Table of contents for Probiotic dairy products / edited by Adnan Tamime.

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PROBIOTIC DAIRY PRODUCTS
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Microbiota of the Human Gut 
1.1	Background
1.2	The human gastrointestinal tract and its microbiota
1.3	Functions of the gastrointestinal microbiota 
1.4	Influences on the GI tract and its microbiota 
1.5	Beneficial microbiota: probiotics and health aspects 
 1.5.1 Enzymatic activity and improved digestion 
 1.5.2 Clostridium difficile -associated intestinal disease
 1.5.3 Antibiotic associated diarrhoea
 1.5.4 Acute diarrhoea and gastroenteritis
 1.5.5 Extra-intestinal applications
 1.5.6 Other potential applications
 1.5.7 Product considerations
 1.5.8 Prebiotics 
 1.6 Conclusion
 1.7 References
Chapter 2: Genomic Characterisation of Starter Cultures
 2.1 Introduction
 2.2 The "Omic" approaches
 2.2.1 Background
 2.2.2 Exploration of genomic sequences
 2.2.3 Tools for converting genomic sequences to biologically relevant 
 information
 2.2.4 What can genomics be used for?
 2.2.4.1 Comparative genomics
 2.2.4.2 Tracking of strains
 2.2.4.3 Strain characterisation
 2.2.4.4 Strain improvement
 2.2.4.5 Safety assessment
 2.2.4.6 Improving production conditions
 2.2.4.7 Mode of action
 2.3 State of the art
 2.3.1 Publicly available genome sequences
 2.3.2 Evolutionary genomics of lactic acid bacteria
 2.3.3 Complete genome sequences of potentially probiotic micro-
 organisms
 2.3.3.1 Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403
 2.3.3.2 Bifdobacterium longum NCC2705
 2.3.3.3 Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533
 2.3.3.4 Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1
 2.3.3.5 Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM
 2.3.4 Metagenomics
 	2.3.4.1 Metagenomic analysis of bacteria inhabiting the human 
 GI tract
 2.3.4.2 Metagenomic analysis of bacteriophages inhabiting the 
 human GI tract
 2.4 Future perspectives
 	2.4.1 Nutrigenomics
 	2.4.2 Mode of action of probiotic
 	2.4.3 Development of new probiotics
 2.5 Conclusion
 2.6 References
Chapter 3: Production and Maintaining Viability of Probiotic Micro-organisms 
 in Dairy Products
 3.1 Introduction
 3.2 Probiotic micro-organisms
 	3.2.1 General characteristics
 	3.2.2 Examples of commercial starter cultures blends
 3.3 Economic value
 3.4 Types of probiotic dairy products
 3.4.1 Fermented milks and beverages
 3.4.1.1 Nordic cultured buttermilk (piimä, filmjölk) and kefir 
 (i.e. drinking-type)
 3.4.1.2 Non-drinking fermented milk products
 3.4.1.3 Skyr, ymer and strained yoghurt (concentrated 
 fermented milks)
 3.4.1.4 Quality appraisal of probiotic fermented milks
 3.4.2 Cheeses
 3.4.2.1 Methods of introduction in cheese
 3.4.2.2 Strain selection
 3.4.3 Ice cream and frozen desserts
 3.4.4 Miscellaneous dairy products
 3.4.4.1 Probiotic 'sweet' milk
 3.4.4.2 Fat spread
 3.4.4.3 Dried products
 3.4.4.4 Long shelf-life fermented milk drinks or beverages
 3.4.4.5 Milk- and water-based cereal puddings
 3.5 Viability of probiotic micro-organisms
 3.5.1 Composition of the fermentation medium
 3.5.2 Viability as affected by oxygen
 3.6 Approaches to improve the viability of the probiotic micro-organisms 
 in the product
 3.6.1 Selection of bacterial strain(s)
 3.6.2 Type of packaging container
 3.6.3 Rate of inoculation
 3.6.4 Two-stage fermentation
 3.6.5 Microencapsulation technique
 3.6.6 Supplementation of the milk with nutrients
 3.6.7 The use of oxygen scavengers
 3.6.8 The addition of cysteine
 3.7 Future developments
 3.8 References
 
