Table of contents for Main currents of Marxism : the founders, the golden age, the breakdown / Leszek Kolakowski ; translated from the Polish by P.S. Falla.

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book one 
The Founders
1
Bibliographical Note 000
Introduction 000
I The Origins of Dialectic 000
	1.	The contingency of human existence 000
	2.	The soteriology of Plotinus 000
	3.	Plotinus and Christian Platonism. The search for the reason of 
creation 000
	4.	Eriugena and Christian theogony 000
	5.	Eckhart and the dialectic of deification 000
	6.	Nicholas of Cusa. The contradictions of Absolute Being 000
	7.	B¿hme and the duality of Being 000
	8.	Angelus Silesius and Fenelon: salvation through annihilation 000
	9.	The Enlightenment. The realization of man in the schema of naturalism 
000
	10.	Rousseau and Hume. Destruction of the belief in natural harmony 000
	11.	Kant. The duality of man's being, and its remedy 000
	12.	Fichte and the self-conquest of the spirit 000
	13.	Hegel. The progress of consciousness towards the Absolute 000
	14.	Hegel. Freedom as the goal of history 000
II The Hegelian Left 000
	1.	The disintegration of Hegelianism 000
	2.	David Strauss and the critique of religion 000
	3.	Cieszkowski and the philosophy of action 000
	4.	Bruno Bauer and the negativity of self-consciousness 000
	5.	Arnold Ruge. The radicalization of the Hegelian Left 000
III Marx's Thought in Its Earliest Phase 000
	1.	Early years and studies 000
	2.	Hellenistic philosophy as understood by the Hegelians 000
	3.	Marx's studies of Epicurus. Freedom and self-consciousness 000
IV Hess and Feuerbach 000
	1.	Hess. The philosophy of action 000
	2.	Hess. Revolution and freedom 000
	3.	Feuerbach and religious alienation 000
	4.	Feuerbach's second phase. Sources of the religious fallacy 000
V Marx's Early Political and Philosophical Writings 000
	1.	The state and intellectual freedom 000
	2.	Criticism of Hegel. The state, society, individuality 000
	3.	The idea of social emancipation 000
	4.	The discovery of the proletariat 127
VI The Paris Manuscripts/The Theory of 
Alienated Labour/The Young Engels 000
	1.	Critique of Hegel. Labour as the foundation of humanity 000
	2.	The social and practical character of knowledge 000
	3.	The alienation of labour. Dehumanized man 000
	4.	Critique of Feuerbach 000
	5.	Engels's early writings 000
VII The Holy Family 000
	1.	Communism as a historical trend. The class-consciousness of the 
proletariat 000
	2.	Progress and the masses 000
	3.	The world of needs 000
	4.	The tradition of materialism 000
VIII The German Ideology 000
	1.	The concept of ideology 000
	2.	Social being and consciousness 000
	3.	The division of labour, and its abolition 000
	4.	Individuality and freedom 000
	5.	Stirner and the philosophy of Egocentrism 000
	6.	Critique of Stirner. The individual and the community 000
	7.	Alienation and the division of labour 000
	8.	The liberation of man and the class struggle 000
	9.	The epistemological meaning of the theory of false consciousness 000
IX Recapitulation 000
X Socialist Ideas in the First Half of the Nineteenth 
Century as Compared with Marxian Socialism 000
	1.	The rise of the socialist idea 000
	2.	Babouvism 000
	3.	Saint-Simonism 000
	4.	Owen 000
	5.	Fourier 000
	6.	Proudhon 000
	7.	Weitling 000
	8.	Cabet 000
	9.	Blanqui 000
	10. Blanc 000
	11. Marxism and 'Utopian Socialism' 000
	12. Marx's Critique of Proudhon 000
	13. The Communist Manifesto 000
XI The Writings and Struggles of Marx and Engels after 1847 000
	1.	Developments in the 1850s 000
	2.	Lassalle 000
	3.	The First International. Bakunin 000
XII Capitalism as a Dehumanized World. 
