New York City Firefighter's Amnesia for September 11
Brief Case Study: The Three Faces of Eve
Frequency of Dissociative Disorders
Disorder or Role Enactment?
Causes of Dissociative Disorders
Psychological Factors in Dissociative Disorders
Biological Factors in Dissociative Disorders
Social Factors in Dissociative Disorders
Treatment of Dissociative Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Symptoms of Somatoform Disorders
Unnecessary Medical Treatment
Diagnosis of Somatoform Disorders
Conversion Disorder
Brief Case Study: Janet's Patient
Somatization Disorder
Hypochondriasis
Pain Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Brief Case Study: Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Malingering and Factitious Disorder
Frequency of Somatoform Disorders
Gender, SES, and Culture
Comorbidity
Causes of Somatoform Disorders
Biological Factors-The Perils of Diagnosis by Exclusion
Psychological Factors-Imagined or Real Trauma
Social Factors in Somatoform Disorders
Treatment of Somatoform Disorders
Summary
Critical Thinking
Key Terms
The Trauma of Sexual Assault
Critical Thinking Matters: Recovered Memories?
Research Methods: Remembering the Past
Getting Help
8: Stress and Physical Health
Chapter Outline
Challenge Questions
Overview
Case Study: Bob Carter's Heart Attack
Defining Stress
Stress as a Life Event
Stress as Appraisal of Life Events
Symptoms of Stress
Psychophysiological Responses to Stress
Adrenal Hormones
Immune System Responses
Illness and Chronic Stress
Coping
Predictability and Control
Outlets for Frustration
Repression
Optimism
Religion
Health Behavior
Following Medical Advice
Illness Behavior
Social Support
Illness as a Cause of Stress
Diagnosis of Stress and Physical Illness
Brief Historical Perspective
Contemporary Approaches
The Role of Psychological Factors in Some Familiar Illnesses
Cancer
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Pain Management
Sleep Disorders
Cardiovascular Disease
Symptoms of Hypertension and CHD
Diagnosis of CVD
Frequency of CVD
Risk Factors for CHD
Behavior and CHD
Risk Factors for Hypertension
Causes of CVD
Biological Factors in CVD
Psychological Factors in CVD
Cardiovascular Reactivity to Stress
Life Stressors and CVD: Job Strain
Type A Behavior and Hostility
Depression and Anxiety
Social Factors in CVD
Integration and Alternative Pathways
Prevention and Treatment of CVD
Primary Prevention
Secondary Prevention
Tertiary Prevention
Summary
Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Tend and Befriend: The Female Alternative to Fight or Flight?
Research Methods: Lives Over Time
Critical Thinking Matters: Resilience
Getting Help
9: Personality Disorders
Overview
Case Study: A car thief's antisocial personality disorder
Symptoms
Social motivation
Cognitive perspectives regarding self and others
Temperament and personality traits
Context and personality
Diagnosis
Cluster A: Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders
Critical Thinking Matters: Do You Have to be Paranoid to Survive?
Cluster B: Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders
Brief case study: Borderline PD
Cluster C: Avoidant, Dependent, and Obsessive-compulsive personality disorders
A dimensional perspective on personality disorders
Brief case study: Narcissism from the perspective of the five-factor model
Frequency
Prevalence in community and clinical samples
Research Methods: Cross-cultural comparisons
Gender differences
Stability of personality disorders over time
Culture and personality
Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD)
Brief case study: Schizotypal personality disorder
Symptoms
Causes
Treatment
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
Brief case study: Borderline personality disorder
Symptoms
Impulse Control Disorders
Causes
Treatment
Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)
Brief case study: Antisocial personality disorder
Symptoms
Causes
Treatment
Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD)
Brief case study: Dependent personality disorder
Symptoms
Causes
Treatment
Getting help
10: Eating Disorders
Chapter Outline
Challenge Questions
Overview
Case Study: Serrita's Anorexia
Symptoms of Anorexia
Refusal to Maintain a Normal Weight
Disturbance in Evaluating Weight or Shape
Fear of Gaining Weight
Cessation of Menstruation
Medical Complications
Struggle for Control
Comorbid Psychological Disorders
Symptoms of Bulimia
Case Study: Michelle's Secret
Binge Eating
Inappropriate Compensatory Behavior
Excessive Emphasis on Weight and Shape
Comorbid Psychological Disorders
Medical Complications
Diagnosis of Eating Disorders
Brief Historical Perspective
Contemporary Classification
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity
Frequency of Eating Disorders
Standards of Beauty
Age of Onset
Causes of Eating Disorders
Social Factors
Troubled Family Relationships
Psychological Factors
A Struggle for Perfection and Control
Depression, Low Self-Esteem, and Dysphoria
Negative Body Image
Dietary Restraint
Biological Factors
Integration and Alternative Pathways
Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa
Course and Outcome of Anorexia Nervosa
Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa
Antidepressant Medications
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Interpersonal Psychotherapy
Course and Outcome of Bulimia Nervosa
Prevention of Eating Disorders
Summary
Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Critical Thinking Matters
Eating Disorders in Males
RESEARCH METHODS: What is a Psychotherapy Placebo?
