Table of contents for Basic English grammar / Betty Schrampfer Azar.

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CONTENTS
Preface to the Third Edition	 xi
Acknowledgment	 xv
Chapter 1	Using BE
1-1	Noun 1 is 1 noun: singular	 2
1-2	Noun 1 are 1 noun: plural	 4
1-3	Pronoun 1 be 1 noun	 7
1-4	Contractions with be	 8
1-5	Negative with be	 10
1-6	Be 1 adjective	 12
1-7	Be 1 a place	 18
1-8	Summary: basic sentence patterns with be	 21
Chapter 2	Using Be and Have
2-1	Yes/no questions with be	 24
2-2	Short answers to yes/no questions	 25
2-3	Questions with be: using where	 28
2-4	Using have and has	 30
2-5	Using my, your, his, her, our, their	 33
2-6	Using this and that	 38
2-7	Using these and those	 40
2-8	Asking questions with what and who 1 be	 42
Chapter 3	Using the Simple Present
3-1	Form and basic meaning of the simple present tense	 53
3-2	Using frequency adverbs: always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom
, rarely, never	 56
3-3	Other frequency expressions	 58
3-4	Using frequency adverbs with be	 59
3-5	Spelling and pronunciation of final -es	 61
3-6	Adding final -s/-es to words that end in -y	 63
3-7	Irregular singular verbs: has, does, goes	 64
3-8	Spelling and pronunciation of final -s/-es	 66
3-9	The simple present: negative	 69
3-10	The simple present: yes/no questions	 74
3-11	The simple present: asking information questions with where	 78
3-12	The simple present: asking information questions with when 
and what time	 80
3-13	Summary: information questions with be and do	 82
Chapter 4	Using the Present Progressive
4-1	Be 1 -ing: the present progressive tense	 92
4-2	Spelling of -ing	 97
4-3	The present progressive: negatives	 99
4-4	The present progressive: questions	 102
4-5	The simple present vs. the present progressive	 106
4-6	Nonaction verbs not used in the present progressive	 111
4-7	See, look at, watch, hear, and listen to	 114
4-8	Think about and think that	 117
Chapter 5	Talking About the Present
5-1	Using it to talk about time	 121
5-2	Prepositions of time	 123
5-3	Using it to talk about the weather	 125
5-4	There 1 be	 128
5-5	There 1 be: yes/no questions	 130
5-6	There 1 be: asking questions with how many	 133
5-7	Prepositions of place	 134
5-8	Some prepositions of place: a list	 135
5-9	Need and want 1 a noun or an infinitive	 143
5-10	Would like	 146
5-11	Would like vs. like	 148
Chapter 6	Nouns and Pronouns
6-1	Nouns: subjects and objects	 158
6-2	Adjective 1 noun	 161
6-3	Subject pronouns and object pronouns	 164
6-4	Nouns: singular and plural	 168
6-5	Nouns: irregular plural forms	 173
Chapter 7	Count and Noncount Nouns
7-1	Nouns: count and noncount	 181
7-2	Using an vs. a	 183
7-3	Using a/an vs. some	 185
7-4	Measurements with noncount nouns	 191
7-5	Using many, much, a few, a little	 195
7-6	Using the	 199
7-7	Using ? (no article) to make generalizations	 203
7-8	Using some and any	 205
Chapter 8	Expressing Past Time, Part 1
8-1	Using be: past time	 213
8-2	Past of be: negative	 214
8-3	Past of be: questions	 216
8-4	The simple past tense: using -ed	 221
8-5	Past time words: yesterday, last, and ago	 225
8-6	The simple past: irregular verbs (Group 1)	 227
8-7	The simple past: negative	 231
8-8	The simple past: yes/no questions	 234
8-9	Irregular verbs (Group 2)	 238
8-10	Irregular verbs (Group 3)	 241
8-11	Irregular verbs (Group 4)	 244
Chapter 9	Expressing Past Time, Part 2
9-1	The simple past: using where, when, what time, and why	 252
9-2	Questions with what	 257
9-3	Questions with who	 260
9-4	Irregular verbs (Group 5)	 264
9-5	Irregular verbs (Group 6)	 266
9-6	Irregular verbs (Group 7)	 269
9-7	Before and after in time clauses	 273
9-8	When in time clauses	 276
9-9	The present progressive and the past progressive	 278
9-10	Using while with the past progressive	 281
9-11	While vs. when in past time clauses	 282
9-12	Simple past vs. past progressive	 284
Chapter 10	Expressing Future Time, Part 1
10-1	Future time: using be going to	 294
10-2	Using the present progressive to express future time	 299
10-3	Words used for past time and future time	 301
10-4	Using a couple of or a few with ago (past) and in (future)	 305
10-5	Using today, tonight, and this 1 morning, afternoon, evening
, week, month, year	 307
10-6	Future time: using will	 310
10-7	Asking questions with will	 312
10-8	Verb summary: present, past, and future	 316
10-9	Verb summary: forms of be	 318
Chapter 11	Expressing Future Time, Part 2
11-1	May/Might vs. will	 325
11-2	Maybe (one word) vs. may be (two words)	 327
11-3	Future time clauses with before, after, and when	 334
11-4	Clauses with if	 336
11-5	Expressing habitual present with time clauses and if-clauses	 339
11-6	Using what 1 a form of do	 342
Chapter 12	Modals, Part 1: Expressing Ability
12-1	Using can	 354
12-2	Pronunciation of can and can't	 356
12-3	Using can: questions	 357
12-4	Using know how to	 360
12-5	Using could: past of can	 362
12-6	Using be able to	 365
12-7	Using very and too 1 adjective	 368
12-8	Using two, too, and to	 373
12-9	More about prepositions: at and in for place	 374
Chapter 13	Modals, Part 2: Advice, Necessity, Requests, Suggestions
13-1	Using should	 379
13-2	Using have 1 infinitive (have to/has to)	 383
13-3	Using must	 387
13-4	Polite questions: may I, could I, and can I	 391
13-5	Polite questions: could you and would you	 393
13-6	Imperative sentences	 395
13-7	Modal auxiliaries	 398
13-8	Summary chart: modal axillaries and similar expressions	 399
13-9	Using let's	 402
Chapter 14	Nouns and Modifiers
14-1	Modifying nouns with adjectives and nouns	 405
14-2	Word order of adjectives	 410
14-3	Expressions of quantity: all of, most of, some of, almost all of	 415
14-4	Expressions of quantity: subject-verb agreement	 417
14-5	Expressions of quantity: one of, none of	 419
14-6	Indefinite pronouns: nothing and no one	 423
14-7	Indefinite pronouns: something, someone, anything, anyone	 424
14-8	Using every	 426
14-9	Linking verbs 1 adjectives	 428
14-10	Adjectives and adverbs	 431
Chapter 15	Possessives
15-1	Possessive nouns	 436
15-2	Possessive: irregular plural nouns	 439
15-3	Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs	 442
15-4	Questions with whose	 446
Chapter 16	Making Comparisons
16-1	Comparisons: using the same (as), similar (to) and different from	 449
16-2	Comparisons: using like and alike	 452
16-3	The comparative: using -er and more	 454
16-4	The superlative: using -est and most	 461
16-5	Using one of 1 superlative 1 plural noun	 469
16-6	Using but	 475
16-7	Using verbs after but	 476
16-8	Making comparisons with adverbs	 480
Appendix	Irregular Verbs	 487
listening Script	 489
Answer Key	 501
Index	 INDEX 1
Preface to theThird Edition
 Basic English Grammar is a beginning level ESL/EFL developmental skills text in which grammar serves as the springboard for expanding learners' abilities in speaking, writing, listening, and reading. It uses a grammar-based approach integrated with communicative methodologies. Starting from a foundation of understanding form and meaning, students engage in meaningful communication about real actions, real things, and their own real lives in the classroom context.
 