The Nature of Exploitation 000
	1.	The controversy as to the relation of Capital to Marx's early writings 
000
	2.	The classical economic tradition and the theory of value 000
	3.	The double form of value and the double character of labour 000
	4.	Commodity fetishism. Labour-power as a commodity 000
	5.	The alienation of labour and of its product 000
	6.	The alienation of the process of socialization 000
	7.	The pauperization of the working class 000
	8.	The nature and historical mission of capitalism 000
	9.	The distribution of surplus value 000
XIII The Contradictions of Capital and Their Abolition. 
The Unity of Analysis and Action 000
	1.	The falling rate of profit and the inevitable collapse of capitalism 
000
	2.	The economical and political struggle of the proletariat 000
	3.	The nature of socialism, and its two phases 000
	4.	The dialectic of Capital: the whole and the part, the concrete 
	and the abstract 000
	5.	The dialectic of Capital: consciousness and the historical process 
000
	6.	Comments on Marx's theory of value and exploitation 000
XIV The Motive Forces of the Historical Process 000
	1. Productive forces, relations of production, superstructure 000
	2.	Social being and consciousness 000
	3.	Historical progress and its contradictions 000
	4.	The monistic interpretation of social relationships 000
	5.	The concept of class 000
	6.	The origin of class 000
	7.	The functions of the state and its abolition 000
	8.	Commentary on historical materialism 000
XV The Dialectic of Nature 000
	1.	The scientistic approach 000
	2.	Materialism and idealism. The twilight of philosophy 000
	3.	Space and time 000
	4.	The variability of nature 000
	5.	Multiple forms of change 000
	6.	Causality and chance 000
	7.	The dialectic in nature and in thought 000
	8.	Quantity and quality 000
	9.	Contradictions in the world 000
	10.	The negation of the negation 000
	11.	Critique of agnosticism 000
	12.	Experience and theory 000
	13.	The relativity of knowledge 000
	14.	Practice as the criterion of truth 000
	15.	The sources of religion 000
XVI Recapitulation and Philosophical Commentary 000
	1.	Marx's philosophy and that of Engels 000
	2.	Three motifs in Marxism 000
	3.	Marxism as the source of Leninism 000
Selective Bibliography 000
book two 
The Golden Age
000
I Marxism and the Second International 000
II German Orthodoxy: Karl Kautsky 000
	1.	Life and writings 000
	2.	Nature and society 000
	3.	Consciousness and the development of society 000
	4.	Revolution and socialism 000
	5.	Critique of Leninism 000
	6.	Inconsistencies in Kautsky's philosophy 000
	7.	A note on Mehring 000
III Rosa Luxemburg and the Revolutionary Left 000
	1.	Biographical Information 000
	2.	The theory of accumulation and the inevitable collapse of capitalism 
000
	3.	Reform and revolution 000
	4.	The consciousness of the proletariat and forms of political 
organization 000
	5.	The national question 000
IV Bernstein and Revisionism 000
	1.	The concept of revisionism 000
	2.	Biographical information 000
	3.	The laws of history and the dialectic 000
	4.	The revolution and the 'ultimate goal' 000
	5.	The significance of revisionism 000
V Jean Jaur¿s: Marxism as a Soteriology 000
	1.	Jaur¿s as a conciliator 000
	2.	Biographical outline 000
	1.	The metaphysics of universal unity 000
	1.	The directing forces of history 000
	1.	Socialism and the republic 000
	1.	Jaur¿s's Marxism 000
VI Paul Lafargue: A Hedonist Marxism 000
VII Georges Sorel: A Jansenist Marxism 000
	1.	The place of Sorel 000
	2.	Biographical outline 000
	3.	Rationalism versus history. Utopia and myth. Criticism of the 
Enlightenment 000
	4.	Ricorsi. The separation of classes and the discontinuity of culture 
000
	5.	Moral revolution and historical necessity 000
	6.	Marxism, anarchism, Fascism 000
VIII Antonio Labriola: An Attempt at an Open Orthodoxy 000
	1.	Labriola's style 000
	2.	Biographical note 000
	3.	Early writings 000
	4.	Philosophy of history 000
