Table of contents for Measurement by the physical educator : why and how / David K. Miller.

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Counter
 CONTENTSPreface	ix
	1	Measurement, Evaluation, 
Assessment, and Statistics	1
Reasons for Measurement, 
Evaluation, and Assessment 
by the Physical Educator	2
Motivation	2
Diagnosis	2
Classification	3
Achievement	3
Evaluation of Instruction 
and Programs	3
Prediction	3
Research	4
Why Statistics?	4
Analyze and Interpret Data	4
Interpret Research	4
Standardize Test Scores	4
Determine the Worth (Validity 
and Reliability) of a Test	4
	2	Describing and Presenting a 
Distribution of Scores	5
Statistical Terms	5
Scales of Measurement	6
Nominal Scale	7
Ordinal Scale	7
Interval Scale	7
Ratio Scale	7
Normal Distribution	8
Analysis of Ungrouped Data	10
Score Rank	10
Measures of Central Tendency	10
Which Measure of Central Tendency 
Is Best for Interpretation 
of Test Results?	13
Measures of Variability	14
Relationship of Standard Deviation 
and Normal Curve	19
Which Measure of Variability Is 
Best for Interpretation of Test 
Results?	22
Percentiles and Percentile Ranks	22
Review Problems	23
Analysis of Grouped Data	23
Measures of Central Tendency	26
Measures of Variability	27
Review Problems	28
Graphs	28
Histogram	28
Frequency Polygon	28
Standard Scores	29
z-Scores	30
T-Scores	30
Percentiles	31
Statistics Software	32
Review Problem	32
	3	Investigating the Relationship 
of and Differences in Scores	33
Correlation	33
Scattergram 	34
Spearman Rank-Difference 
Correlation Coefficient 	35
Pearson Product-Moment 
Correlation Coefficient 	35
Interpretation of the Correlation Coefficient 	37
Significance of the Correlation 
Coefficient 	38
Coefficient of Determination 	38
Negative Correlation Coefficients 	39
Other Correlation Techniques 	39
Phi Coefficient 	39
Point Biserial Coefficient 	39
Biserial Correlation Coefficient	39
Tetrachoric Correlation Coefficient 	39
Review Problems 	40
Testing for Significant Difference Between Two Means 	40
The Null Hypothesis 	41
Degrees of Freedom 	41
Level of Significance 	41
Standard Error of the Mean 	42
Standard Error of the Difference 
Between Means 	42
t-Test for Independent Groups 	42
t-Test for Dependent Groups 	44
Review Problems 	45
Testing for Significant Difference 
Among Three or More Means 	46
Special Terms and Symbols	46
Analysis of Variance 
for Independent Groups	46
Post Hoc Test	47
Analysis of Variance 
for Repeated Measures 	49
Post Hoc Test	51
Intraclass Correlation Coefficient	52
Review Problems	52
	4	What Is a Good Test?	55
Criterion-Referenced 
Measurement	55
Norm-Referenced Measurement	56
Validity	56
Validity of Norm-Referenced Tests	57
Validity of Criterion-Referenced 
Tests	58
Factors Affecting Validity	59
Reliability	59
Reliability of Norm-Referenced 
Tests	60
Reliability of Criterion-Referenced 
Tests	61
Factors Affecting Reliability	61
Objectivity	62
Administrative Feasibility	62
Review Problems	63
	5	Construction of Knowledge Tests	65
Steps in Construction of a Test	65
Test Planning	65
Test Item Construction	67
Test Administration	67
Item Analysis	67
Item Revision	69
Objective Test Items	70
True-False Items	70
Multiple-Choice Items	72
Short-Answer and Completion 
Items	 73
Matching Items	74
Essay Test Items	75
Guidelines for Writing Essay Items	75
Guidelines for Scoring Essay Items	76
Examples of Essay Items	76
Review Problems	77
	6	Assessing and Grading the Students	79
Characteristics of Authentic 
Assessment	80
Formal Record Keeping	80
Natural Surroundings	80
Formative and Summative 
Assessment	80
Technique (Form) and End Result	80
Self-Assessment and Peer 
Assessment	81
Portfolio Assessment	82
Grading	82
Use of Grades	82
Students	82
Parents	83
Teachers	83
Administrators	83
Factors Used in Grading	83
Affective Factors	83
Cognitive Factors	84
Psychomotor Factors	84
Criteria for Grades	86
Methods of Grading	87
Norm-Referenced Grading	87
Criterion-Referenced Grading	89
Which Method of Grading 
Is Best?	91
The Weighting of Factors	91
Reporting of Final Grades	91
Review Problem	92
	7	Construction and Administration 
of Psychomotor Tests	93
Test Construction Guidelines	93
Know What Is Required of a 
Good Test	93
Define the Performance to Be 
Measured	93
Analyze the Performance	94
Review the Literature	94
Devise the Test Items	94
Prepare the Directions	94
Have the Test Reviewed 
by Your Peers	95
Administer the Test to a Small 
Group of Students	95
Determine the Validity, Reliability, 
and Objectivity	95
Develop the Norms	96
Determine Intercorrelations	96
Test Administration 
Responsibilities	97
Pretest Responsibilities	97
Testing Responsibilities	98
Posttest Responsibilities	98
Types of Psychomotor Tests	98
Review Problems	99
	8	Agility	101
Why Measure Agility?	101
Tests of Agility	102
Activities to Develop Agility	106
Changes in the Height of the Body 
in Jumps	106
