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TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page iii Copyright Notice iv Table of Contents v Dedication xiii Acknowledgements xiv Note on Names xvi Notes on Personal Names xvii Note on Translations xvii Note on Archival Sources xvii Prologue 1 Introduction: TURKISH NATIONALISM TODAY 2 Chapter I: FROM THE MUSLIM MILLET TO THE TURKISH NATION: THE OTTOMAN LEGACY 6 From Ethnies to Nations 6 The fall of the Ottoman Empire: from the Ottoman Muslims to the Turkish Nation 8 The Rise of the Committee of Union and Progress and the Fight for Anatolia 13 Chapter II: SECULARISM, KEMALIST NATIONALISM, TURKISHNESS, AND THE MINORITIES IN THE 1920s 19 Anatolian Muslims Rally to Liberate Turkey 19 Secularization: The Ascent of Nominal Islam as a Marker of Turkishness 21 A Dilemma for Kemalism: Turkish Citizenship vs. Turkish Nationality 23 Turkey during the 1920s: A multi-ethnic Muslim nation 26 Kurds in the 1920s: The Role of Religion in Assimilation 28 Jews during the 1920s: The Role of the Turkish Language in Assimilation 35 Christians in the 1920s: An Overview 42 Greeks in the 1920s 44 Arab Christians, Jacobites and Other Eastern Christians during the 1920s 49 Armenians during the 1920s: Conflict and Confrontation 51 Armenian Conspiracies, French Syria, and Turkey in the 1920 58 A?r? Uprising of 1930 59 Conclusion 61 Chapter III: KEMALISM PAR EXCELLENCE IN THE 1930s: THE RISE OF TURKISH NATIONALISM 63 Menemen Rebellion, A?r? Uprising, and SCF Experience: The Troublesome 1930 63 The Advent of High Kemalism 66 CHP?s 1931 Congress 68 CHP?s 1935 Congress and the Six Principles of Kemalism 72 The Inspectorates-General 73 First Turkish History Congress and the Turkish History Thesis 76 The Rise of Ethnic Definition of the Turkish Nation 81 The Ramifications of the Turkish History Thesis 84 First Turkish Language Congress and the Purification of Turkish 85 Atatürk?s Death and the End of a Period of High Kemalism 89 The Ethno-Racial Definition of the Turkish Nation vs. Turkey?s Ethno-Religious Diversity 89 Citizen, Speak Turkish and Adopt a Turkish Last Name! 90 Conclusion 99 Chapter IV: WHO IS A TURK? KEMALIST CITIZENSHIP POLICIES 102 Citizenship as a Political Tool in Interwar Europe: An Overview 102 Turkish Censuses under High Kemalism 103 The Privileged Position of the Turks Among the Turkish Citizens 109 Denaturalization Cases 113 Denaturalizations in accordance with Law Nr. 1041 113 Denaturalizations in accordance with Law Nr. 1312 115 Denaturalizations in accordance with the Statute on Traveling 117 Naturalization Cases 121 Law Nr. 1312: East-Central Europeans, Hellenic Greeks, and White Russians 121 Naturalizations in accordance with Law Nr. 1312: immigrant Muslims 126 Race and Ethnicity in Turkish Citizenship Policies in the 1930s 128 Conclusion 130 Chapter V: DEFINING THE BOUNDARIES OF TURKISHNESS: KEMALIST IMMIGRATION AND RESETTLEMENT POLICIES 133 The Nature of Immigration to Turkey in the 1920s and the 1930s 133 The Resettlement Law of 1926 137 The Resettlement Policies towards the Kurds in the 1920s 140 The Resettlement Law of 1934 144 The Kurds in High Kemalist resettlement policies 144 Race and Ethnicity in Turkish Resettlement Policies in the 1930s148 Armenians in the High Kemalist Resettlement Acts 150 The Immigration Matrix 152 Balkan and Caucasus Muslims in the High Kemalist Resettlement Policies 153 Hierarchy in Immigration to Turkey 156 Vigilance towards the Caucasus Muslims 158 The Spirit of High Kemalist Immigration and Resettlement Policies 164 Chapter VI: SECULARIZED ISLAM DEFINES TURKISHNESS: KURDS AND OTHER MUSLIMS AS TURKS 166 Why Were the Kurds the Biggest Challenge to Kemalism? 