Table of contents for Reinforced concrete : design theory and examples / P. Bhatt, T.J. MacGinley, and B.S. Choo.

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 table of contents
CONTENTS
	Preface			xxiii
1	Introduction			 1
	1.1	Reinforced concrete structures	 1
	1.2	Structural elements and frames	 1
	1.3	Structural design		 2
	1.4	Design standards		 2
	1.5	Calculations, design aids and computing	 3
	1.6	Detailing		 4
2	Materials, structural failures and durability	 9
	2.1	Reinforced concrete structures	 9
	2.2	Concrete materials		 9
		2.2.1	Cement		 9
		2.2.2	Aggregates	 10
		2.2.3	Concrete mix design	 11
		2.2.4	Admixtures	 12
	2.3	Concrete properties	 12
		2.3.1	Compressive strength	 12
		2.3.2	Tensile strength	 13
		2.3.3	Modulus of elasticity	 13
		2.3.4	Creep		 13
		2.3.5	Shrinkage		 15
	2.4	Tests on wet concrete	 15
		2.4.1	Workability	 15
		2.4.2	Measurement of workability	 15
	2.5	Tests on hardened concrete	 16
		2.5.1	Normal tests	 16
		2.5.2	Non-destructive tests	 16
		2.5.3	Chemical tests	 17
	2.6	Reinforcement		 17
	2.7	Failures in concrete structures	 18
		2.7.1	Factors affecting failure	 18
		2.7.2	Incorrect selection of materials	 18
		2.7.3	Errors in design calculations and detailing	 19
		2.7.4	Poor construction methods	 19
		2.7.5	Chemical attack	 20
		2.7.6	External physical and/or mechanical factors	 22
	2.8	Durability of concrete structures	 25
		2.8.1	Code references to durability	 25
	2.9	Concrete cover		 25
		2.9.1	Nominal cover against corrosion	 25
		2.9.2	Cover as fire protection	 26
	2.10	References		 27
3	Limit State Design and Structural Analysis	 29
	3.1	Structural design and limit states	 29
		3.1.1	Aims and methods of design	 29
		3.1.2	Criteria for a safe design - limit states	 29
		3.1.3	Ultimate limit state	 30
		3.1.4	Serviceability limit states	 31
	3.2	Characteristic and design loads	 31
	3.3	Materials- properties and design strengths	 33
	3.4	Structural analysis		 35
		3.4.1	General provisions	 35
		3.4.2	Methods of frame analysis	 35
		3.4.3	Monolithic braced frame	 36
		3.4.4	Rigid frames providing lateral stability	 38
		3.4.5	Redistribution of moments	 39
4	Section design for moment	 41
	4.1	Types of beam section	 41
	4.2	Reinforcement and bar spacing	 41
		4.2.1	Reinforcement data	 42
		4.2.2	Minimum and maximum areas of reinforcement
			in beams		 43
		4.2.3	Minimum spacing of bars	 44
	4.3	Behaviour of beams in bending	 45
	4.4	Singly reinforced rectangular beams	 46
		4.4.1	Assumptions and stress-strain diagrams	 46
		4.4.2	Moment of resistance-simplified stress block	 49
		4.4.3	Procedure for the design of singly reinforced
			rectangular beam	 50
		4.4.4	Examples of design of singly reinforced
			rectangular sections	 51
		4.4.5	Design chart	 54
			4.4.5 1	Examples of use of design chart	 55
		4.4.6	Moment of resistance-rectangular parabolic
			stress block	 56
	4.5	Doubly reinforced beams	 58
		4.5.1	Design formulae using the simplified stress block	 58
		4.5.2	Examples of rectangular doubly reinforced 
			concrete beams	 59
	4.6	Flanged beams		 61
		4.6.1	General considerations	 61
		4.8.2	Stress block in the flange	 62
		4.8.3	Stress block extends into the web	 62
			4.8.3.	 Code formula	 64
		4.8.4	Steps in reinforcement calculation of a T or
			an L beam		 64
		4.8.5	Examples of design of flanged beams	 65
	4.6	Checking existing sections	 67
		4.6.1	Examples of checking for moment capacity	 67
		4.6.2	Strain compatibility method	 70
			4.6.2.1	Example of strain-compatibility method	 71
5	Shear, bond and torsion		 73
	5.1	Shear forces		 73
		5.1.1	Shear in a homogeneous beam	 73
		5.1.2	Shear in a reinforced concrete beam without shear
