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CONTENTS Preface to the Third Edition xi Acknowledgment xv Chapter 1 Using BE 1-1 Noun 1 is 1 noun: singular 2 1-2 Noun 1 are 1 noun: plural 4 1-3 Pronoun 1 be 1 noun 7 1-4 Contractions with be 8 1-5 Negative with be 10 1-6 Be 1 adjective 12 1-7 Be 1 a place 18 1-8 Summary: basic sentence patterns with be 21 Chapter 2 Using Be and Have 2-1 Yes/no questions with be 24 2-2 Short answers to yes/no questions 25 2-3 Questions with be: using where 28 2-4 Using have and has 30 2-5 Using my, your, his, her, our, their 33 2-6 Using this and that 38 2-7 Using these and those 40 2-8 Asking questions with what and who 1 be 42 Chapter 3 Using the Simple Present 3-1 Form and basic meaning of the simple present tense 53 3-2 Using frequency adverbs: always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom , rarely, never 56 3-3 Other frequency expressions 58 3-4 Using frequency adverbs with be 59 3-5 Spelling and pronunciation of final -es 61 3-6 Adding final -s/-es to words that end in -y 63 3-7 Irregular singular verbs: has, does, goes 64 3-8 Spelling and pronunciation of final -s/-es 66 3-9 The simple present: negative 69 3-10 The simple present: yes/no questions 74 3-11 The simple present: asking information questions with where 78 3-12 The simple present: asking information questions with when and what time 80 3-13 Summary: information questions with be and do 82 Chapter 4 Using the Present Progressive 4-1 Be 1 -ing: the present progressive tense 92 4-2 Spelling of -ing 97 4-3 The present progressive: negatives 99 4-4 The present progressive: questions 102 4-5 The simple present vs. the present progressive 106 4-6 Nonaction verbs not used in the present progressive 111 4-7 See, look at, watch, hear, and listen to 114 4-8 Think about and think that 117 Chapter 5 Talking About the Present 5-1 Using it to talk about time 121 5-2 Prepositions of time 123 5-3 Using it to talk about the weather 125 5-4 There 1 be 128 5-5 There 1 be: yes/no questions 130 5-6 There 1 be: asking questions with how many 133 5-7 Prepositions of place 134 5-8 Some prepositions of place: a list 135 5-9 Need and want 1 a noun or an infinitive 143 5-10 Would like 146 5-11 Would like vs. like 148 Chapter 6 Nouns and Pronouns 6-1 Nouns: subjects and objects 158 6-2 Adjective 1 noun 161 6-3 Subject pronouns and object pronouns 164 6-4 Nouns: singular and plural 168 6-5 Nouns: irregular plural forms 173 Chapter 7 Count and Noncount Nouns 7-1 Nouns: count and noncount 181 7-2 Using an vs. a 183 7-3 Using a/an vs. some 185 7-4 Measurements with noncount nouns 191 7-5 Using many, much, a few, a little 195 7-6 Using the 199 7-7 Using ? (no article) to make generalizations 203 7-8 Using some and any 205 Chapter 8 Expressing Past Time, Part 1 8-1 Using be: past time 213 8-2 Past of be: negative 214 8-3 Past of be: questions 216 8-4 The simple past tense: using -ed 221 8-5 Past time words: yesterday, last, and ago 225 8-6 The simple past: irregular verbs (Group 1) 227 8-7 The simple past: negative 231 8-8 The simple past: yes/no questions 234 8-9 Irregular verbs (Group 2) 238 8-10 Irregular verbs (Group 3) 241 8-11 Irregular verbs (Group 4) 244 Chapter 9 Expressing Past Time, Part 2 9-1 The simple past: using where, when, what time, and why 252 9-2 Questions with what 257 9-3 Questions with who 260 9-4 Irregular verbs (Group 5) 264 9-5 Irregular verbs (Group 6) 266 9-6 Irregular verbs (Group 7) 269 9-7 Before and after in time clauses 273 9-8 When in time clauses 276 9-9 The present progressive and the past progressive 278 9-10 Using while with the past progressive 281 9-11 While vs. when in past time clauses 282 9-12 Simple past vs. past progressive 284 Chapter 10 Expressing Future Time, Part 1 10-1 Future time: using be going to 294 10-2 Using the present progressive to express future time 299 10-3 Words used for past time and future time 301 10-4 Using a couple of or a few with ago (past) and in (future) 305 10-5 Using today, tonight, and this 1 morning, afternoon, evening , week, month, year 307 10-6 Future time: using will 310 10-7 Asking questions with will 312 10-8 Verb summary: present, past, and future 316 10-9 Verb summary: forms of be 318 Chapter 11 Expressing Future Time, Part 2 11-1 May/Might vs. will 325 11-2 Maybe (one word) vs. may be (two words) 327 11-3 Future time clauses with before, after, and when 334 11-4 Clauses with if 336 11-5 Expressing habitual present with time clauses and if-clauses 339 11-6 Using what 1 a form of do 342 Chapter 12 Modals, Part 1: Expressing Ability 12-1 Using can 354 12-2 