Table of contents for Applied fluid mechanics / Robert L. Mott.

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Contents
CHAPTER 1
THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS	1
1.1	The Big Picture 1
1.2	Objectives of This Chapter 3
1.3	Difference Between Liquids and Gases 3
1.4	Force and Mass 4
1.5	The International System of Units (SI) 4
1.6	The U.S. Customary System 6
1.7	Consistent Units in an Equation 7
1.8	The Definition of Pressure 10
1.9	Compressibility 12
1.10	Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity 13
1.11	Surface Tension 17
	References 19
	Practice Problems 19
	Computer Programming Assignments 22
CHAPTER 2
VISCOSITY OF FLUIDS	25
2.1	The Big Picture 25
2.2	Objectives of This Chapter 26
2.3	Dynamic Viscosity 26
2.4	Kinematic Viscosity 28
2.5	Newtonian Fluids and Nonnewtonian Fluids 29
2.6	Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 30
2.7	Viscosity Measurement 31
2.8	SAE Viscosity Grades 36
2.9	ISO Viscosity Grades 39
2.10	Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems 40
	References 42
	Practice Problems 42
	Computer Programming Assignments 44
CHAPTER 3
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT	45
3.1	The Big Picture 45
3.2	Objectives 46
3.3	Absolute and Gage Pressure 46
3.4	Relationship Between Pressure and Elevation 48
3.5	Development of the Pressure-Elevation Relation 51
3.6	Pascal's Paradox 54
3.7	Manometers 55
3.8	Barometers 60
3.9	Pressure Gages and Transducers 61
3.10	Pressure Transducers 63
3.11	Pressure Expressed as the Height of a Column of Liquid 65
	References 66
	Practice Problems 66
CHAPTER 4
FORCES DUE TO STATIC FLUIDS	75
4.1	The Big Picture 75
4.2	Objectives 77
4.3	Gases Under Pressure 77
4.4	Horizontal Flat Surfaces Under Liquids 78
4.5	Rectangular Walls 79
4.6	Submerged Plane Areas-General 82
4.7	Development of the General Procedure for Forces on Submerged Plane Areas 86
4.8	Piezometric Head 88
4.9	Distribution of Force on a Submerged Curved Surface 89
4.10	Effect of a Pressure Above the Fluid Surface 95
4.11	Forces on a Curved Surface with Fluid Below It 95
4.12	Forces on Curved Surfaces with Fluid Above and Below 97
	Practice Problems 97
	Computer Programming Assignments 113
CHAPTER 5
BUOYANCY AND STABILITY	115
5.1	The Big Picture 115
5.2	Objectives 116
5.3	Buoyancy 117
5.4	Stability of Completely Submerged Bodies 125
5.5	Stability of Floating Bodies 126
5.6	Degree of Stability 131
	Reference 133
	Practice Problems 133
	Computer Programming Assignments 143
CHAPTER 6
FLOW OF FLUIDS AND BERNOULLI'S EQUATION	145
6.1	The Big Picture 145
6.2	Objectives 147
6.3	Fluid Flow Rate and the Continuity Equation 147
6.4	Commercially Available Pipe and Tubing 151
6.5	Recommended Velocity of Flow in Pipe and Tubing 152
6.6	Flow in Noncircular Sections 156
6.7	Conservation of Energy-Bernoulli's Equation 157
6.8	Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation 159
6.9	Restrictions on Bernoulli's Equation 161
6.10	Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 161
6.11	Torricelli's Theorem 171
6.12	Flow Due to a Falling Head 174
	Reference 177
	Practice Problems 177
	Computer Programming Assignments 189
CHAPTER 7
GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION	191
7.1	The Big Picture 191
7.2	Objectives 193
7.3	Energy Losses and Additions 193
7.4	Nomenclature of Energy Losses and Additions 196
7.5	General Energy Equation 196
7.6	Power Required by Pumps 201
7.7	Power Delivered to Fluid Motors 205
	Practice Problems 207
CHAPTER 8
REYNOLDS NUMBER, LAMINAR FLOW, AND TURBULENT FLOW	221
8.1	The Big Picture 221
8.2	Objectives 224
8.3	Reynolds Number 224
8.4	Critical Reynolds Numbers 225
8.5	Velocity Profiles 227
8.6	Hydraulic Radius for Noncircular Cross Sections 229
8.7	Reynolds Number for Closed, Noncircular Cross Sections 231
	References 232
	Practice Problems 232
CHAPTER 9
ENERGY LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION	239
9.1	The Big Picture 239
9.2	Objectives 240
9.3	Darcy's Equation 240
9.4	Friction Loss in Laminar Flow 241
9.5	Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow 242
9.6	Equations for Friction Factor 250
9.7	Friction Loss in Noncircular Cross Sections 251
9.8	Velocity Profile for Turbulent Flow 252
9.9	Hazen-Williams Formula for Water Flow 255
9.10	Other Forms of the Hazen-Williams Formula 257
9.11	Nomograph for Solving Hazen-Williams Formula 257
	References 259
	Practice Problems 259
	Computer Programming Assignments 267
CHAPTER 10
MINOR LOSSES	269
10.1	The Big Picture 269
10.2	Objectives 271
10.3	Resistance Coefficient 271
10.4	Sudden Enlargement 272
10.5	Exit Loss 275
10.6	Gradual Enlargement 275
10.7	Sudden Contraction 278
10.8	Gradual Contraction 280
10.9	Entrance Loss 283
