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CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgments Introduction Chapter 1. FRESHWATER, LAKES, AND RIVERS Technical terms Freshwater Lakes Rivers The Continental Divide of the Americas Water's unique properties Freshwater's physical properties Freshwater's chemical composition The hydrologic cycle Humidity Water, life, and the hydrologic cycle 2. Physical Geography of Lakes and Rivers The creation of lakes The properties of lakes Saline lakes Lakes through time The creation of rivers Drainage patterns Rivers are fractal Shaping the landscape Erosion and transport Deposition and precipitation Tracing sediment From source to sea The Fall Line The landforms of upper reaches The landforms of middle reaches The landforms of lower reaches Floods 3. River and Lake Portraits Amazon River Congo (Zaire) River Danube River Ganges River Mississippi River Nile River Yangtze River Yenisey River Lake Baikal Lake Superior Lake Victoria 4. Biology of Lakes and Rivers Colonizing freshwater Diffusion and osmosis Boundary layers The water column Adaptations for life in running water On the surface Plants adrift Animals adrift Freshwater plants Attached algae Larger invertebrates Fishes Fish senses Fish habitats From saltwater to fresh Cave fishes On two or four legs River dolphins 5. Ecology of Lakes and Rivers Energy flow, food chains, and food webs Niches and competition How freshwater communities function Drift and migration Predation The trophic cascade Coevolution Wetlands 6. Rivers and lakes in history Rivers, lakes, and human health The arrival of two water-related diseases in the Americas Dam-building and disease The historic Nile The historic Thames The Thames Barrier The Colorado River's disputed water 7. Uses of lakes and rivers Highways and political boundaries Agricultural, industrial, and domestic water supplies Flood control and water storage Waste disposal Biological products Water power Leisure and recreation The true value of freshwater ecosystems 8. Threats to lakes and rivers Biodiversity The Earth Summit, 1992 Classifying risk Dams and channelization Altering the flow Changes in land use The Aral Sea disaster Climate change The greenhouse effect Alien invasions Freshwater pollution Bioaccumulation and biomagnification Too many nutrients Acid waters Overharvesting Standing stock, fish production, and maximum sustainable yield Conclusion: Managing lakes and rivers Integrated river basin management Managing water pollution Restoring overenriched lakes Dealing with acidification The partial recovery of Whitepine Lake and Whirligig Lake Managing freshwater fisheries The future of lakes and rivers Charismatic freshwater fish APPENDIXES Glossary Further reading Web sites Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Lake ecology -- Juvenile literature.
Lakes -- Juvenile literature.
Stream ecology -- Juvenile literature.
Rivers -- Juvenile literature.