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PROBIOTIC DAIRY PRODUCTS Table of Contents Chapter 1: Microbiota of the Human Gut 1.1 Background 1.2 The human gastrointestinal tract and its microbiota 1.3 Functions of the gastrointestinal microbiota 1.4 Influences on the GI tract and its microbiota 1.5 Beneficial microbiota: probiotics and health aspects 1.5.1 Enzymatic activity and improved digestion 1.5.2 Clostridium difficile -associated intestinal disease 1.5.3 Antibiotic associated diarrhoea 1.5.4 Acute diarrhoea and gastroenteritis 1.5.5 Extra-intestinal applications 1.5.6 Other potential applications 1.5.7 Product considerations 1.5.8 Prebiotics 1.6 Conclusion 1.7 References Chapter 2: Genomic Characterisation of Starter Cultures 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The "Omic" approaches 2.2.1 Background 2.2.2 Exploration of genomic sequences 2.2.3 Tools for converting genomic sequences to biologically relevant information 2.2.4 What can genomics be used for? 18.104.22.168 Comparative genomics 22.214.171.124 Tracking of strains 126.96.36.199 Strain characterisation 188.8.131.52 Strain improvement 184.108.40.206 Safety assessment 220.127.116.11 Improving production conditions 18.104.22.168 Mode of action 2.3 State of the art 2.3.1 Publicly available genome sequences 2.3.2 Evolutionary genomics of lactic acid bacteria 2.3.3 Complete genome sequences of potentially probiotic micro- organisms 22.214.171.124 Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 126.96.36.199 Bifdobacterium longum NCC2705 188.8.131.52 Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 184.108.40.206 Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 220.127.116.11 Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM 2.3.4 Metagenomics 18.104.22.168 Metagenomic analysis of bacteria inhabiting the human GI tract 22.214.171.124 Metagenomic analysis of bacteriophages inhabiting the human GI tract 2.4 Future perspectives 2.4.1 Nutrigenomics 2.4.2 Mode of action of probiotic 2.4.3 Development of new probiotics 2.5 Conclusion 2.6 References Chapter 3: Production and Maintaining Viability of Probiotic Micro-organisms in Dairy Products 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Probiotic micro-organisms 3.2.1 General characteristics 3.2.2 Examples of commercial starter cultures blends 3.3 Economic value 3.4 Types of probiotic dairy products 3.4.1 Fermented milks and beverages 126.96.36.199 Nordic cultured buttermilk (piimä, filmjölk) and kefir (i.e. drinking-type) 188.8.131.52 Non-drinking fermented milk products 184.108.40.206 Skyr, ymer and strained yoghurt (concentrated fermented milks) 220.127.116.11 Quality appraisal of probiotic fermented milks 3.4.2 Cheeses 18.104.22.168 Methods of introduction in cheese 22.214.171.124 Strain selection 3.4.3 Ice cream and frozen desserts 3.4.4 Miscellaneous dairy products 126.96.36.199 Probiotic 'sweet' milk 188.8.131.52 Fat spread 184.108.40.206 Dried products 220.127.116.11 Long shelf-life fermented milk drinks or beverages 18.104.22.168 Milk- and water-based cereal puddings 3.5 Viability of probiotic micro-organisms 3.5.1 Composition of the fermentation medium 3.5.2 Viability as affected by oxygen 3.6 Approaches to improve the viability of the probiotic micro-organisms in the product 3.6.1 Selection of bacterial strain(s) 3.6.2 Type of packaging container 3.6.3 Rate of inoculation 3.6.4 Two-stage fermentation 3.6.5 Microencapsulation technique 3.6.6 Supplementation of the milk with nutrients 3.6.7 The use of oxygen scavengers 3.6.8 The addition of cysteine 3.7 Future developments 3.8 References Chapter 4: Current Legislation of Probiotic Products 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The situation in the European Union (EU) 4.2.1 Relevant food safety legislation 4.2.2. The EU novel food application procedure 4.2.3 Simplified procedure/notification 4.2.4 Genetic modification 22.214.171.124 Approval of GMOs 126.96.36.199 Claims and labelling 4.2.5 Proposed health claim application procedure 4.2.6 EU Commission proposal for a regulation on yoghurt and yoghurt-like products 4.2.7 Use of the term 'Bio' 4.2.8 The UK market 4.3 The US situation 4.3.1 Food safety 4.3.2 Claims and labelling 4.4 The Japanese model 4.4.1 The process for obtaining FOSHU approval 4.4.2 Costs of approval 4.5 Codex Alimentarius 