Table of contents for Systems requirement analysis / Jeffrey O. Grady.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

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1.1.1	The Human Foundation	
1.1.2	What is a System?	
1.1.3	What is System Development?	
1.1.4	The Fundamental System Relation	
1.1.5	What is System Requirements Analysis?	
1.1.6	System Requirements Analysis Timing Considerations	
1.1.7	Development Approaches	
1.1.8	Degree of Precedence Alternatives	
1.1.9	Organizational Alternatives	
1.1.10	Data Environment Alternatives	
1.1.11	Some History and References	
1.1.12	Overview of the Book	How it Came to Be	The Remainder of This Part	The Other Parts of This Book	
1.1.13	How to Get the Most Out of the Book	
1.2.1	The Ultimate Process Step - The Enterprise Vision	
1.2.2	Product Line Effects	
1.2.3	Customer Base Effects	
1.2.4	Structured Process Analysis and Process Definition Expansion	
1.2.5	Documentation Media	
1.2.6	Lower Tier Development Functionality	Grand Systems Requirements, F41	Program Integration	Initial System Analysis	Publish Specifications, F4122	Traditional Structured Analysis, F4113	Computer Software Structured Analysis, F4114	Validate Requirements, F4121	
1.2.7	Grand Systems Synthesis, F42	Design Grand System, F421	Item Team Preliminary Design, F4211	Item Team Detailed Design, F4212	Material Operations, F422	Manufacture System, F423	
1.2.8	Grand Systems Verification, F44	
1.2.9	Grand Systems Sustainment, F48	Logistically Support System, F482 and F483	Deploy/Deliver Product System, F481	Modify Product System, F484	Dispose of System, F485	
1.2.10	Use Product System, F47	
1.2.11	Manage Program, F49	
1.2.12	Assure Product and Process Quality, F46	
1.3.1	The Situation	The Central Model	DoD Process Rationale	Other U.S. Government Life Cycle Models	Commercial Firm Future	The JOG System Engineering Prescription For Specifications	Template Preparation	Map Templates to Functional Departments	Map Templates to Structured Analysis Models	Provide For Configuration Management of the Model Base	Perform Structured Analysis on Programs	Allocate All Requirements to Product Architecture	Coordinate RAS-Complete with Template Structure	Capture Modeling Work Products in SDD
1.3.2	Alternative Sequence Models	
1.3.3	Concentrated Versus Distributed Customer Base	
1.3.4	Precedented Versus Unprecedented Systems	
1.3.5	The Three Gross Models	
1.3.6	The Lowest Common Denominator	
2.1.1	Primitive Requirements Statement	The Essence of a Requirement	Document Style and Format	Primitive Requirement Statement Conversion	Total Effect of Changes	Variations	Document Example	
2.1.2	Requirements Value Definition Methods	Why is Quantification Important?	Value Definition Methods	
2.1.3	Requirements Derivation	
2.1.4	Kinds of Requirements	Performance Requirements	Design Constraints	What is a Design Constraint	Design Constraints Analysis Timing	Major Design Constraint Categories	
2.1.5	Requirements In Time	
2.1.6	The Remaining Road	
2.2.1	Requirements Are Not Islands	
2.2.2	Vertical Traceability	Requirements Source Traceability	Requirements Rationale Traceability	Requirements Traceability and Allocation/Flowdown	Parent-Child Requirements Traceability	Why Traceability?	Traceability Mechanism	Traceability Across Interfaces	Multiple Traceability Paths	
2.2.3	Longitudinal Traceability
2.2.4	Requirements Traceability To Process	Single Sheet Traceability to Process	Specification Template Traceability 
2.2.5	Grand System Traceability	
2.2.6	Traceability Reporting	
2.2.7	Traceability Audits	
2.3.1	Requirement Value Determination	
2.3.2	Requirements Allocation 	
2.3.3	Margin Management	What Are Formal Margins?	Selection and Maintenance of Design Margin Parameters	Safety Margins	Inclusion of Margin Accounts in Requirements Data	Design Margin Account Transfers	
2.3.4	Budget Management	
2.4.1	The Four Strategies 	
2.4.2	Freestyle Strategy	
2.4.3	Cloning Strategy	Specification Standards	Like Item Approach	Parent Item, Flowdown, or Allocation Approach	Flowdown Scope Limitation	