Getting Help
11: Substance Use Disorders
Overview
Case study: Ernest Hemingway's alcohol dependence
Symptoms
The concept of substance dependence
Alcohol
Nicotine
Amphetamine and cocaine
Opiates
Brief case study: Feelings after injecting heroin
Barbiturates and benzodiazepines
Cannabis
Hallucinogens and related drugs
Diagnosis
Brief history of legal and illegal substances
DSM-IV-TR
Proposed subtypes
Course and outcome
Other disorders commonly associated with addictions
Frequency
Prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence
Gender differences
Prevalence of drug and nicotine dependence
Critical Thinking Matters: Should tobacco products be illegal?
Risk for addiction across the life span
Brief case study: Ms. E's drinking
Causes
Social factors
Biological factors
Psychological factors
Research Methods: Risk, Risk Factors, and Studies of High-Risk Samples
Integrated systems
Treatment
Detoxification
Medications during remission
Self-help groups: Alcoholics Anonymous
Cognitive behavior therapy
Brief Case Study: Relapse to Heroin Use
Outcome results and general conclusions
Getting help
12: Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
Overview
Case study: Margaret and Bill's sexual communication
Brief historical perspective
Sexual Dysfunctions
Symptoms
Diagnosis
Brief case study: sexual aversion disorder
Brief case study: male erectile disorder
Research Methods: Hypothetical constructs, or "What is sexual arousal?"
Brief case study: Genital pain
Frequency
Causes
Brief case study: Vaginismus and alcohol dependence
Treatment
Critical Thinking Matters: Does medication cure sexual dysfunction?
Paraphilias
Symptoms
Brief case study: Paraphilia
Diagnosis
Brief case study: Masochism
The Classification of Rapists
Frequency
Causes
Treatment
Gender Identity Disorders
Symptoms
Frequency
Causes
Treatment
Getting Help
13: Schizophrenic Disorders
Overview
Case study: A new mother's paranoid schizophrenia
Case study: Edward's disorganized schizophrenia
Symptoms
Positive symptoms
Negative symptoms
Disorganization
Case study: Marsha's disorganized speech and bizarre behavior
Diagnosis
Brief historical perspective
DSM-IV-TR
Subtypes
Critical Thinking Matters: Are symptom-based subtypes of schizophrenia useful?
Related psychotic disorders
Course and outcome
Frequency
Gender differences
Cross-cultural comparisons
Causes
Biological Factors
Social factors
Psychological factors
Integration and multiple pathways
Research methods: Comparison groups in psychopathology research
The search for markers of vulnerability
Treatment
Antipsychotic medication
Psychosocial treatment
Getting Help
14: Dementia, Delirium, and Amnestic Disorders
Overview
Case study: A physician's developing dementia
Case study: Dementia and delirium - a niece's terrible discoveries
Symptoms
Delirium
Dementia
Cognitive symptoms
Memory changes in normal aging
Amnestic disorder
Case study: Alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder - 19 going on 45
Diagnosis
Brief historical perspective
Specific disorders associated with dementia
Critical Thinking Matters: How Can Clinicians Establish an Early Diagnosis of
Research Methods: Gene Identification
Frequency of Delirium and Dementia
Prevalence of dementia
Prevalence of subtypes of dementia
Cross-cultural comparisons
Causes
Delirium
Dementia
Treatment and Management
Medication
Environmental and behavioral management
Support for caregivers
Getting help
15: Mental Retardation and Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Chapter Outline
Challenge Questions
Overview
Mental Retardation
Case Study: Should This Mother Raise Her Children?
Symptoms of Mental Retardation
Significantly Subaverage IQ
Limitations in Adaptive Skills
Onset Before Age 18 Years
Diagnosis of Mental Retardation
Early Diagnostic Efforts
Contemporary Diagnosis
Axis II and Co-Morbid Psychological Problems
Frequency of Mental Retardation
Causes of Mental Retardation
Biological Factors
Psychological Factors
Social Factors
Treatment: Prevention and Normalization
Primary Prevention
Secondary Prevention
Tertiary Prevention
Normalization
Autistic Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Case Study: Temple Grandin: An Anthropologist on Mars
Symptoms of PDD
Early Onset
Impaired Communication
Impaired Social Interaction
Stereotyped Behavior, Interests, and Activities
Apparent Sensory Deficits
Self-Injury
Savant Performance
Diagnosis of Autism and PDD
Brief Historical Perspective
Contemporary Classification
Frequency of Autism and PDD
Causes of Autism
Psychological and Social Factors
Biological Factors
Treatment of PDD
Course and Outcome
Medication
Applied Behavior Analysis
Summary
Key Terms
Research Methods: What Do IQ Scores Mean?
Eugenics: Our History of Shame
Critical Thinking Matters: The Bogus Treatment Called Facilitated Communication
Getting Help
16: Psychological Disorders of Childhood
Chapter Outline
Challenge Questions
Overview
Externalizing Disorders
Case Study: Bad Boy, Troubled Boy, or All Boy?
