Table of contents for Islam, secularism and nationalism in modern Turkey : who is a Turk? / Soner Cagaptay.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page										iii
Copyright Notice									iv
Table of Contents									v
Dedication										xiii
Acknowledgements									xiv
Note on Names									xvi
Notes on Personal Names 								xvii
Note on Translations									xvii
Note on Archival Sources								xvii
Prologue										1
Introduction:	TURKISH NATIONALISM TODAY				2
Chapter I:	FROM THE MUSLIM MILLET TO THE TURKISH NATION: 
THE OTTOMAN LEGACY					6
		From Ethnies to Nations						6
		The fall of the Ottoman Empire: from the Ottoman Muslims 
 to the Turkish Nation						8
The Rise of the Committee of Union and Progress and the Fight for 
Anatolia								13
Chapter II:	SECULARISM, KEMALIST NATIONALISM, TURKISHNESS, 
AND THE MINORITIES IN THE 1920s				19
Anatolian Muslims Rally to Liberate Turkey			19
Secularization: The Ascent of Nominal Islam as a Marker of 
Turkishness								21
A Dilemma for Kemalism: Turkish Citizenship vs. Turkish 
Nationality								23
		Turkey during the 1920s: A multi-ethnic Muslim nation	26
Kurds in the 1920s: The Role of Religion in Assimilation		28
Jews during the 1920s: The Role of the Turkish Language in 
Assimilation								35
Christians in the 1920s: An Overview				42
Greeks in the 1920s							44
Arab Christians, Jacobites and Other Eastern Christians
 during the 1920s							49
Armenians during the 1920s: Conflict and Confrontation	51
		Armenian Conspiracies, French Syria, and Turkey
 in the 1920							58
 A?r? Uprising of 1930						59
		Conclusion								61	
					
Chapter III:	KEMALISM PAR EXCELLENCE IN THE 1930s: THE RISE OF 
		TURKISH NATIONALISM					63
		Menemen Rebellion, A?r? Uprising, and SCF 
		Experience: The Troublesome 1930				63
		The Advent of High Kemalism					66
		CHP?s 1931 Congress						68
		CHP?s 1935 Congress and the Six Principles of Kemalism	72
		The Inspectorates-General						73
First Turkish History Congress and 
the Turkish History Thesis 						76
The Rise of Ethnic Definition of the Turkish Nation		81
The Ramifications of the Turkish History Thesis			84
First Turkish Language Congress and the 
Purification of Turkish						85
Atatürk?s Death and the End of a Period of High Kemalism	89
The Ethno-Racial Definition of the Turkish Nation vs. 
Turkey?s Ethno-Religious Diversity				89
Citizen, Speak Turkish and Adopt a Turkish Last Name!	90
Conclusion								99
Chapter IV:	WHO IS A TURK? KEMALIST CITIZENSHIP POLICIES	102
			Citizenship as a Political Tool in Interwar Europe: 
			An Overview								102
			Turkish Censuses under High Kemalism				103
			The Privileged Position of the Turks Among 
			the Turkish Citizens							109
			Denaturalization Cases						113
				Denaturalizations in accordance with Law Nr. 1041		113
				Denaturalizations in accordance with Law Nr. 1312		115 
				Denaturalizations in accordance with the Statute 
				on Traveling							117
			Naturalization Cases							121
Law Nr. 1312: East-Central Europeans, Hellenic Greeks, 
and White Russians						121
Naturalizations in accordance with Law Nr. 1312: 
immigrant Muslims						126
			Race and Ethnicity in Turkish Citizenship Policies in the 1930s	128
			Conclusion								130
Chapter V:	DEFINING THE BOUNDARIES OF TURKISHNESS: KEMALIST 
IMMIGRATION AND RESETTLEMENT POLICIES		133
			The Nature of Immigration to Turkey in the 1920s
 and the 1930s							133
			The Resettlement Law of 1926					137
			The Resettlement Policies towards the Kurds in the 1920s	140
			The Resettlement Law of 1934					144
				The Kurds in High Kemalist resettlement policies	144
 Race and Ethnicity in Turkish Resettlement Policies in the 1930s148
		Armenians in the High Kemalist Resettlement Acts		150
		The Immigration Matrix						152
		Balkan and Caucasus Muslims in the High Kemalist 
 Resettlement Policies						153
 Hierarchy in Immigration to Turkey				156
 	Vigilance towards the Caucasus Muslims			158
 The Spirit of High Kemalist Immigration and Resettlement 
 Policies								164
 