2.4.4	Question and Answer Strategy	
2.3.5	Structured Analysis Strategy	
3.1.1	What's In a Name?	
3.1.2	In the Beginning	
3.1.3	The Meaning of the Term	
3.1.4	Unprecedented System Definition	Customer Interaction	Mission and Operations Analysis	MOE and Selection Criteria Development	Requirements Work	System Environmental Definition	Specialty Discipline Analyses	Concept and Program Design	Manage the Study	Program Funding Profile Requirements	
3.1.5	Trade Studies	Trade Study Mechanics	Post Selection Tasks	
3.1.6	Rigor Versus Creativity	
3.1.7	Precedented System Definition	
3.1.8	Concluding Reviews	
3.2.1	What is Structured Analysis	
3.2.2	Structured Development Goals	
3.2.3	Where Does It Appear in the Process	
3.2.4	Comparative Overview of Approaches	
3.2.5	Poly-Faceted View of Problem Spaces	
3.2.6	Entry Facet Differences	
3.2.7	An Entry Continuum 	
3.2.8	Model Documentation	
3.2.9	Completeness and Avoiding Model Madness	
3.2.10	Detailed Coverage of Models	
3.3.1	The Heritage of Structured Analysis	
3.3.2	Form Follows Function	
3.3.3	Functional Flow Analysis	Function Identification and Sequence	The Top Function	Life Cycle Master Flow Diagram	Flow Diagramming Details	Detailed Flow Diagrams	Functional N-Square Diagramming	Performance Requirements Analysis	Allocation Pacing	Independent Mode	Instant Allocation Mode	Progressive Allocation Mode	Layered Approach	
3.4.1	Preliminaries	Product Performance Requirements Analysis	Process Performance Requirements Analysis	
3.4.2	Requirements Development Strategies	
3.4.3	The General Plan	
3.4.4	Transition to Process Analysis	
3.4.5	Primitive Statement and Transform	
3.4.6	Value Identification	
3.4.7	Product Class Differences	Product Computer Software	Operational and Logistics Task Analysis	Product Facilities	Composite Product Objects	
3.4.8	Guidelines	
3.4.9	Verification Planning Analysis (VPA)	Overview	Development Evaluation Test Requirements Analysis	Item Qualification Verification Requirements Analysis	System Test and Evaluation Requirements Analysis	Item Acceptance Test Requirements Analysis	
3.4.10	Logistics Support Analysis	
3.4.11	Allocation of Functionality	Team Briefing	Review Past Allocations	Brainstorming and Analysis	Consolidation	New Architecture Identification	Engineering Review Meeting	Overall Coordination	Allocation Criteria Guidance	Additional Performance Requirements Analysis Examples	Performance Requirements Analysis Example 1	Performance Requirements Analysis Example 2	Performance Requirements Analysis Example 3	Performance Requirements Analysis Example 4	
3.4.12	Performance Requirements Analysis Preceding Function Allocation
3.4.13	RAS-Centered Requirements Analysis
3.4.14	Process Summary	
3.5.1	Introduction to Architecture	
3.5.2	Architecture Block Diagramming	
3.5.3	Diagramming Fundamentals	
3.5.4	Architecture Element Coding	
3.5.5	Sheet Cross-Referencing	
3.5.6	Alternative Organizational Structures	
3.5.7	Implementation Notes and Responsibility	
3.5.8	Architecture Crossing Conditions	
3.5.9	Reversing Traditional Structured Analysis	
3.6.1	Introduction to Interface Analysis	Interface Defined	The Interface Dilemma	The Solution	
3.6.2	Interface Identification	Intuitive Interface Identification	A Thoroughly Disciplined Method	
3.6.3	Identification Work Products	N-Square Diagramming Methods	Schematic Methods	Interface Dictionary
3.6.4	Interface Media and Requirements Definition	Electrical Power Example	Electrical Signal Example	Physical Attachment Example	Fluid Transmission Example	
3.6.5	Interface Documentation	Capture in the Requirements Analysis Sheet and Database System	Interface Definition Publication	
3.6.6	Interface Responsibility	Program Organization	Three Views of Interface	Interface Responsibility Model	The Special Need for External Interface Development	
3.7.1	Serial Versus Parallel Work Pattern	
3.7.2	The Generic Specialty Engineering Process	Requirements Identification Responsibility Aid 	Requirements Capture	Freestyle Approach	Cloning Approach	Question and Answer Approach	The Structured Strategy in Years Gone By	Structured Analysis in the 21st Century	Constraints Integration	Specialty Constraints Communication	Checklist Approach	Individual Person-To-Person	Organized Interaction Meetings	Decision Support	Specialty Design Assessment	Non-Compliance Identification	Non-Compliance Correction	
3.7.3	Engineering Specialty Activities Overview	Reliability Engineering	Task 1, Reliability Program Plan	Task 2, Subcontractor and Supplier Control	Task 3, Failure Reporting, Analysis, and Corrective Action System 	
	(FRACAS)	Task 4, Failure Review Board (FRB)	Task 5, Reliability Modeling	Task 6, Reliability Allocations	Task 7, Reliability Predictions	Task 8, Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)	Task 9, Reliability Critical Items & Critical Item Control Plan	Task 10, Reliability Development, Growth and Test (RDG&T) Plan	Task 11, Sneak Circuit Analysis	Reliability References 	Parts, Materials, and Process Engineering (PMP)	Maintainability Engineering	Task 1 Maintainability Analysis	Task 2, Document Maintainability Requirements and Criteria	Task 3, Maintainability Quantitative Analysis to Assure Requirements 	
	are Met	Task 4, Design Surveillance/Assessment	Task 5, Participate In Design Tradeoff Studies	Task 6, Participate In Design Reviews	Task 7, Subcontractor and Supplier Control	Task 8, Failure Reporting, Analysis, and Corrective Action	Task 9, Conduct Maintainability Demonstration	Maintainability References	Availability	Producibility Engineering	Design To Cost/Life Cycle Cost (DTC/LCC)	Human Factors Engineering	Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPC)	System Safety Engineering	Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Engineering	System Security Engineering	Mass Properties Engineering	Environmental Impact Engineering	
3.7.4	Science Projects and Natural Systems	The Ultimate System Diagram	Give Us the Sense to Know the Difference	Characterizing Reality	Specific Science Development Programs	
3.8.1	Overview	
3.8.2	Environmental Categories	Natural Environment (QN)	Self-Induced Environment (QI)	Non-Cooperative Environment (QX)	Hostile Environment (QH)	Cooperative Environment (QC)	