			reinforcement	 74
		5.1.3	Shear reinforcement in the form of links	 76
			5.1.3.1	Examples of design of link reinforcement
				in beams	 78
		5.1.4	Shear reinforcement close to support	 80
		5.1.6	Examples of design of shear reinforcement for beams	 80
		5.1.7	Shear reinforcement in the form of bent-up bars	 84
			5.1.7.1	Example of design of shear reinforcement
				using bent up bars	 86
		5.1.8	Shear resistance of solid slabs	 87
		5.1.9	Shear due to concentrated loads on slabs	 88
			5.1.9.1	Example of punching shear design	 91
	5.2	Bond, laps and bearing stresses in bends	 93
		5.2.1	Example of calculation of anchorage lengths	 95
		5.2.2	Hooks and bends	 95
			5.2.2.1	Examples of anchorage length calculation	 96
			5.2.2.2	Curtailment and anchorage of bars	 97
		5.2.3	Laps and joints	 97
		5.2.4	Bearing stresses inside bends	 98
			5.2.4.1	Example of design of anchorage at
				beam support 98
	5.3	Torsion			100
		5.3.1	Occurrence and analysis of torsion	100
		5.3.2	Structural analysis including torsion	100
		5.3.3	Torsional shear stress in a concrete section	101
		5.3.4	Torsional reinforcement	104
			5.3.4.1	Example of design of torsion steel for
				rectangular beam	107
			5.3.4.2	Example of design of torsion steel for
				T-beam	109
6	Serviceability limit state checks	113
	6.0	Serviceability		113
	6.1	Deflection		113
		6.1.1	Deflection limits and checks	113
		6.1.2	Span-to-effective depth ratio	114
			6.1.2.1	Example of deflection check for T -beam	116
	6.2	Cracking		118
		6.2.1	Cracking limits and controls	118
		6.2.2	Bar spacing controls in beams	118
			6.2.2.1	Examples of maximum bar spacing
				 in beams	119
		6.2.3	Bar spacing controls in slabs	122
			6.2.3.1	Example of maximum bar spacing
				 in slabs	122
7	Simply supported beams		123
	7.1	Simply supported beams	123
		7.1.1	Steps in beam design	123
		7.1.2	Curtailment and anchorage of bars	125
		7.1.3	Example of design of a simply supported l-beam
			in a footbridge	126		7.1.4	Example of design of simply supported doubly
			reinforced rectangular beam	131
	7.2	References		136
8	Reinforced concrete slabs	137
	8.1	Types of slab and design methods	137
	8.2	One-way spanning solid slabs	137
		8.2.1	Idealization for design	137
		8.2.2	Effective span, loading and analysis	138
		8.2.3	Section design and slab reinforcement curtailment
			and cover		140
		8.2.4	Shear		143
		8.2.5	Deflection		145
		8.2.6	Crack control	145
	8.3	Example of design of continuous one-way slab	145
	8.4	One-way spanning ribbed slabs	149
		8.4.1	Design considerations	149
		8.4.2	Ribbed slab proportions	150
		8.4.3	Design procedure and reinforcement	150
		8.4.4	Deflection		151
		8.4.5	Example of one-way ribbed slab	151
	8.5	Two-way spanning solid slabs	154
		8.5.1	Slab action, analysis and design	154
		8.5.2	Simply supported slabs	155
		8.5.3	Example of a simply supported two-way slab	156
	8.6	Restrained solid slabs	159
		8.6.1	Design and arrangement of reinforcement	159
		8.6.2	Adjacent panels with markedly different support
			moments		161
		8.6.3	Shear forces and shear resistance	161
		8.6.4	Deflection		162
		8.6.5	Cracking		162
		8.6.6	Example of design of two-way restrained solid slab	153
	8.7	Waffle slabs		166
		8.7.1	Design procedure	166
		8.7.2	Example of design of a waffle slab	167
	8.8	Flat slabs		171
		8.8.1	Definition and construction	171
		8.8.2	General code provisions	171
		8.8.3	Analysis		173
		8.8.4	Division of panels and moments	175
		8.8.5	Design of internal panels and reinforcement details	175
		8.8.6	Design of edge panels	176
		8.8.7	Shear force and shear resistance	176
		8.8.8	Deflection		178
