Table of contents for Engineering tribology / Gwidon W. Stachowiak, Andrew W. Batchelor.

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CONTENTS 
1 INTRODUCTION	1
1.1	 Background 1
1.2	 Meaning of tribology 2
 Lubrication 3
 Wear 5
1.3	 Cost of friction and wear 5
1.4 Summary 7
 Revision questions 8
 References 9
2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LUBRICANTS	11
2.1 	 Introduction 11
2.2 	 Oil viscosity 11
 Dynamic viscosity 12
 Kinematic viscosity 13
2.3	 Viscosity temperature relationship 13
 Viscosity-temperature equations 14
 Viscosity-temperature chart 14
2.4	 Viscosity index 15
2.5	 Viscosity pressure relationship 17
2.6	 Viscosity-shear rate relationship 22
 Pseudoplastic behaviour 22
 Thixotropic behaviour 24
2.7	 Viscosity measurements 24
 Capillary viscometers 24
 Rotational viscometers 26
 · Rotating cylinder viscometer 27
 · Cone on plate viscometer 29
 Other viscometers 29
2.8	 Viscosity of mixtures 31
2.9	 Oil viscosity classification 31
 SAE viscosity classification 31
 ISO viscosity classification 33
2.10	 Lubricant density and specific gravity 33
2.11	 Thermal properties of lubricants 34
 Specific heat 34
 Thermal conductivity 35
 Thermal diffusivity 35
2.12	 Temperature characteristics of lubricants 35
 Pour point and cloud point 36
 Flash point and fire point 37
 Volatility and evaporation 37
 Oxidation stability 38
 Thermal stability 39
2.13	 Other lubricant characteristics 40
 Surface tension 40
 Neutralization number 43
 Carbon residue 43
2.14	 Optical properties of lubricants 43
 Refractive index 43
2.15	 Additive compatibility and solubility 44
 Additive compatibility 44
 Additive solubility 44
2.16	 Lubricant impurities and contaminants 44
 Water content 44
 Sulphur content 45
 Ash content 45
 Chlorine content 45
2.17	 Solubility of gases in oils 45
2.18 Summary 48
 Revision questions 48
 References 49
3 LUBRICANTS AND THEIR COMPOSITION	51
3.1	 Introduction 51
3.2	 Mineral oils 52
 Sources of mineral oils 52
 Manufacture of mineral oils 54
 Types of mineral oils 56
3.4	 Emulsions and aqueous lubricants 
 Manufacturing of greases Composition · Base oils · Thickener · Additives · Fillers Lubrication mechanism of greases Grease characteristics · Consistency of greases · Mechanical stability · Drop point · Oxidation stability · Thermal stability · Evaporation loss 
 · Chemical forms · Sulphur content · Viscosity 3.3	Synthetic oils Manufacturing of synthetic oils Hydrocarbon synthetic lubricants · Polyalphaolefins · Polyphenyl ethers · Esters · Cycloaliphatics · Polyglycols Silicon analogues of hydrocarbons · Silicones · Silahydrocarbons Organohalogens · Perfluoropolyethers · Chlorofluorocarbons · Chlorotrifluoroethylenes · Perfluoropolyalkylethers Cyclophosphazenes Manufacturing of emulsions Characteristics Applications 3.5 	Greases 56
57
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 73
 73
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 76
 77
 · Grease viscosity characteristics 77
 Classification of greases 79
 Grease compatibility 81
 Degradation of greases 81
3.6	 Lubricant additives 82
 Wear and friction improvers 82
 · Adsorption or boundary additives 83
 · Anti-wear additives 83
 · Extreme pressure additives 86
 Nanoparticle additives 87
 Anti-oxidants 87
 · Oil oxidation 87
 · Oxidation inhibitors 90
 Corrosion control additives 93
 Contamination control additives 93
 Viscosity improvers 95
 Pour point depressants 96
 Foam inhibitors 96
 Interference between additives 96
3.7 Summary 98
 Revision questions 98
 References 98
4 HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION	103
4.1 	 Introduction 103
4.2 	 Reynolds equation 103
 Simplifying assumptions 105
 Equilibrium of an element 105
 Continuity of flow in a column 109
 Simplifications to the Reynolds equation 111
 · Unidirectional velocity approximation 111
 · Steady film thickness approximation 111
 · Isoviscous approximation 112
 · Infinitely long bearing approximation 112
 · Narrow bearing approximation 113
 Bearing parameters predicted from Reynolds equation 115
 · Pressure distribution 115
 · Load capacity 115
 · Friction force 116
 · Coefficient of friction
 117 117 117 
 · Lubricant flow