3.8.3 	Environmental Requirements Models	System Environmental Requirements Analysis	End Item Environmental Requirements	Component Environmental Requirements	
3.8.4	Time Analysis	Diagramming Fundamentals	Timeline Diagram Symbols	Variability	Selectivity	Tabular Timelines	Timeline Reporting	
3.8.5	Environmental Requirements Capture 
3.8.6	Environmental Impact
3.9.1	Variations Covered	
3.9.2	Functional Analysis Variations	Hierarchical Functional Analysis	Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagramming	Trigger Construct	Multiple Exit Function	Iteration	Loop	Kill Branch	Lateral Data or Commodity Flow	Behavioral Diagramming	IDEF-0	FRAT	
3.9.3	State and Event Analysis	State Transition Diagram Analysis	Finite State Machines	Petri Nets	Event Traces, Lists, and Trees
3.9.4	Mathematical Models	Mathematical Equations	Formal Methods	
3.9.5	Scenarios, Strings, and Events Analysis	Scenario Depictions	Icon Flow	Descriptive Text	Strings or Threads	Synthesis of Functional Threads	
3.9.6	Process Analysis	Process Fundamentals	Diagramming	Process-Resource Linkage	Process-Environment Linkage	Process Analysis Applications	Generic Enterprise and Program Planning	Generic Process Analysis	Program Specific Process	Continuing Cost and Schedule Requirements Analysis	Program Product-Oriented Processes	Specialty Engineering Integration and Concurrent Engineering	Program Material and Procurement Process Analysis	Program Manufacturing and Quality Process Analysis	Program Verification Process Analysis	Test Planning Analysis (TPA)	Development Test Requirements Analysis	Qualification Test Requirements Analysis	Operational Test Requirements Analysis	Acceptance Test Requirements Analysis	Deployment Planning Analysis (DPA)	System Sustainment Process Analysis	Logistics Support Analysis Overview	LSA Example	Product Operation Analysis	Modification Development	Disposal Analysis	
3.9.7	Quality Function Deployment	Introduction to Quality Function Deployment (QFD)	Physical Implementation	A Problem With QFD	Linking QFD With Structured Analysis	Derived Requirements Generator	
3.10.1	A System Defined	
3.10.2	Descriptors of Interest	
3.10.3	System Functionality	
3.10.4	Performance Requirements Derivation and Allocation	
3.10.5	Conventional RAS Limitations	
3.10.6	The Beginning of the Complete RAS	
3.10.7	System Architecture	
3.10.8	Allocation Pacing Alternatives	
3.10.9	System Relations	
3.10.10	The System Environment	
3.10.11	Environmental Relation Algorithm	System Environmental Relations	End Item Service Use Profile	Component Environmental Relations	
3.10.12	Specialty Engineering and RAS Complete	
3.10.13	Verification Extension	
3.10.14	Conclusions	
3.11.1	The Common Failure	
3.11.2	SDD Content and Format	Document Main Body	Appendix A, Functional Analysis	Appendix B, System Environment Analysis	Appendix C, System Architecture Analysis	Appendix D, System Interface Analysis	Appendix E, Specialty Engineering Definition Analysis	Appendix F, System Process Analysis	Appendix G, Requirements Analysis Sheet
3.11.3	Recommended Responsibility Pattern	
4.1.1	Computer Software Development Environment	
4.1.2	Software Development Models For Analysis	
4.1.3	Model Comparisons	
4.1.4	Design and Manufacturing Differences	
4.1.5	Software Deficit Disorder	
4.2.1	A Little History	
4.2.2	Flow Charts and Other Things	
4.2.3	Modern Structured Analysis	
4.2.4	Hatley-Pirbhai Real Time Extension	
4.2.5	Transform From Models to Software Entities and Their Requirements	
4.2.6	Are These Models Only Appropriate For Software?	
4.3.1	Data Augmentation of Modern Structured Analysis	Data Lines, Stores, and Dictionaries	Entity Relationship Diagrams	
4.3.2	Relational Database Development	Relational Database Development Using Table Normalization	Relational Database Development Using IDEF 1X	
4.3.3	Transition to Specification	
4.3.4	DoD Architecture Framework	
4.4.1	The Early Combined Analysis Techniques	Input-Process-Output (IPO) Analysis	SADT and IDEF-0	
4.4.2	Early Object Oriented Analysis	A Dynamic Beginning	Misplaced Beginnings	The Class and Object Model	The Dynamic Model	The Functional Model	
4.4.3	Function-Driven Early OOA	
4.4.4	Unified Modeling Language (UML)	Problem Space Entry and Continuation	Dynamic Model Elements	Use Case Diagram	Statechart Diagram	Activity Diagram	Collaboration Diagram	Sequence Diagram	Static Model Elements	Class and Object Diagrams	Component and Deployment Diagrams	Unprecedented Application	Precedented Application	
4.4.5	Moving to Specification	
4.5.1	Background	
4.5.2	Overview	
4.5.3	Framework Products	All Views	Overview and Summary Information (AV-1)	Integrated Dictionary (AV-2)	Operational Architecture Views	High Level Operational Concept Graphic (OV-1)	Operational Node Connectivity Description (OV-2)	Operational Information Exchange Matrix (OV-3)	Organizational Relationships Chart (OV-4)	Activity Model (OV-5)	Operational Activity Sequence and Timing Descriptions (OV-6)	Operational Rules Model (OV-6a)	Operational State Transition Description (OV-6b)	Operational Event/Trace Description (OV-6c)	Logical Data Model (OV-7)	Systems View	System Interface Description (SV-1)	Systems Communications Description (SV-2)	Systems-Systems Matrix (SV-3)	Systems Functionality Description (SV-4)	Operational Activity to System Function Traceability Matrix (SV-5)	Systems Data Exchange Matrix (SV-6)	Systems Performance Parameters Matrix (SV-7)	Systems Evolution Description (SV-8)	Systems Technology Forecast (SV-9)	System Activity Sequence and Timing Descriptions (SV-10)	Physical Schema (SV-11)	Technical Standards View	Technical Architecture Profile (TV-1)	Standards Technology Forecast (TV-2)	
4.5.4	Other Related Efforts	
4.5.5	Architecture Product Interrelationships	Operational View Relationships	Systems View Relationships	Operations to Systems View Traceabilities	
4.5.6	The Six-Step Architecture Description Process	Determine Intended Use of the Architecture	Determine Architecture Scope, Context, Environment, and Assumptions	Determine What Information the Architecture Description Needs to 	
	Capture	Determine Views and Products to be Built	Build the Requisite Products	Use the Architecture For Intended Purpose	