		8.8.9	Crack control	178
		8.8.10	Example of design for an internal panel of a flat
			slab floor		178
	8.9	Yield line method		184
		8.9.1	Outline of Theory	184
			8.9.1.1	Properties of yield lines	187
		8.9.2	Johansen¿s stepped yield criterion	187
		8.9.3	Energy dissipated in a yield line	189
		8.9.4	Work done by external loads	192
		8.9.5	Example of a continuous one-way slab	192
		8.9.6	Simply supported rectangular two-way slab	194
			Example of yield line analysis of a simply supported
			rectangular slab	196
		8.9.7	Rectangular two-way slab continuous over supports	197
			8.9.7.1	Example of yield line analysis of a clamped
				rectangular slab	198
		8.9.8	Clamped rectangular slab with one long edge free	199
			8.9.8.1	Calculations for mode 1	199
			8.9.8.2	Calculations for mode 2	201
			8.9.8.3	Example of yield line analysis of a clamped
				rectangular slab with one free long edge	204
		8.9.9	Trapezoidal slab continuous over three supports and
			free on a long edge	204
		8.9.10	Slabs with holes	207
			8.9.10.1	Calculations for mode 1	208
			8.9.10.2	Calculations for mode 2	209
			8.9.10.3	Calculations for mode 3	211
			8.9.10.4	Calculation of moment of resistance	213
		8.9.11	Slab-beam systems	214
		8.9.12	Corner levers	215
		8.9.13	Collapse mechanisms with more than one
			independent variable	216
		8.9.14	Circular fans	216
			8.9.14.1	collapse mechanism for a flat slab floor	218
		8.9.15	Design of a corner panel of floor slab using yield
			line analysis	219
		8.9.16	Derivation of moment and shear coefficients for the
			design of restrained slabs	222
			8.9.16.1	Simply supported slab	223
			8.9.16.2	Clamped slab	224
			8.9.16.3	Slab with two short edges discontinuous	225
			8.9.16.4	Slab with two long edges discontinuous	227
			8.9.16.5	Slab with one long edge discontinuous	228
			8.9.16.6	Slab with one short edge discontinuous	231
			8.9.16.7	Slab with two adjacent edges discontinuous	233
			8.9.16.8	Slab with only a short edge continuous	236
			8.9.16.9	Slab with only a long edge continuous	239
		8.10	Hillerborg¿s strip method	241
		8.10.1	Simply supported rectangular slab	242
		8.10.2	Clamped rectangular slab with a free edge	233
		8.10.3	A slab clamped on two opposite sides, one side is
			simply supported and one edge is free	243
		8.10.4	Strong bands	244		8.10.5	Comments on the strip method	246
	8.11	Design of reinforcement for slabs in accordance with a 
		predetermined field of moments	248
		8.11.1	Rules for designing bottom steel	250
			8.11.1.1	Examples on design of bottom steel	250
		8.11.2	Rules for designing top steel	251
			8.11.2.1	Examples on design of top steel	252
		8.11.3	Examples of design of top and bottom steel	252
		8.11.6	Comments on the design method using elastic
			analysis		253
	8.12	Stair slabs		253
		8.12.1	Building regulations	253
		8.12.2	Types of stair slab	254
		8.12.3	Code design requirements	255
		8.12.4	Example of design of stair slab	258
	8.13	References		261
9	Columns			263
	9. 1	Types, loads, classification and design considerations	263
		9.1.1	Types and loads	263
		9.1.2	General code provisions	263
		9.1.3	Practical design provisions	265
	9.2	Short braced axially loaded columns	267
		9.2.1	Code design expressions	267
			9.2.1.1	Examples of axially loaded short column	267
	9.3	Short columns subjected to axial load and bending
		about one axis-symmetrical reinforcement	268
		9.3.1	Code provisions	268
		9.3.2	Section analysis	269
			9.3.2.1	Parabolic-rectangular stress block	271
			9.3.2.2	Rectangular stress block	273
			9.3.2.3	Stresses and strains in steel	275
			9.2.3.4	Axial force N and moment M	275
			9.2.3.5	Example of a short column subjected to