10.10	Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings 284
10.11	Application of Standard Valves 289	
10.12	Pipe Bends 293
10.13	Pressure Drop in Fluid Power Valves 295
10.14	Flow Coefficients for Valves Using [&
BB
rom
C_{|vee|}
norm
&] 300
	References 301
	Practice Problems 301
	Computer-Aided Analysis and Design Assignments 306
CHAPTER 11
SERIES PIPE LINE SYSTEMS	307
11.1	The Big Picture 307
11.2	Objectives 308
11.3	Class I Systems 308
11.4	Spreadsheet Aid for Class I Problems 314
11.5	Class II Systems 317
11.6	Class III Systems 325
	References 330
	Practice Problems 330
	Practice Problems for Any Class 335
	Computer Aided Analysis and Design Assignments 340
CHAPTER 12
PARALLEL PIPE LINE SYSTEMS	341
12.1	The Big Picture 341
12.2	Objectives 343
12.3	Systems with Two Branches 344
12.4	Systems with Three or More Branches-Networks 351
	References 360
	Practice Problems 360
	Computer Programming Assignments 364
CHAPTER 13
PUMP SELECTION AND APPLICATION	365
13.1	The Big Picture 365
13.2	Objectives 367
13.3	Parameters Involved in Pump Selection 368
13.4	Types of Pumps 368
13.5	Performance Data for Positive Displacement Pumps 377
13.6	Performance Data for Centrifugal Pumps 378
13.7	Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps 379
13.8	Manufacturer's Data for Centrifugal Pumps 381
13.9	The Operating Point of a Pump and Pump Selection 390
13.10	Alternate System Operating Modes 396
13.11	Pump Selection and Specific Speed 397
13.12	Net Positive Suction Head 400
13.13	Suction Line Details 403
13.14	Discharge Line Details 404
	References 405
	Practice Problems 406
	Design Problems 408
	Comprehensive Design Problem 411
CHAPTER 14
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW	413
14.1	The Big Picture 413
14.2	Objectives 414
14.3	Classification of Open Channel Flow 414
14.4	Hydraulic Radius and Reynolds Number in Open Channel Flow 417
14.5	Kinds of Open Channel Flow 417
14.6	Uniform Steady Flow in Open Channels 418
14.7	The Geometry of Typical Open Channels 423
14.8	The Most Efficient Shapes for Open Channels 426
14.9	Critical Flow and Specific Energy 427
14.10	Hydraulic Jump 429
	References 432
	Practice Problems 432
	Computer Programming Assignments 434
CHAPTER 15
FLOW MEASUREMENT	437
15.1	The Big Picture 437
15.2	Objectives 438
15.3	Flowmeter Selection Factors 438
15.4	Variable Head Meters 440
15.5	Variable Area Meters 448
15.6	Turbine Flowmeter 449
15.7	Vortex Flowmeter 450
15.8	Magnetic Flowmeter 450
15.9	Ultrasonic Flowmeters 452
15.10	Positive Displacement Meters 452
15.11	Mass Flow Measurement 452
15.12	Velocity Probes 455
15.13	Computer-Based Data Acquisition and Processing 460
15.14	Open Channel Flow Measurement 462
	References 464
	Review Questions 465
	Practice Problems 465
	Computer Programming Assignments 466
CHAPTER 16
FORCES DUE TO FLUIDS IN MOTION	467
16.1	The Big Picture 467
16.2	Objectives 468
16.3	Force Equation 468
16.4	Impulse-Momentum Equation 469
16.5	Problem-Solving Method Using the Force Equations 469
16.6	Forces on Stationary Objects 470
16.7	Forces on Bends in Pipe Lines 473
16.8	Forces on Moving Objects 477
	Practice Problems 478
CHAPTER 17
DRAG AND LIFT	485
17.1	The Big Picture 485
17.2	Objectives 486
17.3	Drag Force Equation 487
17.4	Pressure Drag 488
17.5	Drag Coefficient 489
17.6	Friction Drag on Spheres in Laminar Flow 495
17.7	Vehicle Drag 496
17.8	Compressibility Effects and Cavitation 498
17.9	Lift and Drag on Airfoils 499
	References 502
	Practice Problems 502
CHAPTER 18
FANS, BLOWERS, COMPRESSORS, AND THE FLOW OF GASES	507
18.1	The Big Picture 507
18.2	Objectives 508
18.3	Gas Flow Rates and Pressures 508
18.4	Classification of Fans, Blowers, and Compressors 509
18.5	Flow of Compressed Air and Other Gases in Pipes 514
18.6	Flow of Air and Other Gases through Nozzles 521
	References 529
	Practice Problems 529
	Computer Programming Assignments 531
CHAPTER 19
FLOW OF AIR IN DUCTS	533
19.1	The Big Picture 533
19.2	Objectives 535
19.3	Energy Losses in Ducts 535
19.4	Duct Design Example 540
	References 546
	Practice Problems 546
APPENDIXES551
A	Properties of Water 551
B	Properties of Common Liquids 553
C	Typical Properties of Petroleum Lubricating Oils 555
D	Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 557
E	Properties of Air 561
F	Dimensions of Steel Pipe 565
G	Dimensions of Steel Tubing 567
H	Dimensions of Type K Copper Tubing 569
I	Dimensions of Ductile Iron Pipe 571
J	Areas of Circles 573
K	Conversion Factors 575
L	Properties of Areas 579
M	Properties of Solids 581
N	Gas Constant, Adiabatic Exponent, and Critical Pressure Ratio for Selected Gases 583
ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS	585
INDEX	591

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Fluid mechanics.