4.6.1	Functional Flow or Die!	
4.6.2	Structured Analysis Boundaries	
4.6.3	Multiple Paths	Decomposition Methodology Flexibility	Functional Traceability	
4.6.4	Expanding Zig Zag	
4.6.5	Evolution of the Ultimate Method	
4.6.6	Model Driven Development	
5.1.1	Overview	What is a Specification?	Specification Format Control	Document Controls	The Case For Uniformity	
5.1.2	DoD Specifications Under MIL-STD-490A	MIL-STD-490A Specification Types	Type A System/Segment Specification	Type B Development Specifications	Type B1 Prime Item Development Specification	Type B2 Critical Item Development Specification	Type B3 Non-Complex Item Development Specification	Type B4 Facility or Ship Development Specification	Type B5 Software Development Specification	Type C Product Specifications	Type C1 Prime Item Product Specifications	Type C1a Prime Item Product Function Specification	Type C1b Prime Item Product Fabrication Specification	Type C2 Critical Item Product Specifications	Type C2a Critical Item Product Function Specification	Type C2b Critical Item Product Fabrication Specification	Type C3 Non-complex Item Product Fabrication Specification	Type C4 Inventory Item Specification	Type C5 Software Product Specification	Type D Process Specifications	Type E Material Specifications	DoD Specification Forms Under MIL-S-83490	Coordinated MIL-STD-490A References	MIL-STD-490A Specification Baselines	Functional Configuration Identification	Allocated Configuration Identification	Product Configuration Identification	
5.1.3	MIL-STD-961D Specification Standard	Specification Types	Structure and Content	
5.1.4	MIL-STD-961E
5.1.5	Other Requirements Document Types	
5.1.6	Coverage of Specifications	General Specification	Detail Specification	
5.1.7	One and Two Part Specifications	
5.1.8	A Strange Specification Format	
5.2.1	Style, Format, and Identification of Specifications	Sectional Arrangement of Specifications	Language Style	Primitive Requirement Statement	Capitalization and Spelling	Abbreviations	Symbols	Proprietary Names	Commonly Used Words and Phrasing	Use of "Shall," "Will," "Should," and "May"	Use of "Flammable" and "Nonflammable"	
5.2.2	Paragraphing Numbering and Identification	Paragraph Identification	Underlining	Cross References	Figures, Tables, and Foldouts	Location of Figures in Specification	Preparation of Figures	Location of Tables in Specifications	Preparation of Tables	Foldouts	
5.2.3	Footnotes	Footnotes to Text	Footnotes to Tables and Figures	
5.2.4	Contractual and Administrative Requirements	Definitions in Specifications	References to Other Documents	Limitation on References	Security Marking of Specifications	Identification of Specifications	Titling the Specification	
5.3.1	MIL-STD-490A Content Standard	Section 1 - Scope	Scope	Classification	Section 2 - Applicable Documents	Kinds of Documents	Government Documents	Non-Government Documents	Listing of References	Government Documents	Non-Government Documents	Section 3 - Requirements	Definition (Paragraph 3.1)	Characteristics (Paragraph 3.2)	Performance Characteristics	Physical Characteristics	Reliability	Maintainability	Environmental Conditions	Environmental Conditions Transportability	Design and Construction (Paragraph 3.3)	Materials	Materials Toxic Products and Formulations	Electromagnetic Radiation	Nameplates or Product Markings	Workmanship	Interchangeability	Safety	Human Engineering	Documentation (Paragraph 3.4)	Logistics (Paragraph 3.5)	Personnel and Training (Paragraph 3.6)	Characteristics of Subordinate Elements (Paragraph 3.7)	Precedence (Paragraph 3.8)	Qualification (Paragraph 3.9)	Section 4 - Quality Assurance Provisions	General	Responsibility for Inspection	Special Tests and Examinations	Quality Conformance Inspections	Section 5 - Preparation For Delivery	General	Detailed Preparation	Preservation and Packaging	Packing	Marking for Shipment	Section 6 - Notes	Intended Use	Ordering Data	Instructions for Models and Samples	Qualification Provisions	Cross-Reference of Classifications	Miscellaneous Notes	Appendix and Index	Appendix Numbering	Scope	Headings	References	Index	
5.3.2	MIL-STD-961D Content Standard	
5.3.3	MIL-STD-961E Content Standard Delta	
5.3.4	Software Specification Standards	Military Standards	Software System Specification	Software Requirements Specification (SRS)	Software Product Specification (SPS)	Interface Requirements Specification (IRS)	Commercial Standards	
5.3.5	A Standard For the Ultimate Simplicity	
5.3.6	An Updated Content Standard	
5.4.1	Introduction to Applicable Documents	Applicable Documents Defined	Bi-directional Tailoring	Document Tailoring	Applicable Document Levels	DoD Policy Changes	Definitions	
5.4.2	Initiation of the Program Applicable Documents List	An Enterprise Applicable Documents List (EADL)	Applicable Document Assessment Sources	
5.4.3	Detailed Process Description	Create & Maintain Program Applicable Document List, F3131	Coordinate Tailoring Capture, F3132	Maintain EADL	Compare Requirements, F3134	Study Conversion Difficulty, F3135	Assemble Specifications Baseline Report, F3136	Coordinate Supplier Compliance, F3137	Accept New Requirement, F3138	Tailor Company Standards, F3139	Reject or Offer Alternative Document, F313A	Assess Customer Needs and Attitudes, F313B	Tailor Applicable Document, F313C	Study Impact of Compliance, F313D	Mark Up SOW and Top Level Specification, F313E	Change Company Practice For Program Use, F313F	Assemble and Review Assessment Recommendations, F313G	Review Assessment Report, F313H	Negotiate With Customer, F313I	
