Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

**Note:** Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

table of contents CONTENTS Preface xxiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Reinforced concrete structures 1 1.2 Structural elements and frames 1 1.3 Structural design 2 1.4 Design standards 2 1.5 Calculations, design aids and computing 3 1.6 Detailing 4 2 Materials, structural failures and durability 9 2.1 Reinforced concrete structures 9 2.2 Concrete materials 9 2.2.1 Cement 9 2.2.2 Aggregates 10 2.2.3 Concrete mix design 11 2.2.4 Admixtures 12 2.3 Concrete properties 12 2.3.1 Compressive strength 12 2.3.2 Tensile strength 13 2.3.3 Modulus of elasticity 13 2.3.4 Creep 13 2.3.5 Shrinkage 15 2.4 Tests on wet concrete 15 2.4.1 Workability 15 2.4.2 Measurement of workability 15 2.5 Tests on hardened concrete 16 2.5.1 Normal tests 16 2.5.2 Non-destructive tests 16 2.5.3 Chemical tests 17 2.6 Reinforcement 17 2.7 Failures in concrete structures 18 2.7.1 Factors affecting failure 18 2.7.2 Incorrect selection of materials 18 2.7.3 Errors in design calculations and detailing 19 2.7.4 Poor construction methods 19 2.7.5 Chemical attack 20 2.7.6 External physical and/or mechanical factors 22 2.8 Durability of concrete structures 25 2.8.1 Code references to durability 25 2.9 Concrete cover 25 2.9.1 Nominal cover against corrosion 25 2.9.2 Cover as fire protection 26 2.10 References 27 3 Limit State Design and Structural Analysis 29 3.1 Structural design and limit states 29 3.1.1 Aims and methods of design 29 3.1.2 Criteria for a safe design - limit states 29 3.1.3 Ultimate limit state 30 3.1.4 Serviceability limit states 31 3.2 Characteristic and design loads 31 3.3 Materials- properties and design strengths 33 3.4 Structural analysis 35 3.4.1 General provisions 35 3.4.2 Methods of frame analysis 35 3.4.3 Monolithic braced frame 36 3.4.4 Rigid frames providing lateral stability 38 3.4.5 Redistribution of moments 39 4 Section design for moment 41 4.1 Types of beam section 41 4.2 Reinforcement and bar spacing 41 4.2.1 Reinforcement data 42 4.2.2 Minimum and maximum areas of reinforcement in beams 43 4.2.3 Minimum spacing of bars 44 4.3 Behaviour of beams in bending 45 4.4 Singly reinforced rectangular beams 46 4.4.1 Assumptions and stress-strain diagrams 46 4.4.2 Moment of resistance-simplified stress block 49 4.4.3 Procedure for the design of singly reinforced rectangular beam 50 4.4.4 Examples of design of singly reinforced rectangular sections 51 4.4.5 Design chart 54 4.4.5 1 Examples of use of design chart 55 4.4.6 Moment of resistance-rectangular parabolic stress block 56 4.5 Doubly reinforced beams 58 4.5.1 Design formulae using the simplified stress block 58 4.5.2 Examples of rectangular doubly reinforced concrete beams 59 4.6 Flanged beams 61 4.6.1 General considerations 61 4.8.2 Stress block in the flange 62 4.8.3 Stress block extends into the web 62 4.8.3. Code formula 64 4.8.4 Steps in reinforcement calculation of a T or an L beam 64 4.8.5 Examples of design of flanged beams 65 4.6 Checking existing sections 67 4.6.1 Examples of checking for moment capacity 67 4.6.2 Strain compatibility method 70 4.6.2.1 Example of strain-compatibility method 71 5 Shear, bond and torsion 73 5.1 Shear forces 73 5.1.1 Shear in a homogeneous beam 73 5.1.2 Shear in a reinforced concrete beam without shear reinforcement 74 5.1.3 Shear reinforcement in the form of links 76 5.1.3.1 Examples of design of link reinforcement in beams 78 5.1.4 Shear reinforcement close to support 80 5.1.6 Examples of design of shear reinforcement for beams 80 5.1.7 Shear reinforcement in the form of bent-up bars 84 5.1.7.1 Example of design of shear reinforcement using bent up bars 86 5.1.8 Shear resistance of solid slabs 87 5.1.9 Shear due to concentrated loads on slabs 88 5.1.9.1 Example of punching shear design 91 5.2 Bond, laps and bearing stresses in bends 93 5.2.1 Example of calculation of anchorage lengths 95 5.2.2 Hooks and bends 