Table of contents for The human bone manual / by Tim D. White, Pieter A. Folkens.

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Contents
Preface 
Chapter 1 
Introduction 
1.1 
Human Osteology 
1.2 
A Guide to the Text 
1.3 
Resources for the Osteologist 
1.4 
Identifying Bones 
Chapter 2 
Field Procedures for Skeletal Remains 
1. 2.1 Search 
2. 2.2 Discovery 
3. 2.3 Excavation and Retrieval 
4. 2.4 Transport 
Chapter 3 
Ethics in Osteology 
. 3.1 Ethics in Forensic Osteology 
1. 3.1.1 Boundaries of Evidence 
2. 3.1.2 The Expert Witness 
. 3.2 Ethics in Archeological Osteology 
1. 3.2.1 Ethics in Collision 
2. 3.2.2 NAGPRA and Its Effects 
3. 3.2.3 The Future 
Chapter 4 
Bone Biology and Variation 
4.1 
Variation 
4.2 
A Few Facts about Bone 
4.3 
Bones as Elements of the Musculoskeletal System 
4.4 
Gross Anatomy of Bones 
4.5 
Molecular Structure of Bone 
4.6 
Histology and Metabolism of Bone 
4.7 
Bone Growth 
4.8 
Bone Repair 
Chapter 5 
Postmortem Skeletal Modi?cation 
1. 5.1 Bone Fracture 
. 5.2 Bone Modi?cation by Physical Agents 
1. 5.2.1 Chemistry 
2. 5.2.2 Rock, Earth, and Ice 
3. 5.2.3 Abrasion 
4. 5.2.4 Fire 
. 5.3 Bone Modi?cation by Nonhuman Biological Agents 
1. 5.3.1 Nonhuman Animal 
2. 5.3.2 Plant 
. 5.4 Bone Modi?cation by Humans 
1. 5.4.1 Cutmarks, Chopmarks, and Scrapemarks 
2. 5.4.2 Percussion Marks 
3. 5.4.3 Projectiles 
Chapter 6 
Anatomical terminology 
1. 6.1 Planes of Reference 
. 6.2 Directional Terms 
1. 6.2.1 General 
2. 6.2.2 Teeth 
3. 6.2.3 Hands and Feet 
. 6.3 Motions of the Body 
1. 6.3.1 General 
2. 6.3.2 Teeth 
. 6.4 General Bone Features 
1. 6.4.1 Projections and Parts 
2. 6.4.2 Depressions 
Chapter 7 
Skull 
1. 7.1 Handling the Skull
2. 7.2 Elements of the Skull
3. 7.3 Growth and Architecture, Sutures and Sinuses
4. 7.4 Skull Orientation
5. 7.5 Learning Cranial Skeletal Anatomy
. 7.6 Frontal
1. 7.6.1 Anatomy
2. 7.6.2 Growth
3. 7.6.3 Possible Confusion
4. 7.6.4 Siding
. 7.7 Parietals
1. 7.7.1 Anatomy
2. 7.7.2 Growth
3. 7.7.3 Possible Confusion
4. 7.7.4 Siding
. 7.8 Temporals
1. 7.8.1 Anatomy
2. 7.8.2 Growth
3. 7.8.3 Possible Confusion
4. 7.8.4 Siding
6. 7.9 Auditory Ossicles
. 7.10 Occipital
1. 7.10.1 Anatomy
2. 7.10.2 Growth
3. 7.10.3 Possible Confusion
4. 7.10.4 Siding
. 7.11 Maxillae
1. 7.11.1 Anatomy
2. 7.11.2 Growth
3. 7.11.3 Possible Confusion
4. 7.11.4 Siding
. 7.12 Palatines
1. 7.12.1 Anatomy
2. 7.12.2 Growth
3. 7.12.3 Possible Confusion
4. 7.12.4 Siding
. 7.13 Vomer
1. 7.13.1 Anatomy
2. 7.13.2 Growth
3. 7.13.3 Possible Confusion
4. 7.14.4 Siding
2. 7.15 Inferior Nasal Conchae
7.15.1 Anatomy 
7.16 
7.17 
7.18 
7.19 
7.20 
7.21 
1. 7.15.2 Growth 
2. 7.15.3 Possible Confusion 
3. 7.15.4 Siding Ethmoid 
4. 7.16.1 Anatomy 
5. 7.16.2 Growth 
6. 7.16.3 Possible Confusion 