5.4.4	Team Tailoring	
5.4.5	System Engineering Standards Relating to Requirements Analysis	
5.5.1	The Part Situation	
5.5.2	Specification Timing	
5.5.3	Military Standards	
5.5.4	Part II Specification Content Development	Outline Suggestion	Content Development Techniques	
6.1.1	Introduction	Overview	Total Quality Management	Buzz Words Forever	
6.1.2	Program Preparation	Resource Overview	Specification Templates	Analytical Models	Model/Template Maps	Planned Writing Responsibilities	Preparation For Structured Analysis Work Product Capture	Applicable Document Action	Teaming Planning	Program Specification Library	Library Initiation	PSL Variations	Security	Availability	PSL Finances	Specification Standards Loading	Requirements Database Interface	Data Ownership	
6.1.3	Program Implementation	Program Specifications Plan	Program-Unique Document Identification	Responsibility Assignment	Specification Scheduling and Statusing	Specification Baseline Identification	Baseline Definition Documentation	The Physical Baseline	Electronic Specification Library	Specification Change Management	Program Specification Standards Preparation	Responsibility and Content	Standards Availability	Multiple Standards Levels	Specification Tree Development	Principal Engineer Selection, Assignment, and Training	Program Specification Development Methods	Modularization of the Schedule	Regulating The Plunge	Selective Requirements Development	Requirements Risk Management	Process Controls	IPPT Meeting Structure	Requirements Traceability Audit	Status Tracking	Integration and Optimization Activity	Tailoring the Development Intensity	Development Data Package Concept	
6.1.4	Program Closeout	
6.2.1	Validation and Risk	
6.2.2	The Validation Time Span	
6.2.3	Avoiding a Null Solution Space	
6.2.4	Validation Process Overview	Overview	Initial Screening of the Requirements For Validation	Validation Intensity Selectivity	Formal Requirements Validation Management	Validation Through Risk Management	Technical Performance Measurement	Requirements Maturation Control	
6.2.5	Validation Responsibility and Leadership	
6.2.6	Validation Expectations	Requirements Necessity and Completeness	Requirements Value Credibility	Synthesizability	
6.2.7	Validation Methods	Development Evaluation Testing (DET)	Analysis	Technology Demonstration	Examination	Combined Methods	Validation By Review	
6.2.8	Product Representations	The Many Views of the Product	Representation Identification	Representation Management	Representations Documentation	Closing the Loop on Representations	
6.2.9	Whole Program Phases	
6.3.1	Requirements Value Determination	
6.3.2	TBD/TBR Management	
6.3.3	Margin Management	Cost Margins	Schedule Margins	Characteristics Margins	Margin Consumption	
6.3.4	Budgets	
6.4.1	Who's in Charge?	
6.4.2	Item Process View	
6.4.3	Aggregate Requirements Integration	Requirements Set Attributes	Consistency	Completeness	Minimized	Uniqueness	Balance	Individual Requirements Attributes	Traceability	Correctness of Style	Singleness of Purpose	Quantification	Verifiability	Unambiguity	Good Judgment and Good Sense	Margin Check	TPM Status Check	Specification Format Check	
6.4.4	Engineering Specialty Integration Overview	
6.4.5	Interface Requirements Analysis Integration	
6.4.6	Environmental Requirements Analysis Integration	
6.4.7	Process Requirements Integration	
6.5.1	Internal Interface Control	
6.5.2	Subcontractor Interface Control	
6.5.3	Associate Contractors	Formal Contractual Coverage	Principal Integrating Contractor, SE&I Contractor, and IV&V	Interface Control Working Group (ICWG)	Interface Control Document Control	
6.5.4	Interface Integration Responsibility	
6.5.5	Interface Audit	
6.5.6	Some Non-standard Interface Concepts	
6.6.1	The Three-Step Process		
6.6.2	The V Words		
6.6.3	Verification Classes		
6.6.4	Verification Methods	Test	Analysis	Demonstration	Examination.	Other Methods	Similarity	Simulation		
6.6.5	Qualification Verification	Verification Requirements	Verification Plans and Procedures	Verification Implementation, Reports, and Audits	
6.6.6	Acceptance Verification	
6.6.7	System Test and Evaluation Verification	
6.6.8	Management Matrices		
5.5.1	Specification Development Controls	The Specification Tree	Responsibility Assignment	Process Controls	
5.5.2	Specification Publishing	Formal Review Process	Peer Review
5.5.3	Specification Archiving, Distribution, and Access	Paper Methods	Networked Library	Web Page Library	
5.5.4	Specification Change Management	Changes	Specification Change Notice	Proposed SCN	Approved SCN	Changed Pages	Change Numbering	Identification and Numbering of Changed Pages	Revisions	
5.5.5	The Special Case of Interface Requirements Documentation	A Profusion of Document Names	Conditions of Use	Living and Dying Documents	Interface Definition and Document Organization	Interface Terminals and Media	System Environmental Interfaces	Transforming Lines Into Requirements	Document Organization	Hardware ICD	Software Interface Requirements Specification	Mixed ICD	
