Table of contents for Textbook on criminal law / Michael J. Allen.

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OUTLINE CONTENTS
1 Introduction 1
2 Actus Reus 17
3 Mens Rea 51
4 Negligence and Strict Liability 96
5 Capacity and Incapacitating Conditions 114
6 General Defences 158
7 Parties to Crime 198
8 Inchoate Offences 236
9 Homicide 275
10 Non-Fatal Offences Against the Person 315
11 Offences Under the Theft Acts 1968 and 1978: Theft and Related Offences 378
12 Offences Involving Deception 430
13 Further Offences Under the Theft Acts 448
14 Criminal Damage 475
DETAILED CONTENTS
Preface xi
Table of Cases xiii
Table of Statutes xxvii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Substantive criminal law 1
1.2 Defining a crime 1
1.3 The function of the criminal law 2
1.3.1 Social control and social morality 3
1.3.2 What conduct should be classified as criminal? 9
1.4 Classifying offences 11
1.5 Procedural issues 13
1.5.1 Burden and standard of proof 13
1.5.2 The functions of judge and jury 14
1.6 The European Convention on Human Rights 15
2 Actus Reus 17
2.1 The elements of crime 17
2.1.1 General 17
2.1.2 Defences 18
2.2 Defining an actus reus 19
2.3 Proving an actus reus 20
2.4 Conduct must be voluntary 20
2.4.1 General 20
2.4.2 State of affairs offences 22
2.5 Omissions 23
2.5.1 General 23
2.5.2 Classifying omissions 25
2.6 Causation 32
2.6.1 General 32
2.6.2 Factual causation 32
2.6.3 Legal causation 33
2.7 Coincidence of actus reus and mens rea 47
3 Mens Rea 51
3.1 Introduction 51
3.2 Intention 52
3.2.1 What might intention mean? 52
3.2.2 What should intention mean? 53
3.2.3 How have the courts defined intention? 54
3.2.4 Basic, specific and ulterior intent 69
3.3 Knowledge 70
3.4 Recklessness 72
3.4.1 What might recklessness mean? 72
3.4.2 How have the courts defined recklessness? 73
3.5 Wilfulness 83
3.6 Mistake 85
3.6.1 Relevant mistakes 85
3.6.2 Irrelevant mistakes 90
4 Negligence and Strict Liability 96
4.1 Negligence 96
4.1.1 The meaning of negligence 96
4.1.2 Criminal liability for negligence 96
4.1.3 Does the reasonable man share any of the accused's characteristics? 98
4.2 Strict liability 99
4.2.1 The meaning of strict liability 99
4.2.2 The origins of strict liability 100
4.2.3 Identifying offences of strict liability 102
4.2.4 Justifications for strict liability 109
4.2.5 Defences to strict liability 112
5 Capacity and Incapacitating Conditions 114
5.1 Introduction 114
5.2 Age and criminal responsibility 114
5.3 Insanity 117
5.3.1 Introduction 117
5.3.2 The rationale for a defence of insanity 119
5.3.3 The law 120
5.3.4 Proposals for reform 130
5.4 Automatism 131
5.4.1 Defining automatism 131
5.4.2 The causes of automatism 132
5.4.3 Self-induced automatism 135
5.5 Diminished responsibility 135
5.5.1 Operation of the defence 135
5.5.2 Nature of the defence 137
5.5.3 Proposals for reform 142
5.6 Intoxication 145
5.6.1 Intoxication and responsibility 145
5.6.2 The effect of voluntary intoxication on criminal liability 145
5.6.3 Offences of specific and basic intent 146
5.6.4 Degree of intoxication and jury direction 149
5.6.5 Intoxication and defences 150
5.6.6 The problem of Dutch courage 152
5.6.7 Intoxication causing insanity or an abnormality of mind 153
5.6.8 Involuntary intoxication 153
5.6.9 Proposals for reform 154
6 General Defences 158
6.1 Introduction 158
6.2 Duress 159
6.2.1 General 159
6.2.2 The nature of the threat 160
6.2.3 The threatoffence nexus 162
6.2.4 The test for duress 162
6.2.5 Imminence of the threat and opportunities to escape 167
6.2.6 Duress arising from voluntary association with criminals 169
6.2.7 Limits to the defence 170
6.3 Necessity 174
6.3.1 General 174
6.3.2 Duress of circumstances: necessity by any other name? 177
6.3.3 The limits of duress of circumstances 180
6.4 Marital coercion 183
6.5 Private defence and prevention of crime 184
6.5.1 General 184
6.5.2 The necessity of force 185
6.5.3 The reasonableness of the force 190
6.5.4 Extent of the justifications 193
6.5.5 Resisting justifiable conduct 193
6.5.6 Fatal force and the European Convention on Human Rights 194
6.6 Reform 196
7 Parties to Crime 198
7.1 Accomplices 198
7.1.1 Principals and accessories 198