 Teaching grammar is the art of helping students look at how the language works and engaging them in activities that enhance language acquisition in all skill areas. The direct teaching of grammar to academically oriented adults and young adults is one component of a well-balanced program of second language instruction and can, much to students' benefit, be integrated into curricula that are otherwise conten
t/context-based or task-based.
This third edition has the same basic approach as earlier editions, with new material throughout. It has
·	student-friendly grammar charts with clear information that is easily understood by beginning students.
·	numerous exercises to give students lots of practice.
·	more illustrations to help students learn vocabulary, understand contexts, and engage in communicative language tasks.
·	reorganized chapters with expanded practice for high-frequency structures.
·	the option of a student text with or without an answer key in the back.
In addition, the new edition has a greater variety of practice modes, including
·	greatly increased speaking practice through extensive use of interactive pair and group work.
·	the addition of numerous listening exercises, accompanied by an audio cd, with listening scripts included in the back of the book.
·	more activities that provide real communication opportunities.
A new Workbook accompanies the student text to provide additional self-study practice. 
A Test Bank is also available.
How to Use This Text
GRAMMAR CHARTS
The grammar charts present the target structure by way of example and explanation. Teachers can introduce this material in a variety of ways:
	a.	Present the examples in the chart, perhaps highlighting them on the board. Add additional examples, relating them to students' experience as much as possible. For example, when presenting simple present tense, talk about what students do every day: come to school, study English, etc.
	b.	Elicit target structures from students by asking questions. (For example, for simple past tense, ask: What did you do last night?) Proceed to selected examples in the chart.
	c.	Instead of beginning with a chart, begin with the first exercise after the chart, and as you work through it with students, present the information in the chart or refer to examples in the chart.
	d.	Assign a chart for homework; students bring questions to class. This works best with a more advanced class.
	e.	Some charts have a preview exercise or pretest. Begin with these, and use them as a guide to decide what areas to focus on. When working through the chart, you can refer to the examples in these exercises.
 