95 5.2.2.1 Examples of anchorage length calculation 96 5.2.2.2 Curtailment and anchorage of bars 97 5.2.3 Laps and joints 97 5.2.4 Bearing stresses inside bends 98 5.2.4.1 Example of design of anchorage at beam support 98 5.3 Torsion 100 5.3.1 Occurrence and analysis of torsion 100 5.3.2 Structural analysis including torsion 100 5.3.3 Torsional shear stress in a concrete section 101 5.3.4 Torsional reinforcement 104 5.3.4.1 Example of design of torsion steel for rectangular beam 107 5.3.4.2 Example of design of torsion steel for T-beam 109 6 Serviceability limit state checks 113 6.0 Serviceability 113 6.1 Deflection 113 6.1.1 Deflection limits and checks 113 6.1.2 Span-to-effective depth ratio 114 6.1.2.1 Example of deflection check for T -beam 116 6.2 Cracking 118 6.2.1 Cracking limits and controls 118 6.2.2 Bar spacing controls in beams 118 6.2.2.1 Examples of maximum bar spacing in beams 119 6.2.3 Bar spacing controls in slabs 122 6.2.3.1 Example of maximum bar spacing in slabs 122 7 Simply supported beams 123 7.1 Simply supported beams 123 7.1.1 Steps in beam design 123 7.1.2 Curtailment and anchorage of bars 125 7.1.3 Example of design of a simply supported l-beam in a footbridge 126 7.1.4 Example of design of simply supported doubly reinforced rectangular beam 131 7.2 References 136 8 Reinforced concrete slabs 137 8.1 Types of slab and design methods 137 8.2 One-way spanning solid slabs 137 8.2.1 Idealization for design 137 8.2.2 Effective span, loading and analysis 138 8.2.3 Section design and slab reinforcement curtailment and cover 140 8.2.4 Shear 143 8.2.5 Deflection 145 8.2.6 Crack control 145 8.3 Example of design of continuous one-way slab 145 8.4 One-way spanning ribbed slabs 149 8.4.1 Design considerations 149 8.4.2 Ribbed slab proportions 150 8.4.3 Design procedure and reinforcement 150 8.4.4 Deflection 151 8.4.5 Example of one-way ribbed slab 151 8.5 Two-way spanning solid slabs 154 8.5.1 Slab action, analysis and design 154 8.5.2 Simply supported slabs 155 8.5.3 Example of a simply supported two-way slab 156 8.6 Restrained solid slabs 159 8.6.1 Design and arrangement of reinforcement 159 8.6.2 Adjacent panels with markedly different support moments 161 8.6.3 Shear forces and shear resistance 161 8.6.4 Deflection 162 8.6.5 Cracking 162 8.6.6 Example of design of two-way restrained solid slab 153 8.7 Waffle slabs 166 8.7.1 Design procedure 166 8.7.2 Example of design of a waffle slab 167 8.8 Flat slabs 171 8.8.1 Definition and construction 171 8.8.2 General code provisions 171 8.8.3 Analysis 173 8.8.4 Division of panels and moments 175 8.8.5 Design of internal panels and reinforcement details 175 8.8.6 Design of edge panels 176 8.8.7 Shear force and shear resistance 176 8.8.8 Deflection 178 8.8.9 Crack control 178 8.8.10 Example of design for an internal panel of a flat slab floor 178 8.9 Yield line method 184 8.9.1 Outline of Theory 184 8.9.1.1 Properties of yield lines 187 8.9.2 Johansen¿s stepped yield criterion 187 8.9.3 Energy dissipated in a yield line 189 8.9.4 Work done by external loads 192 8.9.5 Example of a continuous one-way slab 192 8.9.6 Simply supported rectangular two-way slab 194 Example of yield line analysis of a simply supported rectangular slab 196 8.9.7 Rectangular two-way slab continuous over supports 197 8.9.7.1 Example of yield line analysis of a clamped rectangular slab 198 8.9.8 Clamped rectangular slab with one long edge free 199 8.9.8.1 Calculations for mode 1 199 8.9.8.2 Calculations for mode 2 201 8.9.8.3 Example of yield line analysis of a clamped rectangular slab with one free long edge 204 8.9.9 Trapezoidal slab continuous over three supports and free on a long edge 204 8.9.10 Slabs with holes 207 8.9.10.1 Calculations for mode 1 208 8.9.10.2 Calculations for mode 2 209 8.9.10.3 Calculations for mode 3 211 8.9.10.4 Calculation of moment of resistance 213 8.9.11 Slab-beam systems 214 8.9.12 Corner levers 215 8.9.13 Collapse mechanisms with more than one independent