5.5.6	Electronic Style Guide	Documents of the Past	Database Generated Specifications	The End of the Paper Specification
7.1.1	Why Have We Waited So Long?	
7.1.2	Evolution of Methods	
7.1.3	Computer Tool Environment	
7.1.4	Requirements and Specifications Electronic Environment	
7.1.5	Networking and Workgroup Computing 	
7.1.6	A Basic Requirements Database	
7.1.7	Traceability Hooks	
7.1.8	Verification Tracking Tool	
7.1.9	Requirements Management Data Fields	
7.1.10	External Model Hooks	
7.1.11	Traceability to Process	
7.1.12	Data Integrity	
7.2.1	A Little history	
7.2.2	Buy or Build	
7.2.3	Available Tools and Their Features	CORE	DOORS	RDD-100	SLATE	Other Requirements Tools	Software Modeling Tools	
7.2.4	Features Not Generally Supported	Design Constraints Identification	Tool Linkage	Primitive Capture and Numerical Content	
7.2.5	Implementation Suggestions	Overcoming Use Difficulties	Networking	
8.1.1	What is the Essence of Our Story?	Teamwork and Concurrency	Development Directionality	Multiple Requirements Analysis Strategies	Demand-Driven Requirements Analysis	Progressive Requirements Writing	The Computers Are Coming!	
8.1.2	Overcoming Impediments to SRA Success	
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1.1-1	The Ultimate System Abstraction	
1.1-2	The Fundamental System Relation	
1.1-3	System Development Strokes	
1.1-4	Typical Matrix Organization	
1.2-1	Vision and Need Statement Relationships	
1.2-2	Multi-Phased Program Structures	
1.2-3	Program Phasing and Generic Process Relationships	
1.2-4	Product and Process System Life Cycle	
1.2-5	Aggregate View of Product, Process, and Program	
1.2-6	Grand Systems Requirements	
1.2-7	Structured Selection of the Preferred Concept	
1.2-8	Precedented Development Work
1.2-9	Traditional Structured Analysis	
1.2-10	Preliminary Design	
1.2-11	System Integration and Optimization During Preliminary Design	
1.2-12	Detailed Design	
1.3-1	DoD Acquisition Life Cycle Model	
1.3-2	NASA Acquisition Life Cycle Model	
1.3-3	FAA Acquisition Life Cycle Model	
1.3-4	A Successful Prescription
1.3-5	Development Models	
2.1-1	Primitive Requirements Statement Structure	
2.1-2	Concept Requirements List Example	
2.1-3	Parametric Analysis Example	
2.2-1	Three-Dimensional Traceability	
2.2-2	Requirements Traceability	
2.2-3	Single Tier Traceability Matrix	
2.2-4	Multiple Document Traceability Matrix	
2.2-5	Program-Wide Requirements Traceability	
2.2-6	Manual Requirements Analysis Sheet	
2.2-7	Lateral Traceability Using RAS Complete	
2.3-1	Requirements Design Margin Accounts	
2.4-1	Freestyle Is For Experts	
2.4-2	Three Cloning Methodologies	
3.1-1	System Definition Alternatives	
3.1-2	Unprecedented System Definition	
3.1-3	Requirements Fusion and Partition	
3.1-4	System Context Diagram	
3.1-5	General Preferred Concept Selection	
3.1-6	Typical Trade Matrix	
3.1-7	Utility Curve Examples	
3.1-8	Precedented System Definition	
3.2-1	System Life Cycle Model	
3.2-2	Grand System Requirements Analysis Process Function	
3.2-3	Three-Faceted Problem Space		
3.2-4	Traditional Entry Facet and Sequence	
3.2-5	The Problem Space Entry Perspective Continuum	
3.2-6	SDD Coordination With Program Processes and Specification 	
3.3-1	Traditional Structured Analysis	
3.3-2	Development Planes	
3.3-3	Functional Analysis	
3.3-4	Life Cycle Master Flow Diagram	
3.3-5	Functional Flow Diagram Style Sheet, Blocks	
3.3-6	Functional Flow Diagram Style Sheet, Combinatorial Symbols	
3.3-7	Alternative OR Symbol Usage Example	
3.3-8	Functional Flow Diagram Levels	
3.3-9	Functional N-Square Diagram	
3.4-1	Integration of User, Acquisition Agent, and Contractor Requirements 	
3.4-2	Generic Master Function Flow Diagram 	
3.4-3	Diagramming Comparison	
3.4-4	VPA & MRA Process Flow	
3.4-5	Maintenance Analysis Using Process Diagramming	
3.4-6	Functional and Performance Requirements Analysis	
3.4-7	Team Oriented Function Allocation
3.4-8	Typical Requirements Analysis Sheet	
3.4-9	RAS For Example 1	
3.4-10	RAS For Example 2	
3.4-11	RAS For Example 3	
3.4-12	RAS For Example 4	
3.4-12	Functional Analysis Summary	
3.4-13	Functional Analysis Summary	
3.5-1	Architecture Synthesis Process	
3.5-2	Typical Architecture Block Diagram	
3.5-3	System Hierarchy Level Names	
3.5-4	Centaur Upper Stage Architecture	
3.5-5	Warship Packaging Architecture	
3.5.6	Existing Architecture Example	
3.6-1	Typical N-Square Diagram	
3.6-2	Extended RAS	
3.6-3	Compound N-Square Diagram Example	
