Table of contents for Underwater forensic investigation / Ronald Becker.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Foreword	xi
Preface	xiii
Chapter 1
Introduction	1
Man and the Sea 1
Law Enforcement and Underwater Evidence 3
Review Questions 10
References 11
Chapter 2
A Brief History of Diving	12
Diving Dress 14
Caisson Disease 15 _ Nitrogen Narcosis 16 _ Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus 16
Underwater Investigation 18
An Explanation of Pressure and the Laws of Boyle, Charles, Dalton, and Henry 19
Important Dates in the History of Scuba Diving 22
Review Questions 24
References 24
Chapter 3
The Underwater Investigator	25
The Team 27
Prerequisites 28
Incident Command Structure 38
Incident Commander 39 _ Dive Team Coordinator 43 _ Public Information Officer (PIO) 44 _ Incident Safety Officer 45 _ Tool Pusher 45
Team Structure 46
Dive Team Coordinating Board 47 _ Team Members 47
Review Questions 57
References 58
Table of Cases 58
Chapter 4
The Law of Search and Seizure 59
The U.S. Constitution and Due Process 59
The Fourth Amendment 60 _ The Fifth Amendment 61 _ The Sixth Amendment 61
The Exclusionary Rule 62
History 62 _ Exceptions 63 _ Relevant Exceptions 63 _ The "Good Faith" Exception 63 _ Emergency Searches 65 _ Exigent Circumstances Exception 67
Warrantless Searches Based on Reasonableness 67
Consent Searches 67 _ Plain-View Searches 68 _ Open-Field Exception 69
Review Questions 71
Chapter 5
The Underwater Crime Scene 73
Search Briefing 76 _ Bottom Structure 77 _ Current 77 _ Surf, Waves, and Tide 77 _ Perimeter Marking 78
The Underwater Search 78
Boat Searches 79 _ Search Patterns 81 _ Random Search 82 _ Sweep Search 82 _ Parallel Searches 82 _ Circular Search 83 _ Snag Search 85 _ Relocating the Search Site 86 _ Profiling 87
Temporal and Geographical Location of Evidence 88
Photographic Log 89 _ Video Log 89 _ Photographing the Underwater Crime Scene 90 _ Video Recordings 91 _ Logging Photos 91 _ Establishing a Reference Point 92 _ Crime Scene Measurements 92 _ Orienting Evidence 94 _ Grid Searches 95 _ Photogrammetry 96 _ The Underwater Crime Scene Sketch 97 _ Handling Evidence 98 _ The Press 99
Review Questions 100
References 100
Chapter 6
Medicolegal Aspects of Underwater Death 102
Unattended Water Deaths 103
Body Recovery 103 _ Identification of Submerged Bodies 105 _ Identification through Personal Effects 105 _ Identification through Dental Comparisons 106 _ Identification through Shoe Wear 106
Postmortem Changes 106
Putrefaction 107 _ Algor Mortis 108 _ Rigor Mortis 108 _ Ocular Changes 109 _ Livor Mortis (Postmortem Lividity) 110 _ Common Errors in Interpreting Postmortem Changes 110 _ Postmortem Interval 111
Drowning 112
Exudate 113 _ Skin 114 _ Flotation 114
Anthropophagy (Marine Depredation) 114
Antemortem, Postmortem, and Perimortem Injuries 115
Defense Wounds 116 _ Travel Abrasions 117 _ Thermal Injuries 117
Death from Explosion 119
Mass Disaster 120
Review Questions 123
References 123
Suggested Readings 123
Chapter 7
Firearms Recovery and Investigation 125
Firearms Investigation 131
Fingerprints 131 _ Ballistics Testing 132 _ Barrel Blowback 132 _ Serial Numbers 134
Firearms Identification 135
National Integrated Ballistics Information Network 135 _ Types of Firearms 137 _ The Firing Mechanism 139
Ammunition 140
Types of Bullets 140 _ Propellants 142 _ Primers 143 _ Cartridge Cases 143 _ Shot Shells 143
Firearms and Forensics 144
The Early History of the Examination of Firearms 144 _ Examination of Weapons 145 _ Examination of Bullets 147 _ Examination of Cartridges 150 _ Examination Objectives 150 _ Legal Aspects 151
Review Questions 153
References 153
Table of Cases 154
Chapter 8
Vehicle and Small Aircraft Investigations 155
Aircraft Recovery Operations 155
Locating the Aircraft 156 _ Measuring the Debris Field 156 _ Handling Evidence 158 _ Aircraft Recovery 158 _ Large-Aircraft Recovery Operations 160
Vehicle recovery operations 162
Vehicle Recoveries 164 _ Recovery Checklist 169 _ Occupant Recovery 169 _ Auto Recovery 170
Review Questions 171
References 171
Chapter 9
Vessel Recoveries172
Nautical Terms and Measurements 173
Boat Accident Investigation 175
Propeller Injuries 179
Fire 182
Arson 182
Vessel Explosions 186
Light Filaments 188
Review Questions 190
References 190
Chapter 10
Equipping the Team191
Dive Equipment 196
Dry Suits 196 _ Dive Helmets 198 _ Harnesses 201 _ Buoyancy Control Devices 207 _ Alternative Air Supply 214 _ Face Masks 216 _ Regulators, Gauges, and Computers 217
Review Questions 221
References 222
Chapter 11
Using Recovered Evidence in the Courtroom 223
Preparing for Trial 226 _ Identification 227 _ Chain of Custody 228 _ Authentication 230 _ Photographs 230 _ Diagrams, Maps, Plats 231 _ Video Recordings 232 _ Physical Evidence 233 _ Multiple Predicates 234 _ The Underwater Investigator as an Expert Witness 234 _ Scientific Evidence 235
Defense Lawyers, Prosecutors, and Investigators 237
The Defense 237 _ Defensive Burden 237 _ Affirmative Defenses 238 _ Defense Strategies 238 _ Suppression Hearings 241 _ The Prosecution 241 _ Testimonial Devices to Avoid the Truth 244 _ Error-Free Investigations 245 _ Ethical Testimony 246
Review Questions 247
References 248
Chapter 12
A Look Back - A Look Forward 249
Index 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Underwater crime investigation.
Crime scene searches.
Police divers.
Evidence, Criminal.