variable 216 8.9.14 Circular fans 216 8.9.14.1 collapse mechanism for a flat slab floor 218 8.9.15 Design of a corner panel of floor slab using yield line analysis 219 8.9.16 Derivation of moment and shear coefficients for the design of restrained slabs 222 8.9.16.1 Simply supported slab 223 8.9.16.2 Clamped slab 224 8.9.16.3 Slab with two short edges discontinuous 225 8.9.16.4 Slab with two long edges discontinuous 227 8.9.16.5 Slab with one long edge discontinuous 228 8.9.16.6 Slab with one short edge discontinuous 231 8.9.16.7 Slab with two adjacent edges discontinuous 233 8.9.16.8 Slab with only a short edge continuous 236 8.9.16.9 Slab with only a long edge continuous 239 8.10 Hillerborg¿s strip method 241 8.10.1 Simply supported rectangular slab 242 8.10.2 Clamped rectangular slab with a free edge 233 8.10.3 A slab clamped on two opposite sides, one side is simply supported and one edge is free 243 8.10.4 Strong bands 244 8.10.5 Comments on the strip method 246 8.11 Design of reinforcement for slabs in accordance with a predetermined field of moments 248 8.11.1 Rules for designing bottom steel 250 8.11.1.1 Examples on design of bottom steel 250 8.11.2 Rules for designing top steel 251 8.11.2.1 Examples on design of top steel 252 8.11.3 Examples of design of top and bottom steel 252 8.11.6 Comments on the design method using elastic analysis 253 8.12 Stair slabs 253 8.12.1 Building regulations 253 8.12.2 Types of stair slab 254 8.12.3 Code design requirements 255 8.12.4 Example of design of stair slab 258 8.13 References 261 9 Columns 263 9. 1 Types, loads, classification and design considerations 263 9.1.1 Types and loads 263 9.1.2 General code provisions 263 9.1.3 Practical design provisions 265 9.2 Short braced axially loaded columns 267 9.2.1 Code design expressions 267 9.2.1.1 Examples of axially loaded short column 267 9.3 Short columns subjected to axial load and bending about one axis-symmetrical reinforcement 268 9.3.1 Code provisions 268 9.3.2 Section analysis 269 9.3.2.1 Parabolic-rectangular stress block 271 9.3.2.2 Rectangular stress block 273 9.3.2.3 Stresses and strains in steel 275 9.2.3.4 Axial force N and moment M 275 9.2.3.5 Example of a short column subjected to axial load and moment about one axis 276 9.3.3 Construction of column design chart 277 9.3.3.1 Typical calculations for rectangular- parabolic stress block 279 9.3.3.2 Typical calculations for rectangular stress block 280 9.3.3.4 Column design using design charts 282 9.3.4 Further design chart 283 9.4 Short columns subjected to axial load and bending about one axis unsymmetrical reinforcement 284 9.4.1 Example of a column section subjected to axial load and moment unsymmetrical reinforcement 285 9.5 Column sections subjected to axial load and biaxial bending 286 9.5.1 Outline of the problem 286 9.5.1.1 Expressions for contribution to moment and axial force by concrete 288 9.5.1.2 Example of design chart for axial force and biaxial moments 291 9.5.1.3 Axial force biaxial moment interaction curve 294 9.5.2 Approximate method given in BS 8110 294 9.5.2.1 Example of design of column section subjected to axial load and biaxial bending: BS 8110 method 295 9.6 Effective heights of columns 298 9.6.1 Braced and un-braced columns 298 9.6.2 Effective height of a column 299 9.6.3 Effective height estimation from BS 8110 299 9.6.4 Slenderness limits for columns 302 9.6.4.1 Example of calculating the effective heights of column by-simplified and rigorous methods 302 9.7 Design of slender columns 305 9.7.1 Additional moments due to deflection 305 9.7.2 Design moments in a braced column bent about a single axis 306 9.7.3 Further provisions for slender columns 307 9.7.4 Unbraced structures 308 9.7.4.1 Example of design of a slender column 308 10 Walls in buildings 313 10.1 Functions, types and loads on walls 313 10.2 Types of wall and definitions 313 10.3 Design of reinforced concrete walls 314 10.3.1 Wall reinforcement 314 10.3.2 General code provisions for