 Summary
4.3	 Pad bearings
 118 118 118 119 121 122 125 126 127 
 Infinite linear pad bearing
 · Bearing geometry
 · Pressure distribution
 · Load capacity
 · Friction force
 · Coefficient of friction
 · Lubricant flow rate
 Infinite Rayleigh step bearing
 · Parabolic wedge
 131 132 133 134 135 
 · Parallel surface bearings
 · Spiral groove bearing
 Finite pad bearings
 Pivoted pad bearing
 Other wedge geometries of infinite pad bearings · Tapered land wedge
130 
 Inlet boundary conditions in pad bearing analysis	 137
4.4	 Converging-diverging wedges 139
 Bearing geometry 140
 Pressure distribution 140
 · Full-Sommerfeld boundary condition 142
 · Half-Sommerfeld boundary condition 143
 · Reynolds boundary condition
 145 146 
 Load capacity
4.5 	 Journal bearings
 148 148 148 150 151 156 157 159 
 Evaluation of the main parameters
 · Bearing geometry
 · Pressure distribution
 · Load capacity
 · Friction force
 · Coefficient of friction
 · Lubricant flow rate
 Practical and operational aspects of journal bearings 161
 · Lubricant supply 161
 · Cavitation 165
 · Journal bearings with movable pads 166
 · Journal bearings incorporating a Rayleigh step 167
 · Oil whirl or lubricant caused vibration 167
 · Rotating load 170
 · Tilted shafts 172
 · Partial bearings 173
 · Elastic deformation of the bearing 174
 · Infinitely long approximation in journal bearings 174
4.6 	 Thermal effects in bearings 175
 Heat transfer mechanisms in bearings 175
 · Conduction 176
 · Convection 176
 · Conducted/convected heat ratio 177
 Isoviscous thermal analysis of bearings 178
 · Iterative method 178
 · Constant flow method 179
 Non-isoviscous thermal analysis of bearings with locally varying viscosity 180
 Multiple regression in bearing analysis 182
 Bearing inlet temperature and thermal interaction between pads of a
Michell bearing 183
4.7 	 Limits of hydrodynamic lubrication 185
4.8 	 Hydrodynamic lubrication with non-Newtonian fluids 186
 Turbulence and hydrodynamic lubrication 186
 Hydrodynamic lubrication with non-Newtonian lubricants 187
 Inertia effects in hydrodynamics 188
 Compressible fluids 189
 Compressible hydrodynamic lubrication in gas bearings 191
4.9	 Reynolds equation for squeeze films 193
 Pressure distribution 194
 Load capacity 195
 Squeeze time 196
 Cavitation and squeeze films 197
 Microscopic squeeze film effects between rough sliding surfaces 197
4.10 	 Porous bearings 198
4.11 Summary 200
 Revision questions 200
 References 202
5 COMPUTATIONAL HYDRODYNAMICS	205
5.1	 Introduction 205
5.2 	 Non-dimensionalization of the Reynolds equation 205
5.3	 The Vogelpohl parameter 206
5.4	 Finite difference equivalent of the Reynolds equation 208
 Definition of solution domain and boundary conditions 210
 Calculation of pressure field 211
 Calculation of dimensionless friction force and friction coefficient 211
 Numerical solution technique for Vogelpohl equation 214
5.5 	 Numerical analysis of hydrodynamic lubrication in idealized journal
and partial arc bearings 214
 Example of data from numerical analysis, the effect of shaft misalignment 215
5.6 	 Numerical analysis of hydrodynamic lubrication in a real bearing 220
5.6.1	 Thermohydrodynamic lubrication 220
 Governing equations and boundary conditions in
thermohydrodynamic lubrication 221
 · Governing equations in thermohydrodynamic lubrication for a
one-dimensional bearing 222
 · Thermohydrodynamic equations for the finite pad bearing 225
 · Boundary conditions 226
 Finite difference equations for thermohydrodynamic lubrication 227
 Treatment of boundary conditions in thermohydrodynamic lubrication 230
 Computer program for the analysis of an infinitely long pad bearing in
the case of thermohydrodynamic lubrication 231
 Example of the analysis of an infinitely long pad bearing in the case of
thermohydrodynamic lubrication 232
5.6.2	 Elastic deformations in a pad bearing 235
 Computer program for the analysis of an elastically deforming one-
dimensional pivoted Michell pad bearing 237
 Effect of elastic deformation of the pad on load capacity and film thickness 237
5.6.3	 Cavitation and film reformation in grooved journal bearings 240
 Computer program for the analysis of grooved 360° journal bearings 244