IX Ludwik Krzywicki: Marxism as an Instrument of Sociology 000
	1.	Biographical note 000
	2.	Critique of the biological theory of society 000
	3.	Prospects of socialism 000
	4.	Mind and production. Tradition and change 000
X Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz: A Polish Brand of Orthodoxy 000
XI Stanislaw Brzozowski: Marxism as Historical Subjectivism 000
	1.	Biographical note 000
	2.	Philosophical development 000
	3.	The philosophy of labour 000
	4.	Socialism, the proletariat, and the nation 000
	5.	Brzozowski's Marxism 000
XII Austro-Marxists, Kantians in the Marxist Movement, 
Ethical Socialism 000
	1.	The concept of Austro-Marxism 000
	2.	The revival of Kantianism 000
	3.	Ethical socialism 000
	4.	Kantianism in Marxism 000
	5.	The Austro-Marxists: biographical information 000
	6.	Adler: the transcendental foundation of the social sciences 000
	7.	Adler's critique of materialism and the dialectic 000
	8.	Adler: consciousness and social being 000
	9.	What is and what ought to be 000
	10.	The state, democracy, and dictatorship 000
	11.	The future of religion 000
	12.	Bauer: the theory of the nation 2000
	13.	Hilferding: the controversy on the theory of value 000
	14.	Hilferding: the theory of imperialism 000
XIII The Beginnings of Russian Marxism 000
	1.	Intellectual movements during the reign of Nicholas I 000
	2.	Herzen 000
	3.	Chernyshevsky 000
	4.	Populism and the first reception of Marxism 000
XIV Plekhanov and the Codification of Marxism 000
	1.	The origins of Marxist orthodoxy in Russia 000
	2.	Dialectical and historical materialism 000
	3.	Marxist aesthetics 000
	4.	The struggle against revisionism 000
	5.	The conflict with Leninism 000
XV Marxism in Russia before the Rise of Bolshevism 000
	1.	Lenin: early journalistic writings 000
	2.	Struve and 'legal Marxism' 000
	3.	Lenin's polemics in 1895/1901 000
XVII The Rise of Leninism 000
	1.	The controversy over Leninism 000
	2.	The party and the workers' movement. Consciousness and spontaneity 
000
	3.	The question of nationality 000
	4.	The proletariat and the bourgeoisie in the democratic revolution. 
Trotsky and the 		'permanent revolution' 000
XVII Philosophy and Politics in the Bolshevik Movement 000
	1.	Factional struggles at the time of the 1905 revolution 000
	2.	New intellectual trends in Russia 000
	3.	Empiriocriticism 000
	4.	Bogdanov and the Russian Empiriocritics 000
	5.	The philosophy of the proletariat 000
	6.	The 'God-builders' 000
	7.	Lenin's excursion into philosophy 000
	8.	Lenin and religion 000
	9.	Lenin's dialectical notebooks 000
XVII The Fortunes of Leninism: From a Theory of the State 
to a State Ideology 000
	1.	The Bolsheviks and the War 000
	2.	The Revolutions of 1917 000
	3.	The beginnings of socialist economy 000
	4.	The dictatorship of the proletariat and the dictatorship of the party 
000
	5.	The theory of imperialism and of revolution 000
	6.	Socialism and the dictatorship of the proletariat 000
	7.	Trotsky on dictatorship 000
	8.	Lenin as an ideologist of totalitarianism 000
	9.	Martov on the Bolshevik ideology 517
	10.	Lenin as a polemicist. Lenin's genius 000
Selective Bibliography 000
Book Three 
The Breakdown
000
Bibliographical Note 000
I The First Phase of Soviet Marxism. The Beginnings of Stalinism 000
	1.	What was Stalinism? 000
	2.	The stages of Stalinism 000
	3.	Stalin's early life and rise to power 000
	4.	Socialism in one country 000
	5.	Bukharin and the N.E.P. ideology. The economic controversy of the 
1920s 000
II Theoretical Controversies in Soviet Marxism in the 1920s 000
	1.	The intellectual and political climate 000
	2.	Bukharin as a philosopher 000
	3.	Philosophical controversies: Deborin versus the mechanists 000
III Marxism as the Ideology of the Soviet State 000
	1.	The ideological significance of the great purges 000
	2.	Stalin's codification of Marxism 000
	3.	The Comintern and the ideological transformation of international 
	Communism 000
