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Contents List of Illustrations00 Preface00 1Introduction00 What Is History?, 00 Then and Now, There and Here, 00 The Physical Setting, 00 Some Descriptive Geography, 00 Conclusion, 00 2The Middle East Before Muhammad00 A Minimum of Antiquity, 00 Persia and Rome, 00 The Arabs, 00 Conclusion, 00 3The Prophet of Mecca00 Muhammad's Early Life, 00 The Emigration (Hijrah), 00 Aisha bint Abu-Bakr, 00 Assessment, 00 4What Is Islam?00 Basic Beliefs, 00 The Five Pillars of Islam, 00 Other Duties and Prohibitions, 00 Conclusion, 00 5The Early Arab Conquests00 The Succession Issue, 00 The Initial Conquests, 00 The Beginnings of Islamic Government, 00 Dissension in the Umma, 00 Changes in the Government of Islam, 00 Mu'awiya ibn-abi-Sufyan, 00 Conclusion, 00 6The High Caliphate00 Restoration of the Umayyad Order, 00 The Downfall of the Umayyads, 00 The Abbasid Caliphate, 00 Al-Mamun, 00 The Decline of the Abbasids, 00 Conclusion, 00 7Shi'is and Turks, Crusaders and Mongols00 Shi'i Islam in Power, 00 The Turks, 00 The Crusades, 00 The Mongol Invasion, 00 Hulegu Khan, 00 Conclusion, 00 8Islamic Civilization00 The Rules and Laws of Islam, 00 Development of Jurisprudence, 00 Islamic Society, 00 Importance of Family Life, 00 Intellectual Life, 00 Theology, 00 Conclusion, 00 9Firearms, Slaves, and Empires00 The Mamluks, 00 The Mongol Il-Khanids, 00 Gunpowder Technology, 00 The Ottoman Empire, 00 Persia Under the Safavids, 00 Conclusion, 00 10European Interests and Imperialism00 Ottoman Weakness, 00 The Koprulu Family of Viziers, 00 The European Powers and the Eastern Question, 00 Conclusion, 00 11Westernizing Reform in the Nineteenth Century00 Egypt, 00 Westernization of the Ottoman Empire, 00 Mustafa Reshid Pasha, 00 Persia Under the Qajars, 00 Some Afterthoughts, 00 12The Rise of Nationalism00 Egyptian Nationalism, 00 Ahmad Urabi, 00 Ottomanism, Pan-Islam, and Turkism, 00 Nationalism in Persia, 00 Conclusion, 00 13The Roots of Arab Bitterness00 Arab Nationalism, 00 World War I, 00 Faysal ibn al Husayn, 00 The Postwar Peace Settlement, 00 Conclusion and Summary, 00 14Modernizing Rulers in the Independent States00 Turkey: Phoenix from the Ashes, 00 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, 00 From Persia to Iran, 00 The Rise of Saudi Arabia, 00 Conclusion, 00 15Egypt's Struggle for Independence00 Britain's Role in Egypt, 00 King Faruq, 00 The Egyptian Revolution, 00 A Strange Ending, 00 16The Contest for Palestine00 Origins, 00 Prefatory Remarks, 00 The Beginnings of Political Zionism, 00 Britain and the Palestine Problem, 00 Amin al-Husayni, 00 Conclusion, 00 17Israel's Rebirth and the Rise of Arab Nationalism00 Israel's War for Independence, 00 The War's Aftermath, 00 The Arab Countries, 00 Israel's Early Years, 00 David Ben-Gurion, 00 Middle Eastern Oil, 00 The Great Powers and the Arab World, 00 Conclusion, 00 18War and the Quest for Peace00 The June 1967 War, 00 The Palestinians as a Political Force, 00 Abortive Peace Efforts, 00 Political Changes: 1967-1970, 00 Danger Signs in the Middle East, 00 The October (Yom Kippur) War, 00 The War's Aftermath, 00 Anwar al-Sadat, 00 Lebanon: The Arena for a New Arab Struggle, 00 The Road to Camp David, 00 Conclusion, 00 19The Reassertion of Islamic Power00 Prefatory Remarks on Islam and Politics, 00 The Iranian Revolution, 00 Sayyid Ruhollah Mussaui Khomeini, 00 The Struggle for Persian Gulf Supremacy, 00 The Retreat from Camp David, 00 Western Policy Formation and Islamic Polity, 00 20The Gulf War and the Peace Process00 The Gulf Crisis, 00 Operation Desert Storm, 00 Palestinians and the Peace Process, 00 Yasir Arafat, 00 Whither Islam?, 00 21The War on Terrorism00 The Present in Historical Perspective, 00 Survey of Terrorism, 00 The Iraq War, 00 The Contest for Palestine (Redux), 00 A Parting Message, 00 Chronology00 Glossary00 Bibliographic Essay00 Appendix00 Index00
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Middle East -- History.