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CONTENTS About the Editors Contributors Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1. Biology William L. Shelton Thomas J. Popma Introduction Taxonomic Relationships Biogeography Bionomics and Life History Environmental Biology Chapter 2. Prospect and Potential for Global Production Kevin Fitzsimmons Introduction Overview of Tilapia Produced for International Trade Regional Production and Markets Industry Predictions and Outlook Chapter 3. Control of Growth: Developments and Prospects Brian S. Shepherd Gregory M. Weber Mathilakath M. Vijayan Andre Seale Larry G. Riley M. Fernanda Rodriguez N. Harold Richman III Tetsuya Hirano E. Gordon Grau xiii Introduction Relevance of Neuroendocrine Research to Tilapia Aquaculture Hormonal Control of Growth in Tilapia Nonhormonal Control of Growth in Tilapia Novel Approaches to Growth Enhancement Conclusions Chapter 4. Recent Directions in Genetics C. Greg Lutz 147 Traditional Animal Breeding Approaches Artificial Spawning: Implications for Genetic Improvement 157 Chromosomal Manipulations Transgenic Tilapia Molecular Discrimination/Characterization and Gene Mapping Chapter 5. Fingerling Production Systems Bartholomew W. Green Introduction Production Methodologies Interspawning Interval Incubation Fry Rearing Hatchery-Phase Fish Health Management Fingerling Nursery Rearing Chapter 6. Hormone Manipulation of Sex Ronald P. Phelps Introduction Chemicals Used to Direct Gonadal Differentiation Mode of Hormone Action¿Or Why Sex Reversal Works Fish Species Evaluated Protocols for Sex Reversal of Tilapia with Hormone-Treated Feed Sex Reversal of Tilapia Through Immersion (Bath) Treatments Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy Factors Affecting Sex-Reversal 80 Anabolic Considerations Food Safety and Environmental Considerations Conclusions Chapter 7. Pond Production Bartholomew W. Green C. Bauer Duke III Introduction Species Selection Earthen versus Lined Ponds Production Strategies Chapter 8. Culture in Flowing Water Richard W. Soderberg Introduction Flow-Through Culture Systems Serial Reuse Systems Closed Systems Summary Chapter 9. Cage Culture H. R. Schmittou Introduction Principles of Cage Fish Culture: Fundamentals Fish Stock Quality and Quantity Water Environments and Water Quality Feeds and Feeding Health of Caged Tilapia Environmental Impact of Cage Fish Culture Chapter 10. Farming Tilapia in Saline Waters Wade O. Watanabe Kevin Fitzsimmons Yang Yi Introduction History of Saltwater Tilapia Culture Methods for Measuring Salinity Tolerance in Tilapia 251 Morphological and Physiological Measures of Salinity Tolerance/Hypoosmoregulatory Ability Reproductive Performance at Various Salinities Experimental Saltwater Culture of Florida Red Tilapia Growout From Fingerling to Marketable Size Comparison of Saline-Tolerant Species Under 388 Saltwater Culture Diseased Encountered During Culture in Saltwater Economics and Marketing Potential for Unwanted Introduction of Tilapia 430 to Marine Waters Genetic Issues in the Use of Red Hybrid Tilapia Cold Tolerance 446 Chapter 11. Management of Bottom Soil Condition 491 and Pond Water and Effluent Quality Claude E. Boyd 491 Introduction Bottom Soils Water Quality Effluents Chapter 12. Nutrient Requirements 513 Chhorn E. Lim Carl D. Webster 513 Introduction Proteins and Amino Acids Energy Lipids and Fatty Acids Carbohydrates Vitamins Minerals Conclusion Chapter 13. Nonnutrient Components of Fish Diets 551 Steven G. Hughes Chhorn E. Lim Carl D. Webster 551 Introduction Antioxidants Feeding Stimulants and Metabolic Modifiers Fiber and Pellet Binders Hormones Pigments Probiotics and Neutraceuticals Enzymes Water Toxins and Antinutritional Factors Chapter 14. Feed Formulation and Manufacture Menghe H. Li Chhorn E. Lim Carl D. Webster Introduction Feed Ingredients Feed Formulation Least-Cost Feed Formulation Feed Manufacturing Processes Quality Control Type of Feed Chapter 15. Feeding Practices Chhorn E. Lim Carl D. Webster Menghe H. Li Introduction Feeds Practices Chapter 16. Parasites and Diseases Craig A. Shoemaker De-Hai Xu Joyce J. Evans Phillip H. Klesius Introduction Protozoan Parasites Metazoan Parasites Parasitic Crustacea Viral Diseases Fungal Infections Bacterial Diseases Conclusions Chapter 17. Streptococcal Vaccinology in Aquaculture Phillip H. Klesius Joyce J. Evans Craig A. Shoemaker David J. Pasnik Introduction Development of Streptococcal Vaccines Piscine Immunity Factors Affecting Vaccine Efficacy Conclusions Chapter 18. Harvest, Handling, and Processing Kevin Fitzsimmons Introduction Postharvest Handling and Processing Processing for International Markets Processing in the United States Chapter 19. Marketing and Economics Carole R. Engle Introduction Tilapia Markets and Marketing Costs of Producing Tilapia Index 619
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