Changes in Distance	106
Changes in Direction	107
Other Agility Activities	107
Review Problems	108
	9	Balance	109
Why Measure Balance?	109
Tests of Balance	110
Static Balance Tests	110
Dynamic Balance Tests	112
Activities to Develop Balance	114
Static Balance Activities	114
Dynamic Balance Activities	114
Recapturing Balance Activities	114
Review Problems	114
	10	Cardiorespiratory Fitness	115
Why Measure Cardiorespiratory 
Fitness?	115
Tests of Cardiorespiratory 
Fitness	116
Development of 
Cardiorespiratory Fitness	125
Review Problems	128
	11	Flexibility	129
Why Measure Flexibility?	129
Tests of Flexibility	130
Exercises to Develop Flexibility	135
Neck	138
Shoulder and Upper Chest	138
Upper Back	138
Lower Back	138
Trunk	138
Posterior Hip, Upper Leg, 
and Lower Back	138
Anterior Hip and Thigh	139
Groin Area	139
Posterior Lower Leg	139
Foot and Ankle	139
Review Problems	139
	12	Muscular Strength, Endurance, 
and Power	141
Why Measure Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power?	141
Tests of Muscular Strength 
and Endurance	142
Tests with Weight-Training 
Equipment	142
Tests Requiring Limited 
Equipment	143
Muscular Power	153
Exercises to Develop Muscular 
Strength and Endurance	155
Posterior Upper Arms, Shoulders, 
Chest, and Upper Back	155
Anterior Upper Arms, Shoulders, 
Chest, and Upper Back	156
Abdomen	156
Lateral Trunk	156
Lower Back and Buttocks	156
Lateral Hips and Thighs	156
Upper Legs	157
Lower Legs	157
Review Problems	157
	13	Anthropometry and Body 
Composition	159
Why Measure Body Structure 
and Composition?	159
Body Type Classification 
(Somatotyping)	160
Height-Weight Tables	161
Elbow Breadth	164
Ankle Girth	164
Body Composition	164
Skinfold Tests	165
Estimating Percent Body Fat	166
Optimal Percent Body Fat 
and Desirable Body Weight	169
Cooper Method for Determining 
Ideal Weight 	174
Body Mass Index (BMI)	174
Fat Distribution	174
Weight-Loss Programs	175
Review Problems	175
	14	Posture and Body Mechanics	177
Why Measure Posture 
and Body Mechanics?	178
Measures of Posture	178
Standing Posture Measurement	179
Foot Alignment Measurement	179
Descriptions of Proper Posture 
and Body Mechanics	179
Standing	179
Walking	182
Running for Speed	182
Running for Distance	182
Sitting	183
Lifting Heavy Objects	183
Lifting an Object from a Height	183
Carrying Heavy Objects	183
Lying	183
Exercises to Correct Postural 
Deviations 	183
Lumbar Lordosis	183
Kyphosis	184
Winged Scapula	184
Scoliosis	184
Knock Knee	185
Bowlegs	185
Toeing In and Toeing Out	185
Flatfeet	185
Foot Pronation	185
Review Problems	186
	15	Physical Fitness	187
Why Measure Physical Fitness?	188
Guidelines for the Administration 
and Use of Fitness Tests 	188
Norm-Referenced Standards 
Versus Criterion-Referenced 
Standards 	188
Tests of Health-Related 
Physical Fitness	189
Tests of Skill-Related 
Physical Fitness	202
Development of Health-Related 
and Skill-Related Physical 
Fitness	209
Review Problems	211
	16	Older Adult	213
Why Measure Functional Fitness?	213
Tests of Functional Fitness	214
Physical Activity 
for the Older Adult	221
Activity	221	Frequency	222	Duration	222 
Intensity	222
	17	Special Populations	223
Why Measure Special Populations?	223
Norm-Referenced or Criterion-Referenced Tests?	224
Perceptual-Motor Performance 
Tests	225
Motor Performance Tests	226
Physical Fitness Tests	229
Review Problems	235
	18	Sports Skills	237
Why Measure Sports Skills?	237
Individual and Dual Sports	238
Archery	238
Badminton	238
Golf	240
Handball	241
Racquetball	243
Tennis	244
Team Sports	247
Basketball	247
Field Hockey	250
Football	251
Soccer	253
Softball	254
Volleyball	257
Review Problems	261
Sources of Additional Sports 
Skills Tests	262
Archery	262
Badminton	262
Basketball	262
Bowling	262
Field Hockey	262
Football	262
Golf	262
Handball	262
Racquetball	262
Soccer	263
Softball	263
Swimming	263
Tennis	263
Volleyball	263
	19	Affective Behavior	265
Why Measure Affective Behavior?	266
Uses for Groups	266
Uses for Individuals	266
Categories of Measures	266
Types of Items	267
Likert Scale	267
Semantic Differential	267
Rating Scale	268
Questionnaire	268
Instruments for Measurement 
of Affective Behavior	268
Social Behavior	268
Attitudes	269
Sportsmanship	276
Leadership	279
Competition Anxiety	279
Other Measures	282
Review Problems	286
Sources of Additional Instruments 
for Measurement of Affective 
Behavior	286
Attitudes	286
Body Image	286
Self-Esteem	286
Sportsmanship	286
APPENDICES 	287
	A	Square Root Example	287
	B	Values of the Correlation 
Coefficient (r)	288
	C	Critical Values of t 
(Two-Tailed Test)	289
	D	F-Distribution	290
	E	Values of the Studentized 
Range (q)	294
REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL READING	296
Index	303#CONTENTS ## CONTENTSCONTENTS ##

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Physical fitness -- Testing.
Physical fitness -- Testing -- Statistics.