3.6-4	Schematic Block Diagram Symbols	
3.6-5	Universal Ultimate Schematic Block Diagram	
3.6-6	Typical System Schematic Block Diagram	
3.6-7	Primitive Schematic Block Diagram	
3.6-8	Finished Schematic Block Diagram	
3.6-9	Triangular Matrix Schematic Block Diagram Example	
3.6-10	Crossface Schematic Block Diagram Expansion	
3.6-11	Typical Interface Dictionary Listing	
3.6-12	Requirements Analysis Sheet Capture of Interface Requirements
3.6-13	Interface Responsibility Model	
3.6-14	Interface Partitions	
3.6-15	Subsystem Principal Engineer Views	
3.6-16	Cross-Organizational Interface Through a SBD	
3.7-1	Specialty Engineering Scoping Matrix	
3.7-2	Design Constraints Identification Form	
3.7-3	Typical Reliability Model	
3.7-4	Operator Sequence Diagram	
3.7-5	Safety Hazard Diagram 	
3.7-6	The System and its Environment	
3.7-7	The Ultimate System 	
3.8-1	System Environmental Categories	
3.8-2	System Environmental Requirements Analysis	
3.8-3	Service Use Profile Analysis	
3.8-4	Sample Zoning Diagram 	
3.8-5	Timeline Diagram Symbols and Conventions	
3.8-6	Typical Timeline Diagram	
3.8-7	Time Analysis Sheet Example	
3.8-8	RAS Containing Environmental Requirements	
3.9-1	Functional Hierarchy Diagram 	
3.9-2	Trigger Construct	
3.9-3	Multiple Exit Construct	
3.9-4	Iteration Construct	
3.9-5	Loop Construct	
3.9-6	Kill Branch Construct	
3.9-7	Commodity Flow in Enhanced Functional Flow	
3.9-8	Behavioral Diagramming	
3.9-9	Typical IDEF Diagram
3.9-10	FRAT Sequencing	
3.9-11	State Diagram	
3.9-12	Superconductor Super Collider State Transition Diagram	
3.9-13	Petri Nets	
3.9-14	Example of a Mathematically Specified Problem	
3.9-15	Scenario Formed By Icons 	
3.9-16	System Function Depiction	
3.9-17	Typical Process Flow	
3.9-18	Process-Architecture Matrix	
3.9-19	A Multiplicity of Processes	
3.9-20	TPA & MRA Process Flow	
3.9-21	Logistics Support Analysis Process Flow	
3.9-22	Typical System Process Diagram	
3.9-23	Postflight Maintenance Process Flow	
3.9-24	Logistic Support Analysis Example	
3.9-25	Operational Sequence Diagram	
3.9-26	System Modification Process 	
3.9-27	The QFD House of Quality 	
3.9-28	QFD Augmented Structured Analysis 	
3.10-1	Ultimate System Diagram	
3.10-2	The System Relationship	
3.10-3	Function Sequence	
3.10-4	Function Decomposition	
3.10-5	System Life Cycle	
3.10-6	Traditional Requirements Analysis Sheet	
3.10-7	Function-Architecture Matrix	
3.10-8	System Architecture	
3.10-9	Traditional Isolated N-Square Diagram	
3.10-10	Juxtaposition of RAS and N-square Diagrams	
3.10-11	System Environment	
3.10-12	System Context Diagram	
3.10-13	Environmental Requirements RAS Addition	
3.10-14	RAS-Complete In Graphical Form	
3.10-15	RAS-Complete In Tabular Form	
3.10-16	Verification Extension	
3.11-1	SDD Structure	
3.11-2	Specification Management Matrix	
4.2-1	Flow Chart Example	
4.2-2	Higher Tier Flow Chart	
4.2-3	Context Diagram	
4.2-4	Data Flow Diagram	
4.2-5	Data Dictionary	
4.2-6	Processing Specification (P-spec)	
4.2-7	MIL-STD-498 SRS Format	
4.2-8	DFD for Discussion	
4.3-1	Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD	
4.3-2	IDEF 1X Diagram	
4.4-1	IPO Diagram	
4.4-2	SADT Diagramming	
4.4-3	Class and Object Artifact According to Rumbaugh	
4.4-4	Class and Object Relationships	
4.4-5	State Diagram Notation	
4.4-6	Functional Model Notation Example	
4.4-7	Hierarchical Static Structure Relationships	
4.4-8	Use Case Diagram	
4.4-9	Statechart Diagram	
4.4-10	Activity Diagram	
4.4-11	Collaboration Diagram	
4.4-12	Sequence Diagram	
4.4-13	Component and Deployment Diagrams	
4.5-1	Framework Product Partitioning	
4.5-2	High Level operational Concept Graphic Example	
4.5-3	Operational Node Connectivity Description	
4.6-4	Operational Information Exchange Matrix	
4.5-5	Organizational Relationships Chart	
4.5-6	Activity Model Example	
4.5-7	Operational State Transition Description Example	
4.5-8	Operational Event/Trace Description Example	
4.5-9	Logical Data Model Example	
4.5-10	System Interface Description Diagram Example	
4.5-11	System Communications Description	
4.5-12	System-Systems Matrix	
4.5-13	System Functionality Description	
4.5-14	Operational Activity to Function Matrix	
4.5-15	Systems Evolution Description	
4.5-16	Operational View Relationships	
4.5-17	Systems Views Relationships	
4.5-18	Operations to Systems View Tracability	
4.6-1	Federated Database Structures	
4.6-2	Closure Toward Common Method 	
5-2-1	Method of Identifying Two-Part Specifications	