IV The Crystallization of Marxism-Leninism 
after the Second World War 000
	1.	The wartime interlude 000
	2.	The new ideological offensive 000
	3.	The philosophical controversy of 1947 000
	4.	The economic debate 000
	5.	Marxism/Leninism in physics and cosmology 000
	6.	Marxist/Leninist genetics 000
	7.	General effect on Soviet science 000
	8.	Stalin on philology 000
	9.	Stalin on the Soviet economy 000
	10.	General features of Soviet culture in Stalin's last years 000
	11.	The cognitive status of dialectical materialism 000
	12.	The roots and significance of Stalinism. The question of a 'new class' 
000
	13.	European Marxism during the last phase of Stalinism 000
V Trotsky 000
	1.	The years of exile 000
	2.	Trotsky's analysis of the Soviet system, the bureaucracy, and 
'Thermidor' 000
	3.	Bolshevism and Stalinism. The idea of Soviet democracy 000
	4.	Criticism of Soviet economic and foreign policy 000
	5.	Fascism, democracy, and war 000
	6.	Conclusions 000
VI Antonio Gramsci: Communist Revisionism 000
	1.	Life and works 000
	2.	The self-sufficiency of history; historical relativism 000
	3.	Critique of 'economism'. Prevision and will 000
	4.	Critique of materialism 000
	5.	Intellectuals and the class struggle. The concept of hegemony 000
	6.	Organization and mass movement. The society of the future 000
	7.	Summary 000
VII Gy¿rgy Luk¿cs: Reason In the Service of Dogma 000
	1.	Life and intellectual development. Early writings 000
	2.	The whole and the part: critique of empiricism 000
	3.	The subject and object of history. Theory and practice. What is and 
	what ought to be. Critique of neo-Kantianism and evolutionism 000
	4.	Critique of the 'dialectic of nature' and the theory of reflection. 
	The concept of reification 000
	5.	Class-consciousness and organization 000
	6.	Critique of irrationalism 000
	7.	The whole, mediation, and mimesis as aesthetic categories 000
	8.	Realism, socialist realism, and the avant-garde 000
	9.	The exposition of Marxist mythology. Commentary 297
	10. 	Luk¿cs as a Stalinist, and his critique of Stalinism 000
VIII Karl Korsch 000
	1.	Biographical data 000
	2.	Theory and practice. Movement and ideology. Historical relativism 
000
	3.	Three phases of Marxism 000
	4.	Critique of Kautsky 000
	5.	Critique of Leninism 000
	6.	A new definition of Marxism 000
IX Lucien Goldmann 000
	1.	Life and writings 000
	2.	Genetic structuralism, Weltanschauung, and class-consciousness 000
	3.	The tragic world-view 000
	4.	Goldmann and Luk¿cs. Comment on genetic structuralism 000
X The Frankfurt School and 'Critical Theory' 000
	1.	Historical and biographical notes 000
	2.	Principles of critical theory 000
	3.	Negative dialectics 000
	4.	Critique of existential 'authenticism' 000
	5.	Critique of 'enlightenment' 000
	6.	Erich Fromm 000
	7.	Critical theory (continued). J¿rgen Habermas 000
	8.	Conclusion 000
XI Herbert Marcuse: Marxism as a 
Totalitarian Utopia of the New Left 000
	1.	Hegel and Marx versus positivism 000
	2.	Critique of contemporary civilization 000
	3.	'One-dimensional man' 000
	4.	The revolution against freedom 000
	5.	Commentary 000
XII Ernst Bloch: Marxism as a Futuristic Gnosis 000
	1.	Life and writings 000
	2.	Basic ideas 000
	3.	Greater and lesser day-dreams 000
	4.	Marxism as a 'concrete Utopia' 000
	5.	Death as an anti-Utopia. God does not yet exist, but he will 000
	6.	Matter and materialism 000
	7.	Natural law 000
	8.	Bloch's political orientation 000
	9.	Conclusion and comments 000
XIII Developments in Marxism since Stalin's Death 000
	1.	'De-Stalinization' 000
	2.	Revisionism in Eastern Europe 000
	3.	Yugoslav revisionism 000
	4.	Revisionism and orthodoxy in France 000
	5.	Marxism and the 'New Left' 000
	6.	The peasant Marxism of Mao Tse-tung 000
Epilogue 000
New Epilogue 000
Selective Bibliography 000
Index 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Socialism -- Europe -- History.
Communism -- Europe -- History.
Marx, Karl, 1818-1883.
Engels, Friedrich, 1820-1895.