Pronunciation of can and can't 356 12-3 Using can: questions 357 12-4 Using know how to 360 12-5 Using could: past of can 362 12-6 Using be able to 365 12-7 Using very and too 1 adjective 368 12-8 Using two, too, and to 373 12-9 More about prepositions: at and in for place 374 Chapter 13 Modals, Part 2: Advice, Necessity, Requests, Suggestions 13-1 Using should 379 13-2 Using have 1 infinitive (have to/has to) 383 13-3 Using must 387 13-4 Polite questions: may I, could I, and can I 391 13-5 Polite questions: could you and would you 393 13-6 Imperative sentences 395 13-7 Modal auxiliaries 398 13-8 Summary chart: modal axillaries and similar expressions 399 13-9 Using let's 402 Chapter 14 Nouns and Modifiers 14-1 Modifying nouns with adjectives and nouns 405 14-2 Word order of adjectives 410 14-3 Expressions of quantity: all of, most of, some of, almost all of 415 14-4 Expressions of quantity: subject-verb agreement 417 14-5 Expressions of quantity: one of, none of 419 14-6 Indefinite pronouns: nothing and no one 423 14-7 Indefinite pronouns: something, someone, anything, anyone 424 14-8 Using every 426 14-9 Linking verbs 1 adjectives 428 14-10 Adjectives and adverbs 431 Chapter 15 Possessives 15-1 Possessive nouns 436 15-2 Possessive: irregular plural nouns 439 15-3 Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs 442 15-4 Questions with whose 446 Chapter 16 Making Comparisons 16-1 Comparisons: using the same (as), similar (to) and different from 449 16-2 Comparisons: using like and alike 452 16-3 The comparative: using -er and more 454 16-4 The superlative: using -est and most 461 16-5 Using one of 1 superlative 1 plural noun 469 16-6 Using but 475 16-7 Using verbs after but 476 16-8 Making comparisons with adverbs 480 Appendix Irregular Verbs 487 listening Script 489 Answer Key 501 Index INDEX 1 Preface to theThird Edition Basic English Grammar is a beginning level ESL/EFL developmental skills text in which grammar serves as the springboard for expanding learners' abilities in speaking, writing, listening, and reading. It uses a grammar-based approach integrated with communicative methodologies. Starting from a foundation of understanding form and meaning, students engage in meaningful communication about real actions, real things, and their own real lives in the classroom context. Teaching grammar is the art of helping students look at how the language works and engaging them in activities that enhance language acquisition in all skill areas. The direct teaching of grammar to academically oriented adults and young adults is one component of a well-balanced program of second language instruction and can, much to students' benefit, be integrated into curricula that are otherwise conten t/context-based or task-based. This third edition has the same basic approach as earlier editions, with new material throughout. It has · student-friendly grammar charts with clear information that is easily understood by beginning students. · numerous exercises to give students lots of practice. · more illustrations to help students learn vocabulary, understand contexts, and engage in communicative language tasks. · reorganized chapters with expanded practice for high-frequency structures. · the option of a student text with or without an answer key in the back. In addition, the new edition has a greater variety of practice modes, including · greatly increased speaking practice through extensive use of interactive pair and group work. · the addition of numerous listening exercises, accompanied by an audio cd, with listening scripts included in the back of the book. · more activities that provide real communication opportunities. A new Workbook accompanies the student text to provide additional self-study practice. A Test Bank is also available. How to Use This Text GRAMMAR CHARTS The grammar charts present the target structure by way of example and explanation. Teachers can introduce this material in a variety of ways: a. Present the examples in the chart, perhaps highlighting them on the board. Add additional examples, relating them to students' experience as much as possible. For example, when presenting simple present tense, talk about what students do every day: come to school, study English, etc. b. Elicit target structures from students by asking questions. (For example, for simple past tense, ask: What did you do last night?) Proceed to selected examples in the chart. c. Instead of beginning with a chart, begin with the first exercise after the chart, and as you work through it with students, present the information in the chart or refer