				axial load and moment about one axis	276
		9.3.3	Construction of column design chart	277
			9.3.3.1	Typical calculations for rectangular-
				parabolic stress block	279
			9.3.3.2	Typical calculations for rectangular
				stress block	280
			9.3.3.4	Column design using design charts	282
		9.3.4	Further design chart	283
	9.4	Short columns subjected to axial load and bending about
		one axis unsymmetrical reinforcement	284
		9.4.1	Example of a column section subjected to axial load
			and moment unsymmetrical reinforcement	285
	9.5	Column sections subjected to axial load and biaxial bending	286
		9.5.1	Outline of the problem	286
			9.5.1.1	Expressions for contribution to moment and
				axial force by concrete	288
			9.5.1.2	Example of design chart for axial force
				and biaxial moments	291
			9.5.1.3	Axial force biaxial moment interaction curve	294
		9.5.2	Approximate method given in BS 8110	294
			9.5.2.1	Example of design of column section
				subjected to axial load and biaxial
				bending: BS 8110 method	295
	9.6	Effective heights of columns	298
		9.6.1	Braced and un-braced columns	298
		9.6.2	Effective height of a column	299
		9.6.3	Effective height estimation from BS 8110	299
		9.6.4	Slenderness limits for columns	302
			9.6.4.1	Example of calculating the effective heights
				of column by-simplified and rigorous
				methods	302
	9.7	Design of slender columns	305
		9.7.1	Additional moments due to deflection	305
		9.7.2	Design moments in a braced column bent about a
			single axis		306
		9.7.3	Further provisions for slender columns	307
		9.7.4	Unbraced structures	308
			9.7.4.1	Example of design of a slender column	308
10	Walls in buildings		313
	10.1	Functions, types and loads on walls	313
	10.2	Types of wall and definitions	313
	10.3	Design of reinforced concrete walls 	314
		10.3.1	Wall reinforcement	314
		10.3.2	General code provisions for design	314
		10.3.3	Design of stocky reinforced concrete walls	315
		10.3.4	Walls supporting in-plane moments and axial loads	317
			10.3.4.1	Example of design of a wall subjected to
				axial load and in-plane moments using
				design chart	321
			10.3.4.2	Example of design of a wall subjected to
				axial load and in-plane moments with
				concentrating steel in end zones	324
			10.3.4.3	Example of design of a wall subjected to
				axial load transverse and in-plane moments	328
		10.3.5	Slender reinforced walls	328
		10.3.6	Deflection of reinforced walls	329
	10.4	Design of plain concrete walls	329
		10.4.1	Code design provisions	329
			10.4.1.1	Example of design of a plain concrete wall	334
11	Foundations			335
	11.1	General considerations	335
	11.2	Isolated pad bases		335
		11.2.1	General comments	335
		11.2.2	Axially loaded pad bases	336
			11.2.2.1	Example of design of an axially loaded base	339
	1.3	Eccentrically loaded pad bases	342
		11.3.1	Vertical pressure	342
		11.3.2	Resistance to horizontal loads	343
		11.3.3	Structural design	344
			11.3.3.1	Example of design of an eccentrically
				loaded base	345
			11.3.3.2	Example of design of a footing for
				pinned base steel portal	349
	11.4	Wall, strip and combined foundations	352
		11.4.1	Wall footings	352
		11.4.2	Shear wall footing	352
		11.4.3	Strip footing	354
		11.4.4	Combined bases	355
			11.4.4.1	Example of design of a combined base	355
	11.5	Pile foundations		364
		11.5.1	General considerations	364
		11.5.2	Loads in pile groups	366
			11.5 2.1	Example of loads in pile group	369
		11.5.3	Design of pile caps	372
			11.5.3.1	Example of design of pile cap	373
		11.7	References	375
12	Retaining walls		377
	12.1	Types and earth pressure	377