7.1.2 Aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring 201
7.1.3 Proving the principal offence 204
7.1.4 Mens rea of an accessory 207
7.1.5 Withdrawal from the joint enterprise 217
7.1.6 Victims as accessories 220
7.1.7 Entrapment and accessorial liability 220
7.2 Vicarious liability 224
7.2.1 Vicarious liability by implication 225
7.2.2 The delegation principle 226
7.2.3 Limitations on vicarious liability 228
7.2.4 Statutory defences 229
7.3 Corporate liability 229
7.3.1 The principle of identification 230
7.3.2 Liability of officers 234
8 Inchoate Offences 236
8.1 Introduction 236
8.2 Incitement 237
8.2.1 Actus reus 237
8.2.2 Mens rea 238
8.2.3 Excluded offences 240
8.2.4 Impossibility 241
8.3 Conspiracy 242
8.3.1 Introduction 242
8.3.2 Common elements 243
8.3.3 Statutory conspiracy 245
8.3.4 Common law conspiracies 253
8.4 Attempt 259
8.4.1 Statutory definition and scope 259
8.4.2 Mens rea 260
8.4.3 Actus reus 264
8.4.4 Impossibility 269
8.5 Jurisdiction 271
9 Homicide 275
9.1 Introduction 275
9.1.1 Actus reus 275
9.2 Murder 277
9.3 Manslaughter 278
9.3.1 Introduction 278
9.3.2 Voluntary manslaughter 279
9.3.3 Involuntary manslaughter 296
9.3.4 Reform 307
9.3.5 Other unlawful homicides 310
10 Non-Fatal Offences Against the Person 315
10.1 Non-sexual offences 315
10.1.1 Assault and battery 315
10.1.2 Wounding and inflicting grievous bodily harm 338
10.1.3 Wounding or causing grievous bodily harm with intent 342
10.1.4 Administering poison 343
10.1.5 Reform 346
10.2 Sexual offences 351
10.2.1 Rape 351
10.2.2 Assault by penetration 362
10.2.3 Sexual assault 363
10.2.4 Causing a person to engage in sexual activity without consent 365
10.2.5 Offences against children 367
10.2.6 Familial sex offences 374
10.2.7 Offences against persons with a mental disorder 375
10.2.8 Preparatory offences 375
10.2.9 Other sexual offences 377
11 Offences Under the Theft Acts 1968 and 1978: Theft and Related Offences 378
11.1 Introduction 378
11.2 Theft 379
11.2.1 Actus reus 379
11.2.2 Mens rea 409
11.3 Abstracting electricity 420
11.4 Robbery 420
11.4.1 The need to prove theft 420
11.4.2 The need to prove force or threat of force 421
11.5 Offences involving temporary deprivation 422
11.5.1 Removal of articles from places open to the public 423
11.5.2 Taking a conveyance without authority 424
12 Offences Involving Deception 430
12.1 Introduction 430
12.2 Common elements of deception offences 430
12.2.1 Deception 430
12.2.2 The `obtaining' must be by deception 434
12.2.3 `Dishonestly' 436
12.3 Obtaining property by deception 436
12.3.1 Actus reus 436
12.3.2 Mens rea 437
12.4 Obtaining a money transfer by deception 437
12.5 Obtaining services by deception 439
12.5.1 Actus reus 439
12.5.2 Mens rea 442
12.6 Evasion of liability by deception 442
12.6.1 Liability to make a payment 443
12.6.2 Securing remission of an existing liability 443
12.6.3 Inducing a creditor to wait for or forgo payment 444
12.6.4 Obtaining exemption from or abatement of liability 444
12.7 Obtaining a pecuniary advantage by deception 445
12.7.1 Section 16(2)(b) 446
12.7.2 Section 16(2)(c) 446
13 Further Offences Under the Theft Acts 448
13.1 Making off without payment 448
13.1.1 Actus reus 448
13.1.2 Mens rea 450
13.2 Burglary 450
13.2.1 Entry as a trespasser 451
13.2.2 Any building or part of a building 454
13.2.3 The ulterior offence 456
13.3 Aggravated burglary 457
13.4 Blackmail 459
13.4.1 Demand 459
13.4.2 Menaces 459
13.4.3 Unwarranted demand 460
13.4.4 With a view to gain or intent to cause loss 462
13.5 Handling 463
13.5.1 Actus reus 463
13.5.2 Mens rea 471
13.6 Dishonestly retaining a wrongful credit 473
14 Criminal Damage 475
14.1 Introduction 475
14.2 Destroying or damaging property belonging to another 475
14.2.1 Actus reus 475
14.2.2 Mens rea 478
14.3 Destroying or damaging property with intent to endanger life 482
14.3.1 Actus reus 482
14.3.2 Mens rea 482
14.3.3 Without lawful excuse 484
14.4 Threats to destroy or damage property 484
14.5 Possessing anything with intent to destroy or damage property 485
14.6 Racially or religiously aggravated criminal damage 485
Index 487

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Criminal law -- Great Britain.