5.3-1	Updated Specification Paragraphing Coordination	
5.3-2	Sample Updated Specification	
5.4-1	Typical Summary Status Briefing Viewgraph	
5.4-2	Applicable Document Assessment Work Flow	
5.4-3	ANSI/EIA 632 Requirements Work Sequence	
5.5-1	Specification Development Timing 	
5.5-2	Part II Outline	
6.1-1	Prepare Program For Structured Analysis	
6.1-2	Coordinated Specification Responsibility and Models	
6.1-3	Cost-Sharing Formula	
6.1-4	Typical Specification Tree	
6.1-5	Specification Development Environment	
6.1-6	Development Schedule Modularization	
6.1-7	The Advancing Wave	
6.1-8	Sample IPPT Meeting Cycle	
6.1-9	DDP Responsibility Matrix	
6.2-1	Requirements Validation Is Imbedded in the Risk Program	
6.2-2	Risk Level Assignment and Display	
6.2-3	Item Requirements Validation Process	
6.2-4	Correlation of Validation With the Metrics and Program Risk	
6.2-5	Evaluate Requirements Activity	
6.2-6	Requirements Validation Intensity Hierarchy	
6.2-7	Requirements Validation Tracking Matrix	
6.2-8	TPM Parameter Documentation	
6.2-9	TBD/TBR Closure Matrix	
6.2-10	Database Structure Subset Supporting TBD/TBR	
6.2-11	Parametric Analysis of Cost and Reliability	
6.2-12	Validation Traceability	
6.2-13	Synthesizability Validation Traceability Record Example	
6.2-14	Typical Architecture Block Diagram	
6.4-1	Single Item View of the Process	
6.4-2	Specialty Engineering Integration Process	
6.6-1	Typical Architecture Block Diagram	
6.5-1	Federated Interface Control Working Team Structure	
6.5-2	Interface Integration Categories	
6.6-1	The RAS Complete View of Verification	
6,6-2	Verification Matrices	
6.7-1	Typical Graphical Specification Tree	
6.7-2	Specification Development Process
6.7-3	Specification Publishing
6.7-4	Specification Review and Approval	
6.7-5	Specification Change Notice	
6.7-6	Interface Definition
6.7-7	ICD Figure and Text Coordination	
6.7-8	Two Layer Media-Partioned Interface Definition
6.7-9	Hardware ICD Outline
6.7-10	Software ICD Outline	
7.1-1	Evolution of System Development	
7.1-2	Computer Tool Environment	
7.1-3	Verification Tracking Links	
7.1-4	Integrated Specialty Engineering Tools	
8.1-1	Putting Humpty Dumpty Back Together Again	
------------------	--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------	---------
2.2-1	Specification Traceability To Responsibility and Method	
2.2-2	Sample Requirements in a Comprehensive RAS	
3.2-1	Four Three-Faceted Modeling Approaches	
3.2-2	Model Coverage References	
3.3-1	Typical Serial Time Allocation Example	
3.4-1	Principal Organization Responsibility Map	
3.4-2	Intermediate Allocation Classes	
3.6-1	Lowest Common Team Identification	
3.7-1	RAS Specialty Engineering Entries Example	
3.7-2	System Reliability Data Table	
3.7-3	Reliability References	
3.7-4	Maintainability Parameters	
3.7-5	Corrective Maintenance Requirements List	
3.7-6	Maintainability References	
3.8-1	Natural Environmental Parameter References	
3.8-2	Sample Environmental Subset Definition Table	
3.8-3	Process Environment Matrix (PEM)	
3.8-4	Process Architecture Matrix (PAM)	
3.8-5	Architecture Environment Matrix (AEM)
3.8-6	Typical Serial Time Allocation Example
3.9-1	State Dictionary	
3.9-2	State Transition Dictionary	
3.9-3	Process Cycle		
4.2-1	Principal Organization Responsibility Map	
4.4-1	Natural Environmental Parameter References	
4.4-2	Sample Environmental Subset Definition Table	
4.4-3	Process Environment Matrix (PEM)	
4.4-4	Process Architecture Matrix (PAM)	
4.4-5	Architecture Environment Matrix (AEM)	
4.5-1	System Reliability Data Table	
4.5-2	Reliability References	
4.5-3	Maintainability Parameters	
4.5-4	Corrective Maintenance Requirements List	
4.5-5	Maintainability References	
4.6-1	Universal Model Coupling	
5.1-1	Specification Types	
5.1-2	Specification References	
5.2-1	Specification Section Titles	
5.4-1	Definitions	
5.4-2	Compliance Classes	
5.4-3	Principal Organizational Responsibilities	
6.1-1	Principal Engineer Levels	
6.1-2	Development Control Table	
6.1-3	DDP Data Destinations	
6.2-1	TPM Parameter Status Designations	
6.2-2	Sample Representations Identification Matrix	
6.3-1	Margin Accounts
6.5-1	Lowest Common Team Identification
6.7-1	Typical Tabular Specification Tree	
6.7-2	Program Team Responsibilities	
7.1-1	Sample Database Structure and Data	
7.1-2	Sample Traceability Data	
7.1-3	Management Data Fields	

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Systems engineering.
System analysis.