Symptoms of Externalizing Disorders
Rule Violations
Negativity, Anger, and Aggression
Impulsivity
Hyperactivity
Attention Deficits
Diagnosis of Externalizing Disorders
Brief Historical Perspective
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
ADHD Versus ODD
Comorbidity
Subtypes of ADHD
Conduct Disorder
Frequency of Externalizing Disorders
Family Risk Factors
Causes of Externalizing Disorders
Biological Factors
Social Factors
Brief Case Study: Ms. B's Son
Psychological Factors
Integration and Alternative Pathways
Treatment of Externalizing Disorders
Psychostimulants and ADHD
Behavioral Family Therapy for ODD
Treatment of Conduct Disorders and Juvenile Delinquency
Course and Outcome
Internalizing and Other Disorders
Case Study: Turning the Tables on Tormentors
Symptoms of Internalizing Disorders
Depressive Symptoms
Children's Fears and Anxiety
Separation Anxiety Disorder and School Refusal
Troubled Peer Relationships
Specific Developmental Deviations
Diagnosis of Internalizing and Other Disorders
Brief Historical Perspective
Contemporary Classification
Overinclusive Listing of Disorders
Contextual Classifications?
Frequency of Internalizing Disorders
Suicide
Causes of Internalizing Disorders
Biological Factors
Social Factors: A Focus on Attachments
Psychological Factors
Treatment of Internalizing Disorders
Course and Outcome
Summary
Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Research Methods: Samples and Sampling
Critical Thinking Matters: ADHD's False Causes and Cures
What Are Learning Disorders?
Getting Help
17: Adjustment Disorders and Life-Cycle Transitions
Chapter Outline
Challenge Questions
Overview
Case Study: Left for Another Man
Symptoms
Diagnosis
Brief Historical Perspective
Contemporary Classification
The Transition to Adulthood
Symptoms of the Adult Transition
Identity Crisis
Changes in Roles and Relationships
Emotional Turmoil
Diagnosis of Identity Conflicts
Frequency of Identity Conflicts
Causes of Identity Conflicts
Treatment During the Transition to Adult Life
Brief Case Study: Samantha's Birth Mother
Family Transitions
Symptoms of Family Transitions
Family Conflict
Emotional Distress
Cognitive Conflicts
Diagnosis of Troubled Family Relationships
Frequency of Family Transitions
Causes of Family Transitions
Psychological Factors
Social Factors
Biological Factors
Treatment During Family Transitions
Prevention Programs
Couples Therapy and Family Therapy
Brief Case Study: Jan and Bill: Learning to Listen
Behavioral Marital Therapy
Treating Individual Problems with Couples Therapy or Family Therapy
Aging and the Transition to Later Life
Ageism
Symptoms
Physical Functioning and Health
Life Satisfaction, Work, and Relationships
Brief Case Study: Mrs. J's Loss
Grief and Bereavement
Mental Health
Diagnosis of Aging
Frequency of Aging
Causes of the Psychological Problems in Later Life
Treatment of Psychological Problems in Later Life
Summary
Critical Thinking
Key Terms
Research Methods: Genes and the Environment
Critical Thinking Matters: Divorce is Genetic?!
Reliving the Past
Getting Help
18: Mental Health and the Law
Chapter Outline
Challenge Questions
Overview
Case Study: John Hinckley and the Insanity Defense
Expert Witnesses
Free Will versus Determinism
Rights and Responsibilities
Mental Illness and Criminal Responsibility
The Insanity Defense
M'Naghten Test
Irresistible Impulse and the Product Test
Legislative Actions
Guilty but Mentally ill
Burden of Proof
Defining "Mental Disease or Defect"
Use of the Insanity Defense
Competence to Stand Trial
Sentencing and Mental Health
Mental Retardation
Sexual Predators
Mental Health and Civil Law
A Brief History of U.S. Mental Hospitals
Libertarianism Versus Paternalism in Treating Mental Patients
Civil Commitment
Grounds and Procedures
Predicting Dangerousness and Suicidal Risk
Commitment of Minors
The Rights of Mental Patients
The Right to Treatment
Treatment in the Least Restrictive Alternative Environment
The Right to Refuse Treatment
Almost a Revolution
Deinstitutionalization
The Case for Paternalism
Mental Health and Family Law
Children, Parents, and the State
Child Custody Disputes
Expert Witnesses in Custody Determinations
Divorce Mediation
Brief Case Study: A Custody Dispute
Child Abuse
Professional Responsibilities and the Law
Professional Negligence and Malpractice
Informed Consent on Alternative Treatments
Confidentiality
The Duty to Warn
Summary
Critical Thinking
Key Terms
The Battered Woman Syndrome as a Defense
Critical Thinking Matters: Violence and Mental Illness
Research Methods: Justice Blackman's Error
Getting Help

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Psychology, Pathological.
Mental illness.