 
Chapter 4: Current Legislation of Probiotic Products
 4.1 Introduction
 4.2 The situation in the European Union (EU)
 4.2.1 Relevant food safety legislation
 4.2.2. The EU novel food application procedure
 4.2.3 Simplified procedure/notification
 4.2.4 Genetic modification
 4.2.4.1 Approval of GMOs
 4.2.4.2 Claims and labelling
 4.2.5 Proposed health claim application procedure
 4.2.6 EU Commission proposal for a regulation on yoghurt and 
 yoghurt-like products
		4.2.7 Use of the term 'Bio'
 4.2.8 The UK market
	4.3 The US situation
 4.3.1 Food safety
 4.3.2 Claims and labelling
	4.4 The Japanese model
 4.4.1 The process for obtaining FOSHU approval
 4.4.2 Costs of approval
 4.5 Codex Alimentarius
 4.5.1 Background
 4.5.2 Acceptance of Codex Standards and their role in the WTO
 4.5.3 Codex and the issue of claims
 4.5.4 Codex Standard for fermented milks
 4.6 Some conclusions and additional pointers to the future
 4.7 References
Chapter 5: Enumeration and Identification of Mixed Probiotic and 
 Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures
 5.1 Introduction
 5.2 Classic approaches to LAB enumeration and differentiation
 5.3 Current approaches to LAB enumeration
 5.3.1 Differential plating methods
 5.3.2 Probing strategies
 5.3.3 Quantitative PCR
 5.4 Modern genetic approaches to LAB differentiation
 5.4.1 Background
 5.4.2 Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)
 5.4.3 Ribotyping and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA)
 5.4.4 Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis
 5.4.5 Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
 5.4.6 PCR-typing
 5.4.7 Gene sequencing
 5.4.8 Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-PCR (DGGE-PCR)
 5.4.9 Probing strategies
 5.5 Discussion
 5.6 References
Chapter 6: Prebiotic Ingredients with Emphasis on Galactooligosaccharides and 
Fructooligosaccharides
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 Classification of prebiotics
	6.3 Prominence of prebiotics in FOSHU
	6.4 Galactooligosaccharide as a probiotic
 6.4.1. Technical aspects of galactooligosaccharide
 6.4.2 Production of galactooligosaccharides
 6.4.3 Characteristics of galactooligosaccharides
 6.4.4 Health effects of GOS
 6.5 Focus on Fructooligosaccharides (FOS)
 6.5.1 Background
 6.5.2 Technological production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS)
 6.5.3 Characteristics of fructooligosaccharides
 6.5.4 Health effects of fructooligosaccharides
 6.6 Conclusion
 6.7 References
Chapter 7: Health Claims Associated with Probiotics
 7.1 Introduction
 7.2 Probiotic use in gastrointestinal tract conditions
 7.2.1 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
 7.2.1.1 Crohn's disease
 7.2.1.2 Ulcerative colitis
 7.2.2 Pouchitis
 7.2.3 Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
 7.2.4 Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile
 7.2.5 Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea
 7.2.6 Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD)
 7.2.7 Traveller's diarrhoea
 7.2.8 Infant diarrhoea
 7.3 Probiotic use in extra-gastrointestinal conditions
 7.3.1 Atopic dermatitis
 7.3.2 Bacterial vaginosis (BV)
 7.4 Conclusions
 7.5 References
Chapter 8: Production of Vitamins, Exopolysaccharides and Bacteriocins by 
 Probiotic Bacteria
 8.1 Introduction
 8.2 Vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacterium 
 spp.
 8.2.1 Introduction
 8.2.2 Folate
 8.2.3 Vitamin B12 production
 8.2.4 Vitamin K production
 8.2.5 Riboflavin and thiamine
 8.3 Exopolysaccharides (EPS) production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) 
 and Bifidobacterium spp.
 8.3.1 Introduction
 8.3.2 Classification of EPS
 8.3.3 Health benefits of EPS
 8.3.3.1 Prebiotic effect of EPS
 8.3.3.2 Immunostimulatory activity of EPS
 8.3.3.3 Anti-tumoral activity of EPS
 8.3.3.4 EPS and blood cholesterol lowering effects
 8.3.4 Genetic engineering for microbial production of EPS
 8.4 Production of bacteriocins by probiotic cultures
 8.4.1 Introduction
 8.4.2 Production of antimicrobials as a probiotic trait
 8.4.3 Classification of bacteriocins
 8.4.3.1 Class I - lantibiotics
 8.4.3.2 Class II - bacteriocins
 8.4.3.2.1 Subclass IIa
 8.4.3.2.2 Subclass IIb
 8.4.3.2.3 Subclass IIc
 8.4.3.3 Class III bacteriocins
 8.4.4 Antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus spp.
 8.4.5 Antimicrobial potential of Bifidobacterium spp.
 8.4.6 Heterologous expression
 8.5 Overall conclusions
 8.6 Acknowledgements
 8.7 References
Chapter 9: Future Development of Probiotic Dairy Products
 9.1 Background
 9.2 Recent European Union (EU) research activities in the gut health 
 area: the PROEUHEALTH cluster
 9.3 Beyond PROEUHEALTH: from products to mechanisms and back
 9.4 The strategic leap towards mechanistic studies - future target areas 
 for research
 9.5 Future functional food industry will approach the consumer in a 
 different way
 9.6 Conclusions
 9.7 References

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Dairy microbiology.
Dairy products in human nutrition.
Dairy Products -- microbiology.
Food Microbiology.
Food Technology.
Probiotics.