7. 7.16.4 Siding Lacrimals 
8. 7.17.1 Anatomy 
9. 7.17.2 Growth 
10. 7.17.3 Possible Confusion 
11. 7.17.4 Siding Nasals 
12. 7.18.1 Anatomy 
13. 7.18.2 Growth 
14. 7.18.3 Possible Confusion 
15. 7.18.4 Siding Zygomatics 
16. 7.19.1 Anatomy 
17. 7.19.2 Growth 
18. 7.19.3 Possible Confusion 
19. 7.19.4 Siding Sphenoid 
20. 7.20.1 Anatomy 
21. 7.20.2 Growth 
22. 7.20.3 Possible Confusion 
23. 7.20.4 Siding Mandible 
24. 7.21.1 Anatomy 
25. 7.21.2 Growth 
26. 7.21.3 Possible Confusion 
27. 7.21.4 Siding 
Chapter 8 
Dentition 
8.1 
Dental Form and Function 
8.2 
Dental Terminology 
8.3 
Anatomy of a Tooth 
8.4 
Tooth Identi?cation 
8.5 
To Which Tooth Category (Class) Does the Specimen Belong? 
8.5.1 
Incisors 
8.5.2 
Canines 
viii 
1. 8.5.3 Premolars
2. 8.5.4 Molars
. 8.6 Is the Tooth Permanent or Deciduous?
1. 8.6.1 Diagnostic Criteria
2. 8.6.2 Special Cases
. 8.7 Is the Tooth an Upper or a Lower?
1. 8.7.1 Upper versus Lower Incisors
2. 8.7.2 Upper versus Lower Canines
3. 8.7.3 Upper versus Lower Premolars
4. 8.7.4 Upper versus Lower Molars
. 8.8 Where in the Arch Is the Tooth Located?
1. 8.8.1 Upper Incisors: I1 versus I2
2. 8.8.2 Lower Incisors: I1 versus I2
3. 8.8.3 Upper Premolars: P3 versus P4
4. 8.8.4 Lower Premolars: P3 versus P4
5. 8.8.5 Upper Molars: M1 versus M2 versus M3
6. 8.8.6 Lower Molars: M1 versus M2 versus M3
. 8.9 Is the Tooth from the Right or the Left Side?
1. 8.9.1 Upper Incisors
2. 8.9.2 Lower Incisors
3. 8.9.3 Upper Canines
4. 8.9.4 Lower Canines
5. 8.9.5 Upper Premolars
6. 8.9.6 Lower Premolars
7. 8.9.7 Upper Molars
8. 8.9.8 Lower Molars
Chapter 9 
Hyoid and Vertebrae 
. 9.1 Hyoid
1. 9.1.1 Anatomy
2. 9.1.2 Growth
3. 9.1.3 Possible Confusion
4. 9.1.4 Siding
. 9.2 General Characteristics of Vertebrae
1. 9.2.1 Anatomy
2. 9.2.2 Growth
. 9.3 Cervical Vertebrae
1. 9.3.1 Identi?cation
2. 9.3.2 Special Cervical Vertebrae
3. 9.3.3
. 9.4 Thoracic Vertebrae
1. 9.4.1 Identi?cation
2. 9.4.2 Special Thoracic Vertebrae
3. 9.4.3 Siding
. 9.5 Lumbar Vertebrae
1. 9.5.1 Identi?cation
2. 9.5.2 Identifying Lumbar Position
3. 9.5.3 Siding
Chapter 10 
Thorax: Sternum and Ribs 
. 10.1 Sternum
1. 10.1.1 Anatomy
2. 10.1.2 Growth
3. 10.1.3 Possible Confusion
4. 10.1.4 Siding
. 10.2 Ribs
1. 10.2.1 Anatomy
2. 10.2.2 Special Ribs
3. 10.2.3 Growth
4. 10.2.4 Possible Confusion
5. 10.2.5 Siding
Chapter 11 
Shoulder Girdle: Clavicle and Scapula 
. 11.1 Clavicle
1. 11.1.1 Anatomy
2. 11.1.2 Growth
3. 11.1.3 Possible Confusion
4. 11.1.4 Siding
. 11.2 Scapula
1. 11.2.1 Anatomy
2. 11.2.2 Growth
3. 11.2.3 Possible Confusion
4. 11.2.4 Siding
Chapter 12 
Arm: Humerus, Radius, and Ulna 
. 12.1 Humerus
1. 12.1.1 Anatomy
2. 12.1.2 Growth
3. 12.1.3 Possible Confusion
4. 12.1.4 Siding
. 12.2 Radius
1. 12.2.1 Anatomy
2. 12.2.2 Growth