		12.1.1	Types of retaining wall	377
		12.1.2	Earth pressure on retaining walls	378
	12.2	Design of cantilever walls	381
			12.2.1.1	Initial sizing of the wall	381
			12.2.1.2	Design procedure for a cantileve
				 retaining wall	382
			12.2.1.3	Example of design of a cantileve
				 retaining wall	383
	12.3	Counterfort retaining walls	393
		12.3.1	Stability check and design procedure	393
		12.3.2	Example of design of a counterfort retaining wall	397
		12.3.3	Design of wall slab using Yield line method	399
		12.3.4	Design of base slab using Yield line method	403
		12.3.5	Base slab design using Hillerborg¿s strip method	410
			12.3.5.1	Horizontal strips in base slab	411
			12.3.5.2	Cantilever moment in base slab	412
		12.3.6	Wall design using Hillerborg¿s strip method	415
			12.3.6.1	Cantilever moment in wall slab	415
		12.3.7	Counter fort design using Hillerborg¿s strip method	415
13	Design of statically indeterminate structures	419
	13.1	Introduction		419
	13.2	Design of a propped cantilever	421
	13.3	Design of a clamped beam	423
	13.4	Why use anything other than elastic values in design?	425
	13.5	Limits on departure from elastic moment distribution in
		BS 8110			425
		13.5.1	Moment of resistance	426
		13.5.2	Serviceability considerations	427
	13.6	Continuous beams		428
		13.6.1	Continuous beams in in situ concrete floors	428
		13.6.2	Loading on continuous beams	429
			13.6.2.1	Arrangement of loads to give maximum
				moments	429
			13.6.2.2	Example of critical loading arrangements	429
			13.6.2.3	Loading from one-way slabs	429
			13.6.2.4	Loading from two-way slabs	430
			13.6.2.5	Alternative distribution of loads from
				two-way slabs	431
		13.6.3	Analysis for shear and moment envelopes	432
	13.7	Example of elastic analysis of a continuous beam	434
	13.8	Example of moment redistribution for a continuous beam	438
	13.9	Curtailment of bars		442
	13.10	Example of design for the end span of a continuous beam	443
	13.11	Example of design of a non-sway frame	448
	13.12	Approximate methods of analysis	458
		13.12.1	Analysis for gravity loads	458
		13.12.2	Analysis of a continuous beam for gravity loads	459
		13.12.3	Analysis of a rectangular portal frame for gravity
			loads		460
		13.12. 4	Analysis for wind loads by portal method	461
14	Reinforced Concrete Framed Buildings	465
	14.1	Types and structural action	465
	14.2	Building loads		466
		14.2.1	Dead load		466
		14.2.2	Imposed load	467
		14.2.3	Wind loads	467
		14.2.4	Load combinations	468
			14.2.4.1	Example on load combinations	469
	14.3	Robustness and design of ties	473
		14.3.1	Types of tie	473
		14.3.2	Design of ties	474
		14.3.3	Internal ties	475
		14.3.4	Peripheral ties	475
		14.3.5	Horizontal ties to columns and walls	475
		14.3.6	Corner column ties	475
		14.3.7	Vertical ties	475
	14.4	Frame analysis		476
		14.4.1	Methods of analysis	476
		14.4.2	Example of simplified analysis of concrete
			framed building under vertical load	476
		14.4.3	Example of simplified analysis of concrete
			framed building for wind load by portal frame
			method		485
	14.5	Building design example	489
		14.5.1	Example of design of multi-storey reinforced
			concrete framed buildings	489
15	Tall buildings			509
	15.1	Introduction		509
	15.2	Assumptions for analysis	509
	15.3	Planar lateral-load-resisting elements	510
		15.3.1	Rigid frames	510
		15.3.2	Braced frames	510
		15.3.3	Shear walls	510
		15.3.4	Coupled shear walls	510
		15.3.5	Wall-frame structures	511
		15.3.6	Framed-tube structures	512
		15.3.7	Tube-in-tube structures	513
		15.3.8	Outrigger-braced structures	513
	15.4	Interaction between bents	514
	15.5	Three-dimensional structures	515