design 314 10.3.3 Design of stocky reinforced concrete walls 315 10.3.4 Walls supporting in-plane moments and axial loads 317 10.3.4.1 Example of design of a wall subjected to axial load and in-plane moments using design chart 321 10.3.4.2 Example of design of a wall subjected to axial load and in-plane moments with concentrating steel in end zones 324 10.3.4.3 Example of design of a wall subjected to axial load transverse and in-plane moments 328 10.3.5 Slender reinforced walls 328 10.3.6 Deflection of reinforced walls 329 10.4 Design of plain concrete walls 329 10.4.1 Code design provisions 329 10.4.1.1 Example of design of a plain concrete wall 334 11 Foundations 335 11.1 General considerations 335 11.2 Isolated pad bases 335 11.2.1 General comments 335 11.2.2 Axially loaded pad bases 336 11.2.2.1 Example of design of an axially loaded base 339 1.3 Eccentrically loaded pad bases 342 11.3.1 Vertical pressure 342 11.3.2 Resistance to horizontal loads 343 11.3.3 Structural design 344 11.3.3.1 Example of design of an eccentrically loaded base 345 11.3.3.2 Example of design of a footing for pinned base steel portal 349 11.4 Wall, strip and combined foundations 352 11.4.1 Wall footings 352 11.4.2 Shear wall footing 352 11.4.3 Strip footing 354 11.4.4 Combined bases 355 11.4.4.1 Example of design of a combined base 355 11.5 Pile foundations 364 11.5.1 General considerations 364 11.5.2 Loads in pile groups 366 11.5 2.1 Example of loads in pile group 369 11.5.3 Design of pile caps 372 11.5.3.1 Example of design of pile cap 373 11.7 References 375 12 Retaining walls 377 12.1 Types and earth pressure 377 12.1.1 Types of retaining wall 377 12.1.2 Earth pressure on retaining walls 378 12.2 Design of cantilever walls 381 12.2.1.1 Initial sizing of the wall 381 12.2.1.2 Design procedure for a cantileve retaining wall 382 12.2.1.3 Example of design of a cantileve retaining wall 383 12.3 Counterfort retaining walls 393 12.3.1 Stability check and design procedure 393 12.3.2 Example of design of a counterfort retaining wall 397 12.3.3 Design of wall slab using Yield line method 399 12.3.4 Design of base slab using Yield line method 403 12.3.5 Base slab design using Hillerborg¿s strip method 410 12.3.5.1 Horizontal strips in base slab 411 12.3.5.2 Cantilever moment in base slab 412 12.3.6 Wall design using Hillerborg¿s strip method 415 12.3.6.1 Cantilever moment in wall slab 415 12.3.7 Counter fort design using Hillerborg¿s strip method 415 13 Design of statically indeterminate structures 419 13.1 Introduction 419 13.2 Design of a propped cantilever 421 13.3 Design of a clamped beam 423 13.4 Why use anything other than elastic values in design? 425 13.5 Limits on departure from elastic moment distribution in BS 8110 425 13.5.1 Moment of resistance 426 13.5.2 Serviceability considerations 427 13.6 Continuous beams 428 13.6.1 Continuous beams in in situ concrete floors 428 13.6.2 Loading on continuous beams 429 13.6.2.1 Arrangement of loads to give maximum moments 429 13.6.2.2 Example of critical loading arrangements 429 13.6.2.3 Loading from one-way slabs 429 13.6.2.4 Loading from two-way slabs 430 13.6.2.5 Alternative distribution of loads from two-way slabs 431 13.6.3 Analysis for shear and moment envelopes 432 13.7 Example of elastic analysis of a continuous beam 434 13.8 Example of moment redistribution for a continuous beam 438 13.9 Curtailment of bars 442 13.10 Example of design for the end span of a continuous beam 443 13.11 Example of design of a non-sway frame 448 13.12 Approximate methods of analysis 458 13.12.1 Analysis for gravity loads 458 13.12.2 Analysis of a continuous beam for gravity loads 459 13.12.3 Analysis of a rectangular portal frame for gravity loads 460 13.12. 