166 The Kadro Movement and the Kurds: ?Are the Kurds a Nation?? 167 Kemalism and the Kurds: 1920s into the 1930s 171 The Dersim Uprising and the Kemalist Reaction 175 High Kemalist Policy Towards the Circassians and Other Caucasus Muslims 185 High Kemalist Policy Towards the Nusayris, and the Hatay Conundrum 190 Relations between Turkey and French Syria in the 1930s 192 The Sancak Controversy of the Late 1930s 192 High Kemalist Policies towards the Arabs and the Albanians 200 Conclusion 202 Chapter VII: ETHNO-RELIGIOUS LIMITS OF TURKISHNESS: CHRISTIANS EXCLUDED FROM THE NATION 204 A General Overview 204 Greeks under High Kemalism 207 Eastern Christians under High Kemalism 213 Armenians under High Kemalism 215 Armenians Assassination Attempts Against the Leaders of the Republic 218 Caution and Ethnic Bias towards the Armenians 220 Turkish Armenians at the End of the High Kemalist Era 226 Conclusion: A Legacy of Animosity towards Christianity and the Christians 227 Chapter VII: JEWS IN THE 1930s: TURKS OR NOT? 231 Thrace, The Focal Point of Jewish Concentration in Turkey. 231 Ankara?s Animosity toward the Thracian Jews and Bulgarian Revisionism Concerning the Thrace 232 Jewish Exodus from Thrace, the 1934 Thracian Incidents 235 Who was responsible: a government account 238 Who was responsible: a diplomatic account 240 Who was responsible: an academic account 242 Who was responsible: a conclusion 244 The Aftermath of the 1934 Incidents 245 Anti-semitism in Turkey in the 1930s 246 The case of the anti-semitic publications and press 246 Was Turkey anti-semitic in the 1930s? 249 Jewish Immigration to Turkey in the 1930s 251 The case of German and Austrian Professors in 1933 251 Jewish immigration to Turkey in the late 1930s 252 The Death of Atatürk and the Arrest of Italian Jews 255 Conclusion: Jews in the 1930s, Turkish Nationalism vs. Anti-Semitism 257 Conclusion: UNDERSTANDING TURKISH NATIONALISM IN MODERN TURKEY: THE KEMALIST LEGACY 260 The Characteristics of Turkish Nationalism in the Interwar Period 260 The Anatolian, Balkan, and Black Sea Muslims vis-à-vis Turkishness 262 The Jews vis-à-vis Turkishness 263 The Ottoman Christians vis-à-vis Turkishness 264 Kemalism?s Three Zones of Turkishness 265 The Saliency of Ethno-Religious Nationalism in the Former Ottoman Sphere 268 Understanding Turkey?s Current Nationality-Related Dilemmas: The Kemalist Legacy 269 ENDOTES 272 Introduction 272 Chapter I 272 Chapter II 281 Chapter III 301 Chapter IV 315 Chapter V 325 Chapter VI 347 Chapter VII 350 Chapter VIII 360 Conclusion 368 MAP I: PROVINCES OF TURKEY 1927 (administrative divisions--boundaries approximate) 435 MAP II: DISTRIBUTION OF NON-MUSLIMS IN TURKEY 1927 436 MAP III: DISTRIBUTION OF NON-TURKISH SPEAKERS IN TURKEY 1927 437 MAP IV: DISTRIBUTION OF KURDS IN TURKEY 1927 438 MAP V: TURKISH PROVINCES GOVERNED BY THE INSPECTORATE-GENERALS 1936 439 MAP VI: ARMENIAN CONCENTRATION IN CENTRAL, EAST-CENTRAL, AND SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY 1927 440 FIGURE I: MATRIX OF TURKISHNESS 441 FIGURE II: PRIORITY IN IMMIGRATION 442 FIGURE III: ZONES OF TURKISHNESS IN THE 1930s 443 BIBLIOGRAPHY 371
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Turkey -- Ethnic relations.
Islam -- Turkey -- History.
Turkey -- Ethnic relations.
Turkey -- Politics and government -- 1918-1960.