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Table of Contents Dedication 1 INTRODUCTION Why this book? Reconstruction ¿ The Ultimate Goal of Criminalistics Basic Skills and Approach to Casework Qualifications General Philosophy The Scientific Method Specific Considerations 2 THE RECONSTRUCTIVE ASPECTS of CLASS CHARACTERISTICS and a LIMITED UNIVERSE Bullet Design and Construction Hypothetical Case Examples Propellant Morphology The Worth of Weight Summary References and Further Reading 3 IS IT A BULLET HOLE? The Question of Bullet Holes in Common Materials Empirical Testing An Example of a Bullet Hole Issue ¿ Bullet Holes in Wood Bullet Holes in Some Typical Materials Bullet Holes in Garments made of Nylon and Polyester Summary References and Further Reading 4 SOME USEFUL REAGENTS and THEIR APPLICATION Dithiooxamide (DTO) Test for Copper Residues DTO Procedure 2-Nitroso-1-Naphthol (2-NN) Procedure Sodium Rhodizonate Test for Lead Residues Theory of the Test Sodium Rhodizonate Test Procedure Direct Application Method Lifting or Transfer Method Dimethylglyoxime Test for Nickel Residues DMG Test Procedure Summary and Concluding Comments References and Further Reading 5 GUNSHOT RESIDUES and PROXIMITY TESTS The Production of Gunshot Residues Target Materials Interpretation and Reporting of Results Revolvers The Modified Griess Test for Nitrites The Preparation of Reagents and Materials Gunshot and Primer Residues on the Hands Summary References and Further Reading 6 PROJECTILE PENETRATION and PERFORATION Overview Sheetrock/Wallboard Wood Sheet Metal Glass Rubber Summary References and Further Reading 7 PROJECTILE RICOCHET Introduction Definitions Some General Principles, Observations and Comments Factors Controlling or Affecting Projectile Ricochet Factors Controlling or Affecting Lateral Projectile Deflection during Ricochet Projectile Impacts to Hard, Unyielding Surfaces Projectile Impacts to Frangible Materials Projectile Impacts to Semi-Hard or Semi-Yielding Materials Projectile Impacts to Yielding Surfaces The Post-Impact Flight of Ricocheted and Deflected Bullets Gunshot Wounds from Ricocheted and Deflected Bullets Shotgun Discharges and Pellet Ricochet Approach to Casework Involving the Issue of Ricochet Summary and Concluding Remarks Regarding Ricochet Perforating Projectiles and Perforated Objects Concluding Comments Ricochet and Deflection References 8 THE PRINCIPLES of ¿TRAJECTORY¿ RECONSTRUCTION Bullet Paths in Fixed Objects The Location of the Bullet Hole and Angular Components of the Projectile¿s Path The Use of String Lines The Use of Probes and ¿Trajectory¿ Rods Procedures: Vertical Angle Determination Procedures: Azimuth Angle Determination Non-Perforating Bullet Paths The Use, Advantages and Limitations of Lasers Some Thoughts on the Reconstructed Angles Techniques, Tools and Supplies used in Trajectory Reconstruction Summary and Concluding Comments References and Further Reading 9 THE SHOOTING OF MOTOR VEHICLES Vehicles at a Scene Frames of Reference and ¿Squaring¿ the Vehicle Perforating Projectile Strikes to Vehicles Penetrating Projectile Strikes to Vehicles Ricochet Marks, Graze Marks and Non-Penetrating Strikes Summary References and Further Reading 10 TRAJECTORIES in HUMAN BODIES Introductory Comments Entry and Re-Entry Wounds Shored Gunshot Wounds Projectile Path Determinations for Gunshot Wounds Survivors of Gunshot Wounds Summary and Concluding Comments References and Further Reading 11 TRACE EVIDENCE CONSIDERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH FIREARMS EVIDENCE: EVIDENTIARY and RECONSTRUCTIVE ASPECTS Introduction Locard¿s Principle Revisited ¿ Some Examples of Trace Evidence Transfers and Deposits Common Examples of Trace Evidence on. Or Embedded in Recovered Bullets and Applicable Analytical Methods Examination Protocol and Common Analytical Tehcniques Sequence of Events ¿ Three Case Examples Summary and Concluding Comments References and Further Reading 12 CARTRIDGE CASE EJECTION and EJECTION PATTERNS Overview Scene Work ¿ Terrain/Substrate Considerations Relocated Cartridge Cases Firearm ¿ Ammunition Performance Review of Markings on Fired Cartridge Cases Laboratory Examination of Ejected Cartridge Cases General Protocol for Ejection Pattern Testing Cartridges Ejected from Moving Vehicles Manually Operated Firearms Summary and Concluding Comments References and Further Reading 13 TRUE BALLISTICS: LONG DISTANCE SHOOTINGS and FALLING BULLETS Introduction The Basics of Exterior Ballistics and Their Forensic Application Case Situations ¿ An Overview Maximum RangeTrajectories Lagtime Penetration and Deformation as an Expression of Range-of-Fire Bullets from the Sky Summary References and Further Reading 14 SHOTGUN SHOOTINGS and EVIDENCE Introduction Shotgun Design and Nomenclature Choke and Patterning Rifled Barrels Shot Charges and Dram Equivalents Wads and Shotcups Powder, GSR and Buffer Material The Exterior Ballistics of Shotgun Pellets Summary and Concluding Comments References and Further Reading 15 ULTIMATE OBJECTIVES, REPORTS and COURT PRESENTATION Explaining What We Do Legal Challenges and the Role of Shooting Incident Reconstruction in Litigation Reports and Report Writing Concluding Comments References and Further Reading APPENDIX Shooting Incident Evaluation and Reconstruction ¿ Documents List Materials Checklist for Shooting Scene Examination Vehicle Data, Measurements, etc. Vehicle Diagrams Logsheet for Projectile Strikes to Vehicles Officer Involved Shooting Incident Checklist Shooting Reconstruction Checklist Suggested Guidelines for Reconstruction and Reenactment of Shooting Incidents Coat Worksheet Long Sleeved Shirt Worksheet Under Shirt/T-Shirt Worksheet Pants Worksheet Some Useful Conversion Factors Shooting Incident Reconstruction General Foundational Questions for Court
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