4 Analysis for wind loads by portal method 461 14 Reinforced Concrete Framed Buildings 465 14.1 Types and structural action 465 14.2 Building loads 466 14.2.1 Dead load 466 14.2.2 Imposed load 467 14.2.3 Wind loads 467 14.2.4 Load combinations 468 14.2.4.1 Example on load combinations 469 14.3 Robustness and design of ties 473 14.3.1 Types of tie 473 14.3.2 Design of ties 474 14.3.3 Internal ties 475 14.3.4 Peripheral ties 475 14.3.5 Horizontal ties to columns and walls 475 14.3.6 Corner column ties 475 14.3.7 Vertical ties 475 14.4 Frame analysis 476 14.4.1 Methods of analysis 476 14.4.2 Example of simplified analysis of concrete framed building under vertical load 476 14.4.3 Example of simplified analysis of concrete framed building for wind load by portal frame method 485 14.5 Building design example 489 14.5.1 Example of design of multi-storey reinforced concrete framed buildings 489 15 Tall buildings 509 15.1 Introduction 509 15.2 Assumptions for analysis 509 15.3 Planar lateral-load-resisting elements 510 15.3.1 Rigid frames 510 15.3.2 Braced frames 510 15.3.3 Shear walls 510 15.3.4 Coupled shear walls 510 15.3.5 Wall-frame structures 511 15.3.6 Framed-tube structures 512 15.3.7 Tube-in-tube structures 513 15.3.8 Outrigger-braced structures 513 15.4 Interaction between bents 514 15.5 Three-dimensional structures 515 15.5.1 Classification of structures for computer modelling 515 15.5.1.1 Category i: symmetric floor plan with identical parallel bents subject to a symmetrically applied lateral load q 515 15.5.1.2 Category ii: symmetric structural floor plan with non-identical bents subject to a symmetric horizontal load q 515 15.5.1.3 Category iii: non-symmetric structural floor plan with identical or non-identical bents subject to a lateral load q 518 15.6 Analysis of framed-tube structures 519 15.7 Analysis of tube in tube structures 519 15.8 References 523 16 Prestressed concrete 525 16.1 Introduction 525 16.2 How to apply prestress? 526 16.2.1 Pretensioning 526 16.2.1.1 Debonding 528 16.2.1.2 Transmission length 529 16.2.2 Post-tensioning 529 16.2.3 External prestressing 530 16.2.4 Unbonded construction 531 16.2.5 Statically indeterminate structures 531 16.2.6 Endblock 532 16.3 Materials 532 16.3.1 Concrete 532 16.3.2 Steel 533 16.3.2.1 Relaxation of steel 533 16.4 Design of prestressed concrete structures 534 16.5 Limits on permissible stresses in concrete 534 16.5.1 Definition of class 534 16.5.1.1 Partial prestressing 535 16.5.2 Permissible compressive stress in concrete at transfer 535 16.5.3 Permissible tensile stress in concrete at transfer 535 16.5.4 Permissible compressive stress in concrete at serviceability limit state 536 16.5.4 Permissible tensile stress in concrete at serviceability limit state 536 16.6 Limits on permissible stresses in steel 536 16.6.1 Maximum stress at jacking and at transfer 537 16.7 Equations for stress calculation 537 16.7.1 Transfer state 537 16.7.2 Serviceability limit state 538 16.7.3 Example of stress calculation 538 16.8 Design for serviceability limit state 541 16.8.1 Initial sizing of section 541 16.8.1.1 Example of initial sizing 541 16.8.2 Choice of prestress and eccentricity 544 16.8.2.1 Example of construction of Magnel diagram 545 16.8.2.2 Example of choice of prestress and eccentricity 546 16.8.2.3 Example of debonding 548 16.9 Composite beams 549 16.9.1 Magnel equations for composite beam 550 16.10 Post-tensioned beams - cable zone 553 16.10.1 Example of a post-tensioned beam 553 16.11 Ultimate moment capacity 555 16.11.1 Example of ultimate moment capacity calculation 555 16.11.2 Ultimate moment capacity calculation using tables in BS 8110 561 16.11.2.1 Example of ultimate moment capacity calculation using tables in BS 8110 562 16.12 Ultimate shear capacity of sections cracked in flexure 562 16.12.1 Example of calculating ultimate shear capacity Vcr 563 16.13 Ultimate shear capacity Vco of sections in uncracked in flexure 565 16.13.1 Example of calculating ultimate shear capacity Vco 566 16.13.1.1 Calculation of Vco from first principles 567 16.14 Design of shear reinforcement 569 16.14.1 Example of shear link design 570 16.15 Horizontal shear 570 16.15.1 Shear reinforcement to resist horizontal shear stress 571 16.15.2 