		15.5.1	Classification of structures for computer modelling	515
			15.5.1.1	Category i: symmetric floor plan
				with identical parallel bents subject to
				a symmetrically applied lateral load q	515
			15.5.1.2	Category ii: symmetric structural floor
				plan with non-identical bents subject
				to a symmetric horizontal load q	515
			15.5.1.3	Category iii: non-symmetric structural
				floor plan with identical or non-identical
				bents subject to a lateral load q	518
	15.6	Analysis of framed-tube structures	519	15.7	Analysis of tube in tube structures	519
	15.8	References		523
16	Prestressed concrete		525
	16.1	Introduction		525
	16.2	How to apply prestress?	526
		16.2.1	Pretensioning	526
			16.2.1.1	Debonding	528
			16.2.1.2	Transmission length	529
		16.2.2	Post-tensioning	529
		16.2.3	External prestressing	530
		16.2.4	Unbonded construction	531
		16.2.5	Statically indeterminate structures	531
		16.2.6	Endblock		532
	16.3	Materials		532
		16.3.1	Concrete		532
		16.3.2	Steel		533
			16.3.2.1	Relaxation of steel	533
	16.4	Design of prestressed concrete structures	534
	16.5	Limits on permissible stresses in concrete	534
		16.5.1	Definition of class	534
			16.5.1.1	Partial prestressing	535
		16.5.2	Permissible compressive stress in concrete at
			transfer		535
		16.5.3	Permissible tensile stress in concrete at transfer	535
		16.5.4	Permissible compressive stress in concrete at
			serviceability limit state	536
		16.5.4	Permissible tensile stress in concrete at
			serviceability limit state	536
	16.6	Limits on permissible stresses in steel	536
		16.6.1	Maximum stress at jacking and at transfer	537
	16.7	Equations for stress calculation	537
		16.7.1	Transfer state	537
		16.7.2	Serviceability limit state	538
		16.7.3	Example of stress calculation	538
	16.8	Design for serviceability limit state	541
		16.8.1	Initial sizing of section	541
			16.8.1.1	Example of initial sizing	541
		16.8.2	Choice of prestress and eccentricity	544
			16.8.2.1	Example of construction of Magnel
				diagram	545
			16.8.2.2	Example of choice of prestress and
				eccentricity	546
			16.8.2.3	Example of debonding	548
	16.9	Composite beams		549
		16.9.1	Magnel equations for composite beam	550
	16.10	Post-tensioned beams - cable zone	553
		16.10.1	Example of a post-tensioned beam	553
	16.11	Ultimate moment capacity	555
		16.11.1	Example of ultimate moment capacity calculation	555
		16.11.2	Ultimate moment capacity calculation using tables
			in BS 8110	561
			16.11.2.1	Example of ultimate moment capacity
				calculation using tables in BS 8110	562
	16.12	Ultimate shear capacity of sections cracked in flexure	562
		16.12.1	Example of calculating ultimate shear capacity Vcr	563
	16.13	Ultimate shear capacity Vco of sections in uncracked in flexure	565
		16.13.1	Example of calculating ultimate shear capacity Vco	566
			16.13.1.1	Calculation of Vco from first principles	567	16.14	Design of shear reinforcement	569
		16.14.1	Example of shear link design	570
	16.15	Horizontal shear		570
		16.15.1	Shear reinforcement to resist horizontal shear stress	571
		16.15.2	Example of design for horizontal shear	571
	16.16	Loss of prestress in pre-tensioned beams	572
		16.16.1	Loss at transfer	572
			16.16.1.1	Example on calculation of loss at transfer	573
		16.16.2	Long term loss of prestress	573
	16.17	Loss of prestress in post-tensioned beams	575
	16.18	Design of end block in post-tensioned beams	575
		16.18.1	Example of end block design	578
	16.19	References		579
17	Design of structures retaining aqueous liquids	581
	17.1	Introduction		581
		17.1.1	Load factors	581
		17.1.2	Crack width	581
		17.1.3	Span/effective depth ratios	582
