Table of contents for Children, adolescents, and media violence : a critical look at the research / Steven J. Kirsh.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
 Part I: Understanding Aggression
Chapter 1: There and Back Again: A Media Violence Tale
A Look Through the Violent Sands of Time
Evaluating the Evidence for Evil Influences
Aggressive Behavior and Aggression-Related Constructs
Types of Aggression
Aggression-Related Constructs
Violent Entertainment and Aggression-Related Constructs
Answering Questions so New Questions Can be Raised
On The Value of Research
Preview of Coming Attractions
Summary
Chapter 2: Exposing The Beast Within: Aggressive Behavior Across Development
Normative Development and Individual Variation
The Developmental Pathway from Anger to Conflict to Aggression
Anger
Conflict
Normative Aggression in Preschool
Normative Aggression in Grade-School
Normative Aggression in Adolescence
School Shooters
Assessing Threats Made By Youth
Evaluating Current Threat Assessment Procedures
Correlation
Correlation is not Causation
Individual Variation in Aggressive Behavior
Desisting
Stabilizing
Escalating
On Setting
Individual Patterns of Aggression as a Function of Violent Entertainment
Sex Differences in Aggressive Behavior across Development
Sex Differences in Aggression and Violent Entertainment
Aggressive Behavior in the Context of Development
Developmental Tasks and Violent Entertainment
Excessive Aggression in Youth
Aggression and Developmental Psychopathology
The Developmental Psychopathology and Entertainment Violence
Summary
Chapter 3: Understanding The Beast Within: Theories Of Aggressive Behavior
Understanding Theories
Valid Theories
Pseudoscientific Theory
Theories of Aggression
Psychoanalytic Theory of Aggression
Evaluation of the Psychoanalytic Theory of Aggression
Application of Psychoanalytic Theory to Media Violence 
Frustration Theory
Evaluation of Frustration Theory
Application of Frustration Theory to Media Violence
Social Learning Theory
Evaluation of Social Learning Theory
Application of Social Learning Theory to Media Violence
Social Information Processing Theory of Aggression
Evaluation of Social Information Processing Theory
Application of Social Learning Theory to Media Violence
Script Theory
Evaluation of Script Theory
Application of Script Theory to Media Violence
Control Theories
Self Control Theory
Social Control Theory
Evaluation of Control Theory
Application of Control Theory to Media Violence
General Aggression Model
Evaluation of the General Aggression Model
Application of the GAM to Media Violence
Theories of Aggression and Developmental Considerations
Summary
Chapter 4: Dining on Death and Destruction: The How Much and Why of Violent Media Consumption
Media Violence Consumption across Development
Survey Research
Varieties of Survey Methods and Problems
Patterns of Violent Media Consumption
Media Consumption During Childhood
Media Consumption During Adolescence
Gender Differences in Media Consumption
Childhood
Adolescence
Reasons for Consuming Violent Entertainment
Uses and Gratification of Violent Media
Companionship
Escape
Habit
Learning
Passing Time
Relaxation
Sensation Seeking
Gratifications Specific to Violent Media
Vicarious Aggression
o Identity Formation- Individual Identity
o Identity Formation- Social Identity
Defiance of Restrictions 
Empowerment, Social Status 
Mood Management
The Importance of Understanding Why Youth Consume Violent Media
Violent Media Consumption as a Function of Development
Summary
 Part II. Effects of Specific Forms of Violent Media on Youth
Chapter 5: Violent Media and the Need to Be Strong and Powerful
Historical Proponents of Media Violence
The So-Called Modern Day Benefits of Media Violence
Anecdotal Evidence: Is it Scientific?
The Use of Flawed Data
Evaluating the Empirical Evidence Presented by Jones
Does Media Violence increase Feelings of Strength, Power, and Competence?
Self-Efficacy
Media Violence and Self-Efficacy
Does Media Violence increase feelings of Control?
Locus of Control
Media Violence and Locus of Control
o Bullying and Media Violence: What are the Similarities?
Does Media Violence Consumption Make Youth Less Likely to Aggress?
Catharsis
Media Violence and Catharsis
Does Media Violence Consumption Help Youth Deal with Anxiety and Fear?
