Table of contents for Environment and trade : a guide to WTO jurisprudence / Nathalie Bernasconi-0sterwalder ... [et al.].

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ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE:
A GUIDE TO WTO JURISPRUDENCE
Table of Contents
Foreword by Philippe Roch, Director, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL)
Acknowledgements
List of Contributors
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
List of Relevant GATT and WTO Disputes
List of Relevant WTO Agreements
Chapter I: Like Products
 [a]Background
		[b]Introduction
 [b]The Concept of Like Products 
			[b]The Relevance of Like Products for Environmental Policy Making
	[a]Discussion of Relevant WTO Provisions 
 [b]The GATT in general
 [b]Article III of the GATT 
 [b]Article I of the GATT 
 [b]Article 2.1 of the TBT Agreement
[b]Article 6.3 of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM Agreement)
 [a]Selected Literature
[a]Selected Jurisprudence Relating to ¿Like Products¿ under GATT Articles I and III
				The Australian Subsidy on Ammonium Sulphate, 1950
				Belgian Family Allowances, 1952
Spain ¿ Unroasted Coffee, 1981
Japan ¿ Alcoholic Beverages (1987), 1987 
U.S. ¿ Petroleum, 1987
Japan ¿ Lumber, 1989
EEC ¿ Oilseeds and Related Animal-Feed Proteins, 1990
U.S. ¿ Tuna/Dolphin I, 1991 
U.S. ¿ Malt Beverages, 1992
U.S. ¿ Taxes on Automobiles, 1994
Japan ¿ Alcoholic Beverages (1996), 1996
U.S. ¿ Reformulated Gasoline, 1996
Canada ¿ Periodicals, 1997
EC ¿ Bananas, 1997
Indonesia ¿ Automobile, 1998
Chile ¿ Alcoholic Beverages, 2000
Argentina ¿ Bovine Hides, 2001
EC ¿ Asbestos, 2001
Chapter II: General Exceptions Clauses 
 [a]Background 
 [a]Discussion of Relevant WTO Provisions	
 [b]Article XX of the GATT (in general)
 [b]Article XX(g) of the GATT
 	[b]Article XX(b) of the GATT 
 [b]Function of Article XX¿s Chapeau
		[b]Article XIV of the GATS
[a]Selected Literature
[a]Selected Jurisprudence under Articles XX(b) and (g) of the GATT and Article XIV of the GATS	
 U.S. ¿ Tuna and Tuna Products from Canada, 1982
Canada ¿ Unprocessed Herring and Salmon, 1988
Thailand ¿ Cigarettes, 1990
U.S. ¿ Tuna/Dolphin I, 1991 (NOT ADOPTED)
U.S. ¿ Tuna/Dolphin II, 1994 (NOT ADOPTED)
U.S. ¿ Reformulated Gasoline, 1996
U.S. ¿ Shrimp/Turtle I, 1998 
U.S. ¿ Shrimp/Turtle 21.5, 2001
U.S. ¿ Gambling, 2005
			
Chapter III: The Necessity Requirement 
[a]Background
[a]Discussion of Relevant WTO Provisions	
[b]Articles XX(a), (b), and (d) of the GATT
[b]Articles 2.2 and 5.6 of the SPS Agreement [including footnote 3]
[b]Article 2.2 of the TBT Agreement
[b]Comparing the Necessity Requirement under the GATT, SPS, and TBT Agreements 
[b] Articles VI and XIV of the GATS
	[a]Selected Issues Relating to the Necessity Requirement
[b]Legitimate Objectives 
[b]International Standards and the Presumption of Necessity
[a]Selected Literature
[a]Selected Jurisprudence under the GATT, the SPS and TBT Agreements, and the GATS
	[b]Articles XX(b) and (d) of the GATT 
			U.S. ¿ Section 337, 1989
Thailand ¿ Cigarettes, 1990
U.S. ¿ Tuna/Dolphin, 1991 (NOT ADOPTED)
U.S. ¿ Tuna/Dolphin II, 1994 (NOT ADOPTED)
Korea ¿ Beef, 2001
EC ¿ Asbestos, 2001
DR ¿ Cigarettes, 2005
	[b]SPS Agreement
			Australia ¿ Salmon, 1998 
 Japan ¿ Varietals, 1999
	[b]TBT Agreement
			EC ¿ Sardines, 2002 
	[b]Article XIV of the GATS
			U.S. ¿ Gambling, 2005
Chapter IV: Processes and Production Methods 
	[a]Background
[b]Introduction
[b]Why are PPM-based Measures So Controversial?