to examples in the chart. d. Assign a chart for homework; students bring questions to class. This works best with a more advanced class. e. Some charts have a preview exercise or pretest. Begin with these, and use them as a guide to decide what areas to focus on. When working through the chart, you can refer to the examples in these exercises. With all of the above, the explanations on the right side of the chart are most effective when recast by the teacher, not read word for word. Keep the discussion focus on the examples. Students by and large learn from examples and lots of practice, not from explanations. In the charts, the explanations focus attention on what students should be noticing in the examples and the exercises. FIRST EXERCISE AFTER A CHART In most cases, this exercise includes an example of each item shown in the chart. Students can do the exercise together as a class, and the teacher can refer to chart examples where necessary. More advanced classes can complete it as homework. The teacher can use this exercise as a guide to see how well students understand the basics of the target structure(s). SENTENCE PRACTICE These exercises can be assigned as either oral or written practice, depending on the ability and needs of the class. Many of them can also be done as homework or seatwork. LET'S TALK Each "Let's Talk" activity is designated as one of the following: pairwork, small group, class activity, or interview. These exercises encourage students to talk about their ideas, their everyday lives, and the world around them. Examples for each are given so that students can easily transition into the activity, whether it be student- or teacher-led. LISTENING Listening exercises for both form and meaning give exposure to and practice with spoken English. Listening scripts for teacher use are in the back of the book. An audio CD also accompanies the text. Many of the exercises also introduce students to common features of reduced speech. Teachers may want to play or read aloud some listening scripts one time in their entirety before asking students to write, so they have some familiarity with the overall context. Other exercises can be done sentence by sentence. WRITING As students gain confidence in using the target structures, they are encouraged to express their ideas in paragraphs and other writing formats. To help students generate ideas, some of these tasks are combined with "Let's Talk" activities. When correcting student writing, teachers may want to focus primarily on the structures taught in the chapter. REVIEW EXERCISES All chapters finish with review exercises; some are cumulative reviews that include material from previous chapters, so students can incorporate previous grammar with more recently taught structures. Each chapter review contains an error correction exercise. Students can practice their editing skills by correcting errors commonly found in beginning students' speaking and writing. ANSWER KEY The text is available with or without an answer key in the back. If the answer key is used, homework can be corrected as a class or, if appropriate, students can correct it at home and bring questions to class. In some cases, the teacher may want to collect the assignments written on a separate piece of paper, correct them, and then highlight common problems in class. For more teaching suggestions and supplementary material, please refer to the accompanying Teacher's Guide. Acknowledgment Janet Johnston was the finest editor an author could ever hope to work with. Wielding pencils of many colors (with purple seeming to be her personal favorite), she cheerfully held her authors to account for every single word they wrote. She saw the Azar Series through thousands of pages of manuscript and proof for more than fifteen years. Each published page bears the seal of her high standards and keen eye. Her delight in the process of shaping text was contagious and her technical expertise extraordinary, making all of us who worked with her enthusiastically reach for our highest level of professionalism. They simply don't make editors like Janet anymore. Working with her has been a privilege and a joy. As we grieve her untimely death from breast cancer, we will deeply miss her good, sweet friendship as well as her editorial wizardry. Simply stated, Janet Johnston was, and will always remain, the best of the best. Betty Azar Stacy Hagen Shelley Hartle Sue Van Etten
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
English language -- Textbooks for foreign speakers.
English language -- Grammar -- Problems, exercises, etc.