		17.1.4	Cover		582
		17.1.5	Mix proportions	582
		17.1.6	Minimum reinforcement	582
	17.2	Bending analysis for serviceability limit state	583
		17.2.1	Example of stress calculation at SLS	584
		17.2.2	Crack width calculation in a section subjected to
			flexure only	586
			17.2.2.1	Example of crack width calculation in						flexure	587
		17.2.3	Crack width calculation in a section subjected
			to bending moment and direct tension	589
			17.2.3.1	Exampleof Crack width calculation 
				in a section subjectedto bending moment
			 and direct tension	590
		17.2.4	Crack width calculation in direct tension	591
			17.2.4.1	Example of crack width calculation
				in direct tension	592
		17.2.4	Deemed to satisfy clause	593
		17.2.5	Design tables	594
	17.3	Control of restrained shrinkage and thermal movement
		cracking			593
		17.3.1	Movement joints	596
		17.3.2	Critical amount of reinforcement	597
		17.3.3	Crack spacing	597
		17.3.4	Width of cracks	598
		17.3.5	Design options for control of thermal
			contraction and restrained shrinkage	599
		17.3.6	Example of options for control of thermal
			contraction and restrained shrinkage	599
	17.4	Design of a rectangular covered top under ground
		water tank		601
	17.5	Design of circular water tanks	617
		17.5.1	Example of design of a circular water tank	619
	17.6	References		623
18	Eurocode 2			625
	18.1	Load factors		625
		18.1.1	Load factors for ultimate limit state	625
		18.1.2	Load factors for serviceability limit state	626
	18.1	Material safety factors	626
	18.2	Materials		627
	18.3	Bending analysis		627
		18.3.1	Maximum depth of neutral axis x	628
		18.3.2	Stress block depth	628
		18.3.3	Maximum moment permitted in a rectangular
			beam with no compression steel	628
		18.3.4	Lever arm z	628
		18.3.5	Moment redistribution	629
	18.4	Examples of beam design for bending	630
		18.4.1	Singly reinforced rectangular beam	630
		18.4.2	Doubly reinforced beam	631
		18.4.3	T-beam design	632
	18.5	Shear design: standard method	634
		18.5.1	Maximum permissible shear stress	634
		18.5.2	Permissible shear stress in reinforced concrete	634
		18.5.3	Total shear capacity	635
		18.5.4	Shear reinforcement in the form of links	636
		18.5.5	Maximum permitted spacing of links	636
		18.5.6	Minimum area of links	636
		18.5.7	Example of shear design	637
	18.6	Punching shear		639
		18.6.1	Location of critical perimeter	639
		18.6.2	Maximum permissible shear stress, vmax	640
		18.6.3	Permissible shear stress, vc	640
		18.6.4	Shear reinforcement	641
		18.6.5	Example		641
	18.7	Columns		642
		18.7.1	Short or slender column?	643
		18.7.2	Example		643
	18.8	Detailing		645
		18.8.1	Bond		645
		18.8.2	Anchorage lengths	645
		18.8.3	Longitudinal reinforcement in beams	646
	18.9	References		646
19	Deflection and cracking		647
	19.1	Deflection calculation	647
		19.1.1	Loads on the structure	647
		19.1.2	Analysis of the structure	647
		19.1.3	Method for calculating deflection	648
		19.1.4	Calculation of curvatures	648
		19.1.5	Cracked section analysis	648
			19.1.5.1	Simplified approach	651
		19.1.6	Uncracked section	651
		19.1.7	Long-term loads: creep	652
		19.1.8	Shrinkage curvature	652
		19.1.9	Total long-term curvature	653
		19.1.10	Deflection calculation	653
			19.1.10.1	Evaluation of constant k	653
	19.2	Example of deflection calculation for T-beam	654
	19.3	Calculation of crack widths	661
		19.3.1 cracking in reinforced concrete beam	661
		19.3.2	Crack width equation	661
	19.4	Example of crack width calculation for T-beam	662
	19.5	References		665
Additional References		667
Index				669

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Reinforced concrete construction.