4.5.1 Background 4.5.2 Acceptance of Codex Standards and their role in the WTO 4.5.3 Codex and the issue of claims 4.5.4 Codex Standard for fermented milks 4.6 Some conclusions and additional pointers to the future 4.7 References Chapter 5: Enumeration and Identification of Mixed Probiotic and Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Classic approaches to LAB enumeration and differentiation 5.3 Current approaches to LAB enumeration 5.3.1 Differential plating methods 5.3.2 Probing strategies 5.3.3 Quantitative PCR 5.4 Modern genetic approaches to LAB differentiation 5.4.1 Background 5.4.2 Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) 5.4.3 Ribotyping and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) 5.4.4 Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis 5.4.5 Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) 5.4.6 PCR-typing 5.4.7 Gene sequencing 5.4.8 Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-PCR (DGGE-PCR) 5.4.9 Probing strategies 5.5 Discussion 5.6 References Chapter 6: Prebiotic Ingredients with Emphasis on Galactooligosaccharides and Fructooligosaccharides 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Classification of prebiotics 6.3 Prominence of prebiotics in FOSHU 6.4 Galactooligosaccharide as a probiotic 6.4.1. Technical aspects of galactooligosaccharide 6.4.2 Production of galactooligosaccharides 6.4.3 Characteristics of galactooligosaccharides 6.4.4 Health effects of GOS 6.5 Focus on Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) 6.5.1 Background 6.5.2 Technological production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) 6.5.3 Characteristics of fructooligosaccharides 6.5.4 Health effects of fructooligosaccharides 6.6 Conclusion 6.7 References Chapter 7: Health Claims Associated with Probiotics 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Probiotic use in gastrointestinal tract conditions 7.2.1 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 188.8.131.52 Crohn's disease 184.108.40.206 Ulcerative colitis 7.2.2 Pouchitis 7.2.3 Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 7.2.4 Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile 7.2.5 Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea 7.2.6 Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) 7.2.7 Traveller's diarrhoea 7.2.8 Infant diarrhoea 7.3 Probiotic use in extra-gastrointestinal conditions 7.3.1 Atopic dermatitis 7.3.2 Bacterial vaginosis (BV) 7.4 Conclusions 7.5 References Chapter 8: Production of Vitamins, Exopolysaccharides and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Bacteria 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacterium spp. 8.2.1 Introduction 8.2.2 Folate 8.2.3 Vitamin B12 production 8.2.4 Vitamin K production 8.2.5 Riboflavin and thiamine 8.3 Exopolysaccharides (EPS) production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacterium spp. 8.3.1 Introduction 8.3.2 Classification of EPS 8.3.3 Health benefits of EPS 220.127.116.11 Prebiotic effect of EPS 18.104.22.168 Immunostimulatory activity of EPS 22.214.171.124 Anti-tumoral activity of EPS 126.96.36.199 EPS and blood cholesterol lowering effects 8.3.4 Genetic engineering for microbial production of EPS 8.4 Production of bacteriocins by probiotic cultures 8.4.1 Introduction 8.4.2 Production of antimicrobials as a probiotic trait 8.4.3 Classification of bacteriocins 188.8.131.52 Class I - lantibiotics 184.108.40.206 Class II - bacteriocins 220.127.116.11.1 Subclass IIa 18.104.22.168.2 Subclass IIb 22.214.171.124.3 Subclass IIc 126.96.36.199 Class III bacteriocins 8.4.4 Antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus spp. 8.4.5 Antimicrobial potential of Bifidobacterium spp. 8.4.6 Heterologous expression 8.5 Overall conclusions 8.6 Acknowledgements 8.7 References Chapter 9: Future Development of Probiotic Dairy Products 9.1 Background 9.2 Recent European Union (EU) research activities in the gut health area: the PROEUHEALTH cluster 9.3 Beyond PROEUHEALTH: from products to mechanisms and back 9.4 The strategic leap towards mechanistic studies - future target areas for research 9.5 Future functional food industry will approach the consumer in a different way 9.6 Conclusions 9.7 References
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Dairy products in human nutrition.
Dairy Products -- microbiology.