3. 12.2.3 Possible Confusion
4. 12.2.4 Siding
. 12.3 Ulna
1. 12.3.1 Anatomy
2. 12.3.2 Growth
3. 12.3.3 Possible Confusion
4. 12.3.4 Siding
Chapter 13 
Hand: Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges 
. 13.1 Carpals
1. 13.1.1 Scaphoid
2. 13.1.2 Lunate
3. 13.1.3 Triquetral
4. 13.1.4 Pisiform
5. 13.1.5 Trapezium (Greater Multangular)
6. 13.1.6 Trapezoid (Lesser Multangular)
7. 13.1.7 Capitate
8. 13.1.8 Hamate
9. 13.1.9 Growth
. 13.1.10 Possible Confusion
. 13.2 Metacarpals
1. 13.2.1 First Metacarpal (Thumb)
2. 13.2.2 Second Metacarpal
3. 13.2.3 Third Metacarpal
4. 13.2.4 Fourth Metacarpal
5. 13.2.5 Fifth Metacarpal
6. 13.2.6 Growth
7. 13.2.7 Possible Confusion
8. 13.2.8 Siding
. 13.3 Hand Phalanges
1. 13.3.1 Proximal Hand Phalanges
2. 13.3.2 Intermediate Hand Phalanges
3. 13.3.3 Distal Hand Phalanges
4. 13.3.4 Growth
5. 13.3.5 Possible Confusion
6. 13.3.6 Siding
Chapter 14 
Pelvic Girdle: Sacrum, Coccyx, and Os Coxae 
. 14.1 Sacrum
1. 14.1.1 Anatomy
2. 14.1.2 Growth
3. 14.1.3 Possible Confusion
4. 14.1.4 Siding
2. 14.2 Coccyx
. 14.3 Os Coxae
1. 14.3.1 Anatomy
2. 14.3.2 Growth
3. 14.3.3 Possible Confusion
4. 14.3.4 Siding
Chapter 15 
Leg: Femur, Patella, Tibia, and Fibula 
. 15.1 Femur
1. 15.1.1 Anatomy
2. 15.1.2 Growth
3. 15.1.3 Possible Confusion
4. 15.1.4 Siding
. 15.2 Patella
1. 15.2.1 Anatomy
2. 15.2.2 Growth
3. 15.2.3 Possible Confusion
4. 15.2.4 Siding
. 15.3 Tibia
1. 15.3.1 Anatomy
2. 15.3.2 Growth
3. 15.3.3 Possible Confusion
4. 15.3.4 Siding
. 15.4 Fibula
1. 15.4.1 Anatomy
2. 15.4.2 Growth
3. 15.4.3 Possible Confusion
4. 15.4.4 Siding
Chapter 16 
Foot: Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges 
. 16.1 Tarsals
1. 16.1.1 Talus
2. 16.1.2 Calcaneus
3. 16.1.3 Cuboid
4. 16.1.4 Navicular
5. 16.1.5 Medial (First) Cuneiform
6. 16.1.6 Intermediate (Second) Cuneiform
7. 16.1.7 Lateral (Third) Cuneiform
8. 16.1.8 Growth
9. 16.1.9 Possible Confusion
. 16.2 Metatarsals
1. 16.2.1 First Metatarsal
2. 16.2.2 Second Metatarsal
3. 16.2.3 Third Metatarsal
4. 16.2.4 Fourth Metatarsal
5. 16.2.5 Fifth Metatarsal
6. 16.2.6 Growth
7. 13.2.7 Possible Confusion
8. 16.2.8 Siding
13.3 Foot Phalanges
1. 16.3.1 Proximal Foot Phalanges
2. 16.3.2 Intermediate Foot Phalanges
3. 16.3.3 Distal Foot Phalanges
4. 16.3.4 Growth
5. 16.3.5 Possible Confusion
6. 16.3.6 Siding
Chapter 17 
Osteological and Dental Pathology 
. 17.1 Trauma
1. 17.1.1 Fracture
2. 17.1.2 Dislocation
3. 17.1.3 Arti?cial Deformation
4. 17.1.4 Trephination and Amputation
. 17.2 Infectious Diseases and Associated Manifestations
1. 17.2.1 Osteomyelitis
2. 17.2.2 Periostitis
3. 17.2.3 Tuberculosis
4. 17.2.4 Treponemal Infections
2. 17.3 Circulatory Disturbances and Hematopoietic Disorders
. 17.4 Metabolic and Hormonal Imbalance
1. 17.4.1 Scurvy
2. 17.4.2 Rickets