Research on Media Violence Induced Fear
Virtual Reality and Phobias
A Final Dagger into the Heart of Sexy Vampire Slayers
Research on Media Violence and Body Image
Summary
Chapter 6: Watching The Playful Beast: Sports Violence And Aggression
Aggression in Modern Sport
There was no ?Second Spitter? Hidden in a Grassy Knoll for Roberto Alomar
Modeling Aggression and Its Consequences
Laboratory Experiments
Laboratory Experiments and Observational Learning
Observational Learning and the Roberto Alomar Incident
On the Importance of Rough-and-Tumble Play
o Differentiating Rough-and-tumble Play and Aggression
o Situations in which Rough-and-Tumble Play Turns into Aggression
o Gender and Developmental Differences
o Managing Aggression Through Play
o Media Violence and the Management of Aggression
o The Bobo Doll Studies Revisited
Sports Violence and Hostility
Sports Violence and Gender
Longitudinal Research
Laying the Smack Down on Sports Entertainment
The Nature of Physical Activity in Sports Entertainment
Competitive Contests in Sports Entertainment
Rules That Govern Play in Sports Entertainment
Research on the Effects of Viewing Professional Wrestling
Factors that Influence Imitative Behavior in Youth
Power, Similarities, and Consequences
Identification
Personal Fable
Effects of Watching Aggressive Behavior on Youth Aggression During Sport
Generalizing From Observed Sport to a Different Sport
Priming
Aggressive Networks
Summary
Chapter 7: Violence-Laden Imagination: Comic Books, Fiction, And Toys
Comic Book Violence
Comic Book Sales
Comic Book Content
Slapstick Humor
Comic Book Violence in Comparison to other Types of Media Violence
Comic Book Violence and Aggressive Behavior in Youth
Early Research
o Criterion For Scientific Research
Modern Research
o Quasi-experimental Designs
o Research Using Matched Designs
Research on Late-Adolescents and Young Adults
o Projective Tests
The Future of Media Violence Research May Be Written in Comic Books
Violence in Literature and Youthful Fear and Aggression
Frightening Stories and Fear
Aggressive Stories and Aggressive Behavior
War Toys and Aggression
War Toy Research
A Closer look at Gender Differences in War Toy Research
Critique of the War Toy Literature
Summary
Chapter 8: Animating The Beast: Cartoon Violence
Cartoons: A Brief Historical Overview
Violence in Cartoons
The Effects of Comedy on the Perception of Cartoon Violence
Cognitive Transformation
Schematic Processing
Priming
Contextual Factors
Non-comedic Cartoons and Perceived Violence
Graphicness
Perceived Actuality
Perceived Similarity
Perceived Reality
o Development and the Fantasy-Reality Distinction
o Fantasy-Reality Distinction, Cartoons, and Aggression
o Fantasy-Reality Distinction, Cartoons, and Fear
Cartoons and Aggressive Behavior: The Evidence
Disinhibition
Laboratory Research in Early Childhood
Explaining the Contradictory Findings
o Comedic and Non-comedic Violence
o Object Oriented and Person Oriented Aggression
Field Experiments in Early Childhood
Characteristics of Field Experiments
o Ecological Validity
o Demand Characteristics
o Face Validity
Research in Early Childhood
o Within and Between Subjects Designs and Field Experiments
Research in Middle Childhood
o Aggressive Behavior
o Aggression-Related Constructs
Research in Adolescence
Summary
Chapter 9: Listening To The Beast: Violence In Music And Music Videos
Historical Overview
The Targets of Modern-Day Research on Music Violence
Heavy Metal
Rap
The Popularity of Music
The Lyrical Content of Heavy Metal and Rap
Lyrics and Sexual Content
Lyrics and Violent Content
The Potential Effects of Lyrics
Lyrics: Are they Really That Important?
Lyrical Comprehension across Development
Explanations for Why Developmental Differences in Lyrical Comprehension Occur
Lyrical Incomprehension, A Double Edged Sword
The Best Comprehension is related to the Perceived Importance of the Music
On Hearing things that Cannot Be Heard
Can Backwards Masked Messages Be Detected?
Can Backwards Masked Messages Be Heard when a Song is Played Forward?
Backwards Masked Messages, Suicide, and the Law
Rockin? and a Rollin? and a Fightin?
The Effects of Music Violence on Youth
Correlational Research
Experimental Research
Linking Suicidal Lyrics and Suicidal Behavior
Prevalence and Risk
Lyrics and Suicidal Ideation
Heavy Metal Music and Suicide
o Amplification Effects and Suicide
o Heavy Metal Music and Suicide: A Link That is Broken
Sex, Violence, and Video Tape
The Buggles Were Wrong
Why Music Videos May Still be Important in the Study of Media Violence
Yearly Consumption
Music Video Content
The Effects of Violent Music Videos of Adolescents
College Students are not Children
Comparing Music Videos to Music Alone
Summary
Chapter 10: Watching The Beast: Live-Action Television And Movie Violence
Violence on Television
Differences between Movies and Television
The Context of Aggression and its Importance to Television Violence
Glamorized Violence
Glamorized Violence and Learning
Research on the Effects of Glamorization on Aggression in Youth
Justified Violence
Justified Violence in the Context of Fantasy and Reality
Contrast Effects
The Effects of Television Violence on Aggressive Behavior
Correlational Studies in Childhood
Preschool
Middle Childhood
Summary
Experimental Research in Childhood
Research on Adolescents
Correlational
Quasi-Experiments
Experimental
Introduction of Television and Aggressive Behavior
