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Table of Contents Preface 1. Introduction: Cell Mechanisms and Cell Biology 1. A Different Kind of Science 2. The Organization of Science into Disciplines 3. The New Discipline of Cell Biology 2. Explaining Cellular Phenomena through Mechanisms 1. Historical Conceptions of Mechanism 2. 20th Century Conceptions of Mechanism 3. Current Conceptions of Mechanism Mechanisms explain phenomena Component parts and component operations Organization and orchestration 4. Representing and reasoning about mechanisms 5. Levels of Organization and Reduction 6. Organization: From Cartesian to Biological Mechanisms 7. Discovering and Testing Models of Mechanisms Identifying working parts Identifying component operations Localizing opertions in parts Testing models of mechanisms 8. Conclusions 3. The Locus of Cell Mechanisms: Terra Incognita between Cytology and Biochemistry 1. Cytological Contributions to Discovering Cell Mechanisms up to 1940 Cytology in the 19th Century Cell Membranes (1825--1935) The Mitochondrion (1890--1925) Ergastoplasm or Basophilia (1900--1930) The Golgi Apparatus (1900--1940) The State of Cytology Circa 1940 2. Biochemical Contributions to Discovering Cell Mechanisms up to 1940 Foundations for Biochemistry in the 19th Century The Emergence of Biochemistry in the 20th Century Alcoholic and Lactic Acid Fermentation (1895--1940) Aerobic Cellular Respiration (1910--1940) The State of Biochemistry Circa 1940 3. The Need to Enter the Terra Incognita between Cytology and Biochemistry 4. Creating New Instruments and Research Techniques to Study Cell Mechanisms 1. The Epistemology of Evidence: Judging Artifacts 2. The Ultracentrifuge and Cell Fractionation Breaking Cell Membranes Choice of Media Centrifugation Regime Interpreting Fractionation Results 3. The Electron Microscope and Electron Microsopy Obtaining Sufficiently Thin Specimens Altering the Specimen to Survive Microscopy and Generate an Image 4. A Case Study of an Artifact Charge 5. Equipped with New Instruments and Techniques to Enter Terra Incognita 5. Entering the Terra Incognita between Biochemistry and Cytology: Putting New Research Tools to Work in the 1940s 1. First Steps Towards Cell Biology at the Rockefeller Institute: Claude's Introduction of Cell Fractionation 2. Robert Bensley: An Alternative Approach to Fractionation 3. Competing Interpretations of Fractions from Normal Cells 4. Linking Claude's Microsomes to Protein Synthesis Brachet: Selective Staining of RNA and Correlation with Protein Synthesis Caspersson: Spectrographic Analysis, RNA, and Protein Synthesis 5. Adding a Biochemical Perspective to the Rockefeller Laboratory 6. Adding Electron Microscopy as a Tool 7. The State of Cell Studies at the End of the 1940s 6. New Knowledge: The Mechanisms of the Cytoplasm 1. The Mitochondrion Biochemists Confront Particulate Structure: Mitochondrial Enzyme Systems More Structure: The Discovery of the Cristae of the Mitochondrion A Competing Perspective on Mitochondrial Morphology Biochemists Further Fractionate Mitochondria One More Piece of Structure and a Proposal as to its Function Radical Reconceptualization of Oxidative Metabolism 2. Microsomes, the Endoplasmic Reticulum, and Ribosomes From Lace--Like Reticulum to Endoplasmic Reticulum Dissenting Voices Securing the Connection to Protein Synthesis Integrating Morphology and Biochemistry Naming the Ribosome Going to a Lower Level: Decomposing the RNA Machinery Transporting Newly Sequenced Polypeptides 3. Two Additional Organelles The Golgi Apparatus The Lysosome 7. Giving Cell Biology an Institutional Identity 1. Creation of the Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology 2. Creation of the American Society for Cell Biology Afterword References
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Cytology -- history.