3. 17.4.3 Osteoporosis
4. 17.4.4 Endocrine Disturbances and Dysplasias
3. 17.5 Tumors
. 17.6 Arthritis
1. 17.6.1 Osteoarthritis
2. 17.6.2 Rheumatoid Arthritis
3. 17.6.3 Ankylosing Spondylitis
. 17.7 Dental Pathology
1. 17.7.1 Caries
2. 17.7.2 Dental Hypoplasia
3. 17.7.3 Periodontal Disease
4. 17.7.4 Dental Calculus
5. 17.7.5 Arti?cial Dental Modi?cation
4. 17.8 Occupation
Chapter 18 
Laboratory Procedures and Reporting 
1. 18.1 Setting
2. 18.2 Preservation 
3. 18.3 Preparation 
4. 18.4 Restoration
5. 18.5 Sorting
6. 18.6 Metric Acquisition and Analysis
. 18.7 Molecular Osteology
1. 18.7.1 Sampling
2. 18.7.2 DNA and PCR
3. 18.7.3 Contamination
. 18.7.2 Taphonomy of DNA
7. 18.8 Molding and Casting
. 18.9 Photography
1. 18.9.1 Equipment
2. 18.9.2 Film and Exposure
3. 18.9.3 Lighting and Setup
1. 18.10 Radiography
2. 18.11 Microscopy
3. 18.12 Computing
4. 18.13 Reporting
5. 18.14 Curation
Chapter 19 
The Skeletal Biology of Individuals and Populations 
1. 19.1 Accuracy and Precision of Estimation
2. 19.2 From Known to Unknown
. 19.3 Estimation of Age
1. 19.3.1 Estimating Subadult Age from the Dentition
2. 19.3.2 Estimating Adult Age from the Dentition
3. 19.3.3 Estimating Adult Age from Cranial Suture Closure
4. 19.3.4 Estimating Subadult Age from Long-Bone Length
5. 19.3.5 Estimating Subadult Age from Epiphyseal Closure
6. 19.3.6 Estimating Adult Age from the Pubic Symphysis Surface
7. 19.3.7 Parturition Changes at the Pubic Symphysis
8. 19.3.8 Estimating Adult Age from the Ilium's Auricular Surface
9. 19.3.9 Estimating Adult Age from the Sternal Rib End
10. 19.3.10 Estimating Adult Age by Radiographic Analysis
11. 19.3.11 Estimating Adult Age by Using Bone Microstructure
12. 19.3.12 Multifactorial Age Estimation
. 19.4 Determination of Sex
1. 19.4.1 Sexing the Skull and Dentition
2. 19.4.2 Sexing the Postcranial Skeleton
3. 19.5 Estimation of Stature
4. 19.6 Estimation of Ancestry
5. 19.7 Identifying the Individual
. 19.8 Discrete Traits
1. 19.8.1 Dental Nonmetric Variation
2. 19.8.2 Cranial Nonmetric Variation
3. 19.8.3 Postcranial Nonmetric Variation
6. 19.9 Estimating Biological Distance
1. 19.10 Diet
2. 19.11 Disease and Demography
Appendix I Web Review Appendix II Glossary Bibliography Index 
xvi

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Human skeleton -- Identification -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Human skeleton -- Analysis -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Human skeleton -- Classification -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Human remains (Archaeology) -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Forensic osteology -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Forensic anthropology -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.