Chapter VI:	SECULARIZED ISLAM DEFINES TURKISHNESS: KURDS 
 AND OTHER MUSLIMS AS TURKS				166
Why Were the Kurds the Biggest Challenge to Kemalism?	166
The Kadro Movement and the Kurds: 
?Are the Kurds a Nation??						167
Kemalism and the Kurds: 1920s into the 1930s			171
The Dersim Uprising and the Kemalist Reaction			175
 High Kemalist Policy Towards the Circassians and 
 Other Caucasus Muslims						185
 High Kemalist Policy Towards the Nusayris, 
 and the Hatay Conundrum						190
 		Relations between Turkey and French Syria 
 in the 1930s							192
		The Sancak Controversy of the Late 1930s			192
		High Kemalist Policies towards the Arabs and the Albanians	200
		Conclusion								202 
Chapter VII:	ETHNO-RELIGIOUS LIMITS OF TURKISHNESS: 
CHRISTIANS EXCLUDED FROM THE NATION		204
A General Overview							204
Greeks under High Kemalism					207
Eastern Christians under High Kemalism				213
Armenians under High Kemalism					215
Armenians Assassination Attempts Against 
the Leaders of the Republic						218
Caution and Ethnic Bias towards the Armenians			220
Turkish Armenians at the End of the High Kemalist Era		226
Conclusion: A Legacy of Animosity towards Christianity 
and the Christians							227
Chapter VII: 	JEWS IN THE 1930s: TURKS OR NOT?				231
		Thrace, The Focal Point of Jewish Concentration in Turkey.	231
Ankara?s Animosity toward the Thracian Jews and Bulgarian 
Revisionism Concerning the Thrace				232
		Jewish Exodus from Thrace, the 1934 Thracian Incidents	235
			Who was responsible: a government account			238
			Who was responsible: a diplomatic account			240
			Who was responsible: an academic account			242
			Who was responsible: a conclusion				244
		The Aftermath of the 1934 Incidents				245
		Anti-semitism in Turkey in the 1930s				246
			The case of the anti-semitic publications and press		246
			Was Turkey anti-semitic in the 1930s?			249
		Jewish Immigration to Turkey in the 1930s			251
			The case of German and Austrian Professors in 1933	251
			Jewish immigration to Turkey in the late 1930s		252
		The Death of Atatürk and the Arrest of Italian Jews		255
		Conclusion: Jews in the 1930s, 
 Turkish Nationalism vs. Anti-Semitism				257
Conclusion:	UNDERSTANDING TURKISH NATIONALISM IN MODERN 
TURKEY: THE KEMALIST LEGACY				260
The Characteristics of Turkish Nationalism in the 
Interwar Period							260
	The Anatolian, Balkan, and Black Sea Muslims
 vis-à-vis Turkishness						262
 The Jews vis-à-vis Turkishness				263
 The Ottoman Christians vis-à-vis Turkishness		264
	Kemalism?s Three Zones of Turkishness				265
The Saliency of Ethno-Religious Nationalism in the 
Former Ottoman Sphere						 268
 Understanding Turkey?s Current Nationality-Related 
 Dilemmas: The Kemalist Legacy					269
ENDOTES										272
		Introduction								272
		Chapter I								272
		Chapter II								281
		Chapter III								301
		Chapter IV								315
		Chapter V								325
		Chapter VI								347
		Chapter VII								350
		Chapter VIII								360
		Conclusion								368
MAP I: 	PROVINCES OF TURKEY 1927 
 (administrative divisions--boundaries approximate)			435
MAP II:	DISTRIBUTION OF NON-MUSLIMS IN TURKEY 1927	 436
MAP III:	DISTRIBUTION OF NON-TURKISH SPEAKERS IN 
 TURKEY 1927							437
MAP IV:	DISTRIBUTION OF KURDS IN TURKEY 1927			438
MAP V:	TURKISH PROVINCES GOVERNED BY 
THE INSPECTORATE-GENERALS 1936			439
MAP VI:	ARMENIAN CONCENTRATION IN CENTRAL, 
EAST-CENTRAL, AND SOUTHEASTERN 
TURKEY 1927							440
FIGURE I:	MATRIX OF TURKISHNESS					441
FIGURE II:	PRIORITY IN IMMIGRATION					 442
FIGURE III:	ZONES OF TURKISHNESS IN THE 1930s			443
BIBLIOGRAPHY									371

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Kemalism.
Turkey -- Ethnic relations.
Islam -- Turkey -- History.
Turkey -- Ethnic relations.
Turkey -- Politics and government -- 1918-1960.