 Example of the analysis of a grooved 360° journal bearing 244
5.6.4	 Vibrational stability in journal bearings 250
 Determination of stiffness and damping coefficients 250
 Computer program for the analysis of vibrational stability in a partial arc
journal bearing 255
 Example of the analysis of vibrational stability in a partial arc journal bearing 255
5.7 Summary 258
 Revision questions 258
 References 259
6 HYDROSTATIC LUBRICATION	261
6.1 	 Introduction 261
6.2 	 Hydrostatic bearing analysis 262
 Flat circular hydrostatic pad bearing 262
 · Pressure distribution 262
 · Lubricant flow 263
 · Load capacity 263
 · Friction torque 264
 · Friction power loss 266
 Non-flat circular hydrostatic pad bearings 266
 · Pressure distribution 267
 · Lubricant flow 268
 · Load capacity 269
 · Friction torque 269
 · Friction power loss 269
6.3	 Generalized approach to hydrostatic bearing analysis 270
 Flat circular pad bearings 270
 Flat square pad bearings 270
6.4 	 Optimization of hydrostatic bearing design 271
 Minimization of power 271
 · Low speed recessed bearings 273
 · High speed recessed bearings 273
 Control of lubricant film thickness and bearing stiffness 274
 · Stiffness with constant flow method 275
 · Stiffness with capillary restrictors 275
 · Stiffness with an orifice 277
 · Stiffness with pressure sensors 278
6.5	 Aerostatic bearings 279
 Pressure distribution 280
 Gas flow 280
 Load capacity 281
 Friction torque 281
 Power loss 282
6.6	 Hybrid bearings 282
6.7	 Stability of hydrostatic and aerostatic bearings 282
6.8 Summary 283
 Revision questions 283
 References 284
7 ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION	287
7.1 	 Introduction 287
7. 2Contact stresses 288
 Simplifying assumptions to Hertz's theory 288
 Stress status in static contact 289
 Stress status in lubricated rolling and sliding contacts 289
7.3	 Contact between two elastic spherical or spheroidal bodies 290
 Geometry of contacting elastic bodies 291
 · Two elastic bodies with convex surfaces in contact 292
 · Two elastic bodies with one convex and one flat surface in contact 293
 · Two elastic bodies with one convex and one concave surface in
contact 294
 Contact area, pressure, maximum deflection and position of the
maximum shear stress 295
 · Contact between two spheres 295
 · Contact between a sphere and a plane surface 298
 · Contact between two parallel cylinders 300
 · Contact between two crossed cylinders with equal diameters 303
 · Elliptical contact between two elastic bodies, general case 305
 Total deflection 310
7.4	 Elastohydrodynamic lubricating films 311
 Effects contributing to the generation of elastohydrodynamic films 312
 · Hydrodynamic film formation 312
 · Modification of film geometry by elastic deformation 312
 · Transformation of lubricant viscosity and rheology under pressure 313
 Approximate solution of Reynolds equation with simultaneous elastic
deformation and viscosity rise 313
 Pressure distribution in elastohydrodynamic films 317
 Elastohydrodynamic film thickness formulae 318
 Effects of the non-dimensional parameters on EHL contact pressures and
film profiles 319
 · Effect of the speed parameter 319
 · Effect of the materials parameter 320
 · Effect of the load parameter 320
 · Effect of the ellipticity parameter 321
 Lubrication regimes in EHL - film thickness formulae 322
 · Isoviscous-rigid 323
 · Piezoviscous-rigid 324
 · Isoviscous-elastic 324
 · Piezoviscous-elastic 324
 Identification of the lubrication regime 325
 Elastohydrodynamic film thickness measurements 325
7.5 	 Micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication and mixed or partial EHL 328
 Partial or mixed EHL 329
 Micro-elastohydrodynamic lubrication 331
7.6	 Surface temperature at the conjunction between contacting solids and
its effect on EHL 333
 Calculation of surface conjunction temperature 334
 · Flash temperature in circular contacts 337
 · Flash temperature in square contacts 337
 · Flash temperature in line contacts 340
 True flash temperature rise 341
 Frictional temperature rise of lubricated contacts 345
 Mechanism of heat transfer within the EHL film 347