With all of the above, the explanations on the right side of the chart are most effective when recast by the teacher, not read word for word. Keep the discussion focus on the examples. Students by and large learn from examples and lots of practice, not from explanations. In the charts, the explanations focus attention on what students should be noticing in the examples and the exercises.
FIRST EXERCISE AFTER A CHART
In most cases, this exercise includes an example of each item shown in the chart. Students can do the exercise together as a class, and the teacher can refer to chart examples where necessary. More advanced classes can complete it as homework. The teacher can use this exercise as a guide to see how well students understand the basics of the target structure(s).
SENTENCE PRACTICE
These exercises can be assigned as either oral or written practice, depending on the ability and needs of the class. Many of them can also be done as homework or seatwork.
LET'S TALK
Each "Let's Talk" activity is designated as one of the following: pairwork, small group, class activity, or interview. These exercises encourage students to talk about their ideas, their everyday lives, and the world around them. Examples for each are given so that students can easily transition into the activity, whether it be student- or teacher-led.
LISTENING
 Listening exercises for both form and meaning give exposure to and practice with spoken English. Listening scripts for teacher use are in the back of the book. An audio CD also accompanies the text. Many of the exercises also introduce students to common features of reduced speech.
 
Teachers may want to play or read aloud some listening scripts one time in their entirety before asking students to write, so they have some familiarity with the overall context. Other exercises can be done sentence by sentence.
WRITING
 As students gain confidence in using the target structures, they are encouraged to express their ideas in paragraphs and other writing formats. To help students generate ideas, some of these tasks are combined with "Let's Talk" activities.
 
When correcting student writing, teachers may want to focus primarily on the structures taught in the chapter.
REVIEW EXERCISES
 All chapters finish with review exercises; some are cumulative reviews that include material from previous chapters, so students can incorporate previous grammar with more recently taught structures.
 
Each chapter review contains an error correction exercise. Students can practice their editing skills by correcting errors commonly found in beginning students' speaking and writing.
ANSWER KEY
The text is available with or without an answer key in the back. If the answer key is used, homework can be corrected as a class or, if appropriate, students can correct it at home and bring questions to class. In some cases, the teacher may want to collect the assignments written on a separate piece of paper, correct them, and then highlight common problems in class.
For more teaching suggestions and supplementary material, please refer to the accompanying Teacher's Guide.
Acknowledgment
Janet Johnston was the finest editor an author could ever hope to work with. Wielding pencils of many colors (with purple seeming to be her personal favorite), she cheerfully held her authors to account for every single word they wrote. She saw the Azar Series through thousands of pages of manuscript and proof for more than fifteen years. Each published page bears the seal of her high standards and keen eye. Her delight in the process of shaping text was contagious and her technical expertise extraordinary, making all of us who worked with her enthusiastically reach for our highest level of professionalism. They simply don't make editors like Janet anymore. Working with her has been a privilege and a joy. As we grieve her untimely death from breast cancer, we will deeply miss her good, sweet friendship as well as her editorial wizardry. Simply stated, Janet Johnston was, and will always remain, the best of the best.
	Betty Azar
	Stacy Hagen
	Shelley Hartle
	Sue Van Etten

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

English language -- Textbooks for foreign speakers.
English language -- Grammar -- Problems, exercises, etc.