Example of design for horizontal shear 571 16.16 Loss of prestress in pre-tensioned beams 572 16.16.1 Loss at transfer 572 16.16.1.1 Example on calculation of loss at transfer 573 16.16.2 Long term loss of prestress 573 16.17 Loss of prestress in post-tensioned beams 575 16.18 Design of end block in post-tensioned beams 575 16.18.1 Example of end block design 578 16.19 References 579 17 Design of structures retaining aqueous liquids 581 17.1 Introduction 581 17.1.1 Load factors 581 17.1.2 Crack width 581 17.1.3 Span/effective depth ratios 582 17.1.4 Cover 582 17.1.5 Mix proportions 582 17.1.6 Minimum reinforcement 582 17.2 Bending analysis for serviceability limit state 583 17.2.1 Example of stress calculation at SLS 584 17.2.2 Crack width calculation in a section subjected to flexure only 586 17.2.2.1 Example of crack width calculation in flexure 587 17.2.3 Crack width calculation in a section subjected to bending moment and direct tension 589 17.2.3.1 Exampleof Crack width calculation in a section subjectedto bending moment and direct tension 590 17.2.4 Crack width calculation in direct tension 591 17.2.4.1 Example of crack width calculation in direct tension 592 17.2.4 Deemed to satisfy clause 593 17.2.5 Design tables 594 17.3 Control of restrained shrinkage and thermal movement cracking 593 17.3.1 Movement joints 596 17.3.2 Critical amount of reinforcement 597 17.3.3 Crack spacing 597 17.3.4 Width of cracks 598 17.3.5 Design options for control of thermal contraction and restrained shrinkage 599 17.3.6 Example of options for control of thermal contraction and restrained shrinkage 599 17.4 Design of a rectangular covered top under ground water tank 601 17.5 Design of circular water tanks 617 17.5.1 Example of design of a circular water tank 619 17.6 References 623 18 Eurocode 2 625 18.1 Load factors 625 18.1.1 Load factors for ultimate limit state 625 18.1.2 Load factors for serviceability limit state 626 18.1 Material safety factors 626 18.2 Materials 627 18.3 Bending analysis 627 18.3.1 Maximum depth of neutral axis x 628 18.3.2 Stress block depth 628 18.3.3 Maximum moment permitted in a rectangular beam with no compression steel 628 18.3.4 Lever arm z 628 18.3.5 Moment redistribution 629 18.4 Examples of beam design for bending 630 18.4.1 Singly reinforced rectangular beam 630 18.4.2 Doubly reinforced beam 631 18.4.3 T-beam design 632 18.5 Shear design: standard method 634 18.5.1 Maximum permissible shear stress 634 18.5.2 Permissible shear stress in reinforced concrete 634 18.5.3 Total shear capacity 635 18.5.4 Shear reinforcement in the form of links 636 18.5.5 Maximum permitted spacing of links 636 18.5.6 Minimum area of links 636 18.5.7 Example of shear design 637 18.6 Punching shear 639 18.6.1 Location of critical perimeter 639 18.6.2 Maximum permissible shear stress, vmax 640 18.6.3 Permissible shear stress, vc 640 18.6.4 Shear reinforcement 641 18.6.5 Example 641 18.7 Columns 642 18.7.1 Short or slender column? 643 18.7.2 Example 643 18.8 Detailing 645 18.8.1 Bond 645 18.8.2 Anchorage lengths 645 18.8.3 Longitudinal reinforcement in beams 646 18.9 References 646 19 Deflection and cracking 647 19.1 Deflection calculation 647 19.1.1 Loads on the structure 647 19.1.2 Analysis of the structure 647 19.1.3 Method for calculating deflection 648 19.1.4 Calculation of curvatures 648 19.1.5 Cracked section analysis 648 19.1.5.1 Simplified approach 651 19.1.6 Uncracked section 651 19.1.7 Long-term loads: creep 652 19.1.8 Shrinkage curvature 652 19.1.9 Total long-term curvature 653 19.1.10 Deflection calculation 653 19.1.10.1 Evaluation of constant k 653 19.2 Example of deflection calculation for T-beam 654 19.3 Calculation of crack widths 661 19.3.1 cracking in reinforced concrete beam 661 19.3.2 Crack width equation 661 19.4 Example of crack width calculation for T-beam 662 19.5 References 665 Additional References 667 Index 669

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Reinforced concrete construction.