[b]Distinction Between Product-related and Non-product-related PPM-based Measures
[b]Distinction Between Country-based and Origin-neutral PPM-based Measures
[b]Distinctions Based on Characteristics of the Producer
		[b]Extraterritorial Characteristics of PPM-based Measures
[a]Eco-labeling
	[a]Discussion of Relevant WTO Provisions
[b]The GATT (Articles I, III, XI, and XX)
[b]Annex A of the SPS Agreement 
[b]Annex 1 and Article 2 of the TBT Agreement 
	[a]Selected Literature
[a]Selected Jurisprudence under Articles I, III, and XX of the GATT
	[b]Article I of the GATT
			Belgian Family Allowances, 1952 
 Canada ¿ Automotive Industry, 2000 
	[b]Article III (and XX) of the GATT
U.S ¿ Tuna/Dolphin I, 1991 (NOT ADOPTED) and U.S ¿ Tuna/Dolphin II, 1994 (NOT ADOPTED)
 U.S. ¿ Malt Beverages, 1992 
 U.S. ¿ Taxes on Automobiles, 1994 (NOT ADOPTED)
 U.S. ¿ Reformulated Gasoline, 1996
 Indonesia ¿ Automobile, 1998 
	[b] Article XX of the GATT
			U.S. ¿ Shrimp/Turtle I, 1998 and U.S. ¿ Shrimp/Turtle 21.5, 2001
Chapter V: Extraterritoriality 
	[a]Background 
[b]Introduction
[b]The Relationship between Extraterritoriality, Customary International Law, and the WTO
[b]The Link between Extraterritoriality and PPM-based Measures 
	[a]Discussion of Relevant WTO Provisions 
[b]Article XX of the GATT 
[b]Annex A of the SPS Agreement 
[b]The TBT Agreement 
	[a]Selected Literature 
	[a]Selected Jurisprudence under Articles XX(b) and (g) of the GATT 
			U.S. ¿ Tuna/Dolphin I, 1991 (NOT ADOPTED)
U.S. ¿ Tuna/Dolphin II, 1994 (NOT ADOPTED)
U.S. ¿ Shrimp/Turtle I, 1998 
Chapter VI: The Role of Science and the Precautionary Principle 
	[a]Background
	[a]Discussion of Relevant WTO Provisions 
[b]Introduction
[b]Article XX of the GATT
[b]Preamble of the TBT Agreement
[b]The SPS Agreement (Articles 2.2, 5.1, and 5.7)
[a]Selected Issues Relating to the Role of Science and the Precautionary Principle Necessity Requirement
		[b]International Standards 
[b]The Precautionary Principle in the Context of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)
	[a]Selected Literature
[a]Selected Jurisprudence Relating to Science and the Precautionary Principle 
			EC ¿ Hormones, 1998
 Australia ¿ Salmon, 1998
 Japan ¿ Varietals, 1999
 Japan ¿ Apples, 2003
 EC ¿ Asbestos, 2001
Chapter VII: The Relationship Between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
	[a]Background
		[b]Introduction
		[b]The CBD
		[b]The TRIPS Agreement
		[b]Conflict or Synergy?
	[a]Discussion of Relevant Provisions
		[b]Introduction
		[b]Patenting of Life Forms (Article 27.3 (b) of the TRIPS Agreement)
	[b]Access to and Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from the Utilization of Genetic Resources (Article 15 of the CBD)
	[b]Preservation of and Respect for the Knowledge, Innovations, and Practices of Indigenous and Local Communities (Article 8 (j) of the CBD)
	[b]Transfer of Technology (Article 16 of the CBD)
	[a]State of Play at the WTO and CBD
		[b]Developments at the WTO			
		[b]Developments at the CBD
	[a]Selected Literature
	[a]Selected Jurisprudence under the TRIPS Agreement 
			Canada ¿ Patent Protection, 2000
 U.S. ¿ Copyright, 2000
Chapter VIII: Participation in WTO Dispute Settlement ¿ The Case of Amicus Briefs
	[a]Background
[b]Public Participation in the Creation and Implementation of International Law
		[b]Public Participation in the WTO¿s Dispute Settlement Process 
	[a]Discussion of Relevant WTO Provisions
[b]Article 13 of the DSU: Legal Authority of Panels to Accept and Consider Amicus Briefs
[b]Article 17.9 of the DSU and Rule 16(1) of the Working Procedures: Authority of the Appellate Body to Accept and Consider Amicus Briefs
[a]Authority of Panels and the Appellate Body to Accept and Consider Legal and/or Factual Information
	[a]Application of the Discretionary Power 
		[b]The brief is attached to the party or third-party submission
		[b]Due process considerations
		[b]State-of-Play
	[a]Selected Literature
	[a]Selected Jurisprudence Relating to Amicus Briefs
EC ¿ Hormones, 1998
U.S. ¿ Shrimp/Turtle I, 1998
Japan ¿ Varietals, 1999
Australia ¿ Salmon 21.5, 2000
U.S. ¿ Lead and Bismuth Carbon Steel, 2000 
U.S. ¿ Copyright, 2000
EC ¿ Asbestos, 2001 
EC ¿ Cotton from India, 2001
Thailand Anti-dumping Duties, 2001
U.S. ¿ Shrimp/Turtle 21.5, 2001
EC ¿ Sardines, 2002
U.S. ¿ Softwood Lumber (Preliminary Determinations), 2002
U.S. ¿ Countervailing Measures on Certain EC Products, 2003
U.S. ¿ Softwood Lumber (Final Determinations), 2004 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Foreign trade regulation -- Environmental aspects -- Cases.
Foreign trade regulation -- Cases.
Non-tariff trade barriers -- Law and legislation -- Environmental aspects.
Non-tariff trade barriers -- Cases.
International trade -- Environmental aspects.
Environmental policy -- Economic aspects.