 Effect of surface films on conjunction temperatures 348
 Measurements of surface temperature in the EHL contacts 348
7.7	 Traction and EHL 349
 A simplified analysis of traction in the EHL contact 352
 Non-Newtonian lubricant rheology and EHL 354
 EHL between meshing gear wheels 356
7.8 Summary 358
 Revision questions 358
 References 360
8 BOUNDARY AND EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICATION	363
8.1 	 Introduction 363
8.2	 Low temperature - low load lubrication mechanisms 365
8.3	 Low temperature - high load lubrication mechanisms 366
 Model of adsorption on sliding surfaces 367
 · Physisorption 368
 · Chemisorption 370
 · Influence of the molecular structure of the lubricant on
adsorption lubrication 371
 · Influence of oxygen and water 375
 · Dynamic nature of adsorption under sliding conditions 377
 · Mixed lubrication and scuffing 378
 · Metallurgical effects 385
 · Interaction between surfactant and carrier fluid 386
8.4	 High temperature - medium load lubrication mechanisms 387
 Chain matching 387
 Thick films of soapy or amorphous material 390
 · Soap layers 390
 · Amorphous layers 391
8.5 	 High temperature - high load lubrication mechanisms 395
 Model of lubrication by sacrificial films 395
 Additive reactivity and its effect on lubrication 396
 Nascent metallic surfaces and accelerated film formation 399
 Influence of oxygen and water on the lubrication mechanism by
sacrificial films 401
 Mechanism of lubrication by milder E.P. Additives 404
 Function of active elements other than sulphur 404
 Lubrication with two active elements 405
 Temperature distress 407
 Speed limitations of sacrificial film mechanism 409
 Tribo-emission from worn surfaces 409
8.6	 Boundary and E.P. lubrication of non-metallic surfaces 410
8.7 Summary 411
 Revision questions 411
 References 412
9 SOLID LUBRICATION AND SURFACE TREATMENTS	419
9.1	 Introduction 419
9.2	 Lubrication by solids 419
9.2.1	 Lubrication by lamellar solids 420
 Friction and wear characteristics of lamellar solids 423
 · Graphite and molybdenum disulphide 423
 · Carbon-based materials other than graphite 427
 · Minor solid lubricants 428
9.2.2	 Reduction of friction by soft metallic films 429
 Reduction of friction by metal oxides at high temperatures 430
9.2.3	 Deposition methods of solid lubricants 430
 Traditional methods of solid lubricant deposition 431
 Modern methods of solid lubricant deposition 432
 Solid lubricants as additives to oils and polymers 433
9.3	 Wear resistant coatings and surface treatments 434
9.3.1	 Techniques of producing wear resistant coatings 435
 Coating techniques dependent on vacuum or gas at very low pressure 435
 · Physical vapour deposition 436
 · Chemical vapour deposition 438
 · Physical-chemical vapour deposition 439
 · Ion implantation 440
 Coating processes requiring localized sources of intense heat 440
 · Surface welding 441
 · Thermal spraying 441
 · Laser surface hardening and alloying 443
 Coating processes based on deposition in the solid state 445
 Miscellaneous coating processes 445
9.3.2	 Application of coatings and surface treatments in wear and friction
control 447
 Characteristics of wear resistant coatings 447
 New trends in coating technology 450
 · Diamond-like carbon coatings 450
 · Carbide and nitride coatings 451
 · Thick coatings 452
 · Nano-engineered coatings 452
 · Other coatings 453
9.4 Summary 453
 Revision questions 453
 References 454
10 FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTACT BETWEEN SOLIDS	461
10.1	 Introduction 461
10.2	 Surfaces of solids 461
 Surfaces at a nano scale 462
 Surface topography 463
 Characterization of surface topography 466
 · Characterization of surface topography by statistical parameters 466
 Multi-scale characterization of surface topography 468
 · Characterization of surface topography by Fourier transform 470
 · Characterization of surface topography by wavelets 470
 · Characterization of surface topography by fractals 470
 · Characterization of surface topography by combination of
wavelets and fractals 474
 Optimum surface roughness 475
10.3	 Contact between solids 475
 Model of contact between solids based on statistical parameters of rough
surfaces 477