Natural Experiments
Indirect Aggression
The Effect of Television Violence on Aggression-Related Constructs
Attitudes Towards the Use of Aggression
Emotional Expression
Fantasizing
Identification with the Aggressor
Memory
Interpretation of Ambiguous Stimuli
Desensitization
Habituation to Media Violence
Desensitization to Media Violence
Important of Discriminating Habituation and Desensitization	
Research on Habituation
Research on Desensitization
Behavioral Desensitization	
o Developmental Considerations
Physiological Desensitization
Cognitive and Emotional Desensitization
Limitations of the Desensitization Research
Summary
Chapter 11: Playing With The Beast: Violent Video Games
The Popularity of Violent Video Games
Teaching Kids to Kill
Video Game Eras and Video Game Violence
Atari Era: Abstract Violence
Nintendo Era: Increasing Realism
Sony Era: Life-Like Violence
Types of Violent Video Games
First and Third Person Perspective Violent Video Games
First Person Shooter: Multi-Tiered Environment 
First Person Shooter: Rail
Third Person Shooting and Fighting
Subgenres of Violent Video Games
Online, Multiplayer Violent Video Games
The Effects of Violent Video Games on Youth as a Function of Video Game Era and Game Type
Correlational Research
Atari and Nintendo Eras
Sony Era
o Research on Children
o Research on Adolescents: Aggressive Behavior
o Research on Adolescents: Aggression Related Constructs
Putting the ?Inconsistent? Correlational Findings in Perspective
o Atari and Nintendo Era Research
o Sony Era Research
Experimental Research
Atari Era
Nintendo Era
Sony Era
Important Issues Related to Experimental Research
o Graphics and Game Type
o Developmental Issues
o Gamer Issues
o Role of Frustration
o The Color of Money and Blood
Summary
 Part III: Media Violence and the Concept of Risk
Chapter 12: Risk And Protective Factors
Beans and Aggression
Defining Risk and Protection
Child Characteristics that are Risk Factors for Aggression
Genetics
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis
 Aggression and General Underarousal
Temperament
Attachment
Developmental Status
Environmental Risk Factors
Parenting and the Parent-Child Relationship
Parenting Styles
Punishment and Monitoring
Siblings
Home Environment
Peers
Peer Acceptance
Peer Relationships
Neighborhood Violence
Protective Factors from Aggression
Protective Characteristics of the Child
Protective Characteristics in the Environment
On the Importance of Risk and Protective Factors in Media Violence Research
Summary
Chapter 13: The Threat Of Media Violence: Assessing Its Magnitude And Reducing Its Effects
Sizing it all Up
Meta-Analysis
Limitations of Meta-Analysis
Strengths of Meta-Analysis
Meta-Analysis and the Magnitude of Effects
Variance
Accountable Variance in the Social Sciences
 Meta-Analysis and Research on Media Violence
Video Games: The Baddest of the Bad?
Identification With the Aggressor and the Rewarding of Violent Behavior
Active Learning
Practice Effects and Murder
Continuous Exposure to Violence
Does Size Matter When It Comes To Different Types Of Violent Media?
Placing The Effect Sizes For Violent Media In The Context Of Other Risk Factors For Aggression
Media Violence Effect Sizes in Comparison to Health-Related Effect Sizes
Media Violence Effect Sizes In Comparison To Other Risk Factors For Aggression
Critique of Effect Size Revelations
Media Violence Exposure and Moderators
Child and Adolescent Moderators
Age
o A One Minute Course on Child Development
o On the Importance of Being Earnest About Age
Gender
Trait Aggression
o The Reverse Hypothesis
Environmental Moderators
SES
Parenting
 Multiple Moderators and Future Research
Reducing the Effects of Media Violence Consumption Through Mediation
Types of Mediation
Mediation Research
Research on Co-Viewing Mediation
Research on Restrictive Mediation
Research on Active Mediation
 Mediation Questions in Need of Answering
Summary
Chapter 14: Policy, Violent Entertainment, And Youth
Legislating Media Violence, Is There Really a Need?
A Brief Look at Policy Making
Violent Entertainment and Current Policy
Legislating Comic Books?Almost
Guidelines of the CCA
Evaluation of the Comic Book Industry?s Attempt at Self-Regulation
Legislating Music
Evaluation of the Labeling System
Legislating Movies
MPAA Rating System 
o Ratings Creep
Evaluating the MPAA Rating System
Legislating Television
Television Rating Systems and the V-Chip
Evaluating the Television Rating System and the V-Chip 
Legislating Video Games
ESRB Rating System
Evaluating the ESRB Rating System
Media Violence Policy: A Look to the Future
Summary
 Part IV: Nonviolent Media and Youth
Chapter 15: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: The Effects of Nonviolent Media on Children and Adolescents
Defining the Good, the Bad and the Ugly
The Good
Educational And Information Programs
Prosocial Media and Prosocial Actions
Media and Academic Learning
Prejudice and Stereotype Reduction
The Bad
Prejudice and Stereotype Formation
Advertising and Youth
Drug Use and the Media
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior
The Ugly
Body Image and Eating Disorders
Author Index
Subject Index
About the Author

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Mass media and children.
Mass media and teenagers.
Children and violence.
Youth and violence.
Violence in mass media.
Aggressiveness in children.
Aggressiveness in adolescence.