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Contents Chapter 1. Introduction A Brave New World What is Cognitive Science? Representation Digital Representations Analog Representations The Dual-coding Hypothesis Propositional Representations Computation The Tri-level Hypothesis The Classical and Connectionist Views of Computation The Interdisciplinary Perspective The Philosophical approach The Psychological approach The Cognitive approach The Neuroscience approach The Network approach The Evolutionary approach The Linguistic approach The Artificial intelligence approach The Robotics approach ?In Depth?: Categories of Mental Representation ?Minds on? Exercise: Analogical Reasoning Chapter 2. The Philosophical Approach The Philosophical Approach: Enduring Questions The Mind-Body Problem Flavors of Monism Flavors of Dualism Evaluating the Dualist Perspective Functionalism Evaluating the Functionalist Perspective The Free Will and Determinism Debate The Issue of Determinism The Issue of Free Will Evaluating the Free Will Determinism Debate The Knowledge Acquisition Problem Evaluating the Knowledge Acquistion Debate The Mystery of Consciousness The What-It?s-Like Argument Mind as an Emergent Property Evaluating the Emergent View of Mind Consciousness and Neuroscience Consciousness and Artificial Intelligence Overall Evaluation of the Philosophical Approach ?In Depth?: Dennett?s Multiple Drafts Theory of Consciousness ?Minds On? Exercise: Decision Making Chapter 3. The Psychological Approach The Psychological Approach: A Profusion of Theories Psychology and the Scientific Method Mental Atoms, Mental Molecules and a Periodic Table of the Mind: The Voluntarist Movement Evaluating the Voluntarist Approach Structuralism: What the Mind Is Evaluating the Structuralist Approach Functionalism: What the Mind Does Evaluating the Functionalist Approach The Whole is Greater than the Sum of its Parts: Mental Physics and the Gestalt Movement Evaluating the Gestalt Approach Mini-minds: Mechanism and Psychoanalytic Psychology Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Approach Mind as a Black Box: the Behaviorist Approach Evaluating the Behaviorist Approach Overall Evaluation of the Psychological Approach ?In Depth?: Insight Learning ?Minds On? Exercise: Introspection Chapter 4. The Cognitive Approach I Some History First: The Rise of Cognitive Psychology The Cognitive Approach: Mind as an Information Processor Modularity of Mind Theories of Vision and Pattern Recognition Template Matching Theory Evaluating the template matching model Feature Detection Theory Evaluating Feature Detection Theory A Computational Theory of Vision Evaluating the computational theory of vision Feature Integration Theory Evaluating Feature Integration Theory Theories of Attention Broadbent?s Filter Model Evaluating the Filter Model Treisman?s Attenuation Model The Deutch-Norman Memory Selection Model The Multimode Model of Attention Kahneman?s Capacity Model of Attention Evaluating the Capacity Model of Attention Evaluating the Model-Building Approach ?In depth?: Biederman?s Recognition-by-Components Theory of Pattern ?Minds on? Exercise: Silhouettes and Object Constancy Chapter 5. The Cognitive Approach II Types of Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Memory Models The Modal Model Evaluating the Modal Model The ACT* Model Evaluating the ACT* Model The Working Memory Model Evaluating the Working Memory Model Visual Imagery The Kosslyn and Schwartz Theory of Visual Imagery Image Structures Image Processes Evaluating the Kosslyn and Schwartz Theory The Imagery Debate Problem Solving The General Problem Solver Model Evaluating the General Problem Solver Model The SOAR Model Evaluating the SOAR Model Overall Evaluation of the Cognitive Approach ?In depth?: Search in Working Memory ?Minds on? Exercise: Memory Effects Chapter 6. The Neuroscience Approach The Neuroscience Approach: Mind as Brain Methodology in Neuroscience Brain Damage Techniques Evaluating Brain Damage Techniques Brain Recording Techniques The Electrical Stimulation Technique The Small Picture: Neuron Anatomy and Physiology The Big Picture: Brain Anatomy Directions in the Nervous System The Cortex The Split-brain The Neuroscience of Visual Object Recognition Visual agnosias Apperceptive agnosia Associative agnosia Face perception The Neuroscience of Attention Models of Attention A Component Process Model Distributed Network Models The Neuroscience of Memory Learning and Memory The Hippocampal System Models of Hippocampal Function Neural Substrates of Working Memory Evaluating the Neuroscience of Working Memory Neural Substrates of Long-term Memories The Neuroscience of Executive Function and Problem Solving Theories of Executive Function Overall Evaluation of the Neuroscience Approach ?In depth?: Binding and Neural Synchrony ?Minds on? Exercise: Neural Functions Chapter 7 Outline: The Network Approach The Network Approach: Mind as a Web Principles Underlying Artificial Neural Networks Characteristics of Artificial Neural Networks Early Conceptions of Neural Networks Back Propagation and Convergent Dynamics Artificial Neural Network Typologies Evaluating the Connectionist Approach Advantages Problems and Disadvantages Semantic Networks: Meaning in the Web Characteristics of Semantic Networks A Hierarchical Semantic Network. Collins and Quillian (1969) Evaluating the Hierarchical Model Propositional Semantic Networks Evaluating Semantic Networks Overall Evaluation of the Network Approach Contrast with classic information processing view ?In depth?: NETtalk ?Minds on? Exercise: Free Association Chapter 8. The Evolutionary Approach The Evolutionary Approach: Change over Time Evolutionary Psychology A Little Background: Selection and Genetics Evolved Psychological Mechanisms Evolution and Cognitive Processes Categorization Memory Logical Reasoning Judgement Under Uncertainty Language Sex Differences in Cognition Evolutionary Computing Processing stages of evolutionary computing Artificial Life Neural Darwinism Evaluating the Evolutionary Approach Overall Evaluation of the Evolutionary Approach ?In depth?: A Stage Theory of Evolution Minds on? Exercise: Memory for Object Location. Chapter 9. The Linguistic Approach The Linguistic Approach: The Importance of Language The Nature of Language Primate Language Use Evaluating Primate Language Use Language Acquisition Evaluating Language Acquisition Language Deprivation Evaluating Language Deprivation Philosophy and Linguistics: The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Evaluating the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Cognition and Linguistics: The Role of