 Model of contact between solids based on the fractal geometry of rough
surfaces 480
 Effect of sliding on contact between solid surfaces	 482
10.4	 Friction and wear 483
 Onset of sliding and mechanism of stick-slip 484
 Structural differences between static and sliding contacts 486
 Friction and other contact phenomena in rolling 488
 Concentration of frictional heat at the asperity contacts 491
 Thermoelastic instability and transient hump formation 492
 Tribo-electrification of sliding contacts 493
 Wear between surfaces of solids 493
10.5 Summary 494
 Revision questions 494
 References 495
11 ABRASIVE, EROSIVE AND CAVITATION WEAR	501
11.1	 Introduction 501
11.2 	 Abrasive wear 501
 Mechanisms of abrasive wear 502
 Modes of abrasive wear 504
 Analytical models of abrasive wear 505
 Abrasivity of particles 512
 Abrasive wear resistance of materials 517
 · Abrasive wear resistance of steels 520
 · Abrasive wear resistance of polymers and rubbers 522
 · Abrasive wear resistance of ceramics 523
 Effect of temperature on abrasive wear 524
 Effect of moisture on abrasive wear 525
 Control of abrasive wear 526
11.3	 Erosive wear 527
 Mechanisms of erosive wear 527
 Effect of impingement angle and impact speed on erosive wear rate 529
 Effect of particle shape, hardness, size and flux rates on erosive wear rate 530
 Erosive wear by liquid 532
 Effect of temperature on erosive wear 533
 Effect of erosion media on erosive wear 535
 Erosive wear resistance of materials 536
 · Erosive wear resistance of steels 539
 · Erosive wear resistance of polymers 540
 ·	Erosive wear of ceramics and cermets 541
11.4	 Cavitation wear 542
 Mechanism of cavitation wear 542
 Cavitation wear resistance of materials 544
11.5 Summary 545
 Revision questions 546
 References 547
12 ADHESION AND ADHESIVE WEAR	553
12.1	 Introduction 553
12.2	 Mechanism of adhesion 553
 Metal-metal adhesion 553
 Metal-polymer adhesion 556
 Metal-ceramic adhesion 557
 Polymer-polymer and ceramic-ceramic adhesion 557
 Effects of adhesion between wearing surfaces 558
 · Friction due to adhesion 558
 · Junction growth between contacting asperities as a cause of
extreme friction 559
 · Seizure and scuffing 562
 · Asperity deformation and formation of wear particles 562
 · Transfer films 564
12.3	 Control of the adhesive wear 568
 Contaminant layers formed due to surface oxidation and bulk impurities 569
 Lubricants 569
 Favourable combinations of sliding materials 570
12.4 Summary 570
 Revision questions 570
 References 571
13 CORROSIVE AND OXIDATIVE WEAR	573
13.1	 Introduction 573
13.2	 Corrosive wear 573
 Transition between corrosive and adhesive wear 578
 Synergism between corrosive and abrasive wear 580
 Tribochemical polishing 581
13.3 Oxidative wear 582
 Kinetics of oxide film growth on metals at high and low temperatures 582
 · Oxidative wear at high sliding speeds 583
 · Oxidative wear at low sliding speeds 585
 · Oxidative wear at high temperature and stress 586
 · Oxidative wear at low temperature applications 588
 · Transition between oxidative and adhesive wear 588
 · Oxidative wear under lubricated conditions 588
 Means of controlling corrosive and oxidative wear 589
13.4 Summary 590
 Revision questions 590
 References 591
14 FATIGUE WEAR	595
14.1	 Introduction 595
14.2	 Fatigue wear during sliding 596
 Surface crack initiated fatigue wear 597
 Subsurface crack initiated fatigue wear 599
 Effect of lubrication on fatigue wear during sliding 601
 Plastic ratchetting 602
14.3	 Fatigue wear during rolling 603
 Causes of contact fatigue 604
 · Asperity contact during EHL and the role of debris in the lubricant
in contact fatigue 604
 · Material imperfections 605
 · Plastic deformation in wheel-rail contacts 605
 Self-propagating nature of contact fatigue cracks 606
 Subsurface and surface modes of contact fatigue 607
 Effect of lubricant on contact fatigue 610
 Hydraulic pressure crack propagation 610
 Chemical effects of lubricant additives, oxygen and water on contact fatigue 611
 Materials effect on contact fatigue 613
 Influence of operating conditions on rolling wear and contact fatigue 614
14.4	 Means of controlling fatigue wear 615
14.5 Summary 615
 Revision questions 615
 References 616
15 FRETTING AND MINOR WEAR MECHANISMS	621
15.1	 Introduction 621
15.2	 Fretting wear 622
 Microscopic movements within the contact under applied loads 622
 · Elastic model for fretting contacts 622
 · Elasto-plastic model for fretting contacts 624
 Fretting regimes 625
 Effect of amplitude and debris retention on fretting wear 626
 Environmental effects on fretting wear 628
 Effects of temperature and lubricants on fretting 632
 Effect of materials properties and surface finish on fretting 633
 Fretting fatigue 634
 Practical examples of fretting 636
 Means of controlling fretting 638
15.3	 Melting wear 639
15.4	 Wear due to electrical discharges and passage of electric current across a
contact 641
15.5	 Diffusive wear 643
15.6	 Impact wear 643
15.7 Summary 645
 Revision questions 646
 References 646
16 WEAR OF NON-METALLIC MATERIALS	651
16.1	 Introduction 651
16.2	 Tribology of polymers 651
 Sliding wear of polymers, transfer layers on a harder counterface 653
 Influence of counterface roughness, hardness and material type on
transfer films and associated wear and friction of polymers 654
 · Counterface hardness 655
 · Counterface roughness 655
 · Counterface surface energy 658
 PV limit 658
 Influence of temperature on polymer wear and friction 659
 · Limit on frictional temperature rise imposed by surface melting 660
 · Effect of high frictional temperatures and sliding speeds on wear 663
 · Combined effect of high surface roughness and elevated contact
temperature on wear 664
 Fatigue wear of polymers and long term wear kinetics 665
 Visco-elasticity and the rubbery state 666
 Friction and wear in the rubbery state 667
 · Schallamach waves 668
 · Visco-elasticity and friction of rubbers 669
 · Wear mechanisms particular to rubbery solids 670
 Effect of lubricant, corrosive agents and microstructure on wear and
friction of polymers 670
 · Effects of lubricants 670
 · Effects of corrosive agents 671
 · Effect of oxidizing and biochemical reagents 673
 · Effects of polymer microstructure 674
16.3	 Tribology of polymer composites 675
 Polymer blends 676
 Fibre reinforced polymers 676
 · Chopped fibre reinforced polymers 676
 · Unidirectional and woven fibre reinforcements 677
 · Modelling of wear of fibre reinforced polymers 679
 Powder composites 680
16.4	 Wear and friction of ceramics 681
 Unlubricated wear and friction of ceramic-ceramic contacts 683
 · Dry friction and wear of ceramics at room temperature 684
 · Dry friction and wear of ceramics at elevated temperatures 685
 · Friction and wear of ceramics in the presence of water or humid
air 685
 · Wear modelling of ceramics 687
 · Dry wear and friction characteristics of individual ceramics 689
 Lubricated wear and friction of ceramic-ceramic contacts 689
 · Liquid lubrication 690
 · Solid lubricants 692
 Wear and friction of ceramics against metallic materials 693
 Wear and friction of ceramics against polymers 696
 Wear and friction of ceramic matrix composites 697
16.5 Summary 697
 Revision questions 698
 References 699
17 FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN TRIBOLOGY	705
17.1	 Introduction 705
17.2	 Biotribology 705
 Biotribology of living tissues and organisms 705
 Biotribology of artificial materials in close contact with living tissues 708
17.3 	 Environmental implications of tribology 709
17.4 	 Nanotribology - basic concepts 711
 Relevance to tribology 712
Nanolubrication and specialized materials for nanotribology	713 
17.5 Summary 714 Revision questions 715 References 715 
APPENDIX	719 
Introduction	669 
A.1	User friendly interface 669 
A.2	Program 'VISCOSITY' 671 Program description 673 List of variables 674 
A.3 	Program 'SIMPLE' 674 Program description 676 List of variables 677 
A.4	Program 'PARTIAL' 678 Program description 681 List of variables 684 
A.5	Program 'THERMAL' 686 Program description 690 List of variables 693 
A.6	Program 'DEFLECTION' 696 Program description 698 List of variables 701 
A.7	Program 'GROOVE' 702 Program description 708 List of variables 714 
A.8	Program 'STABILITY' 716 Program description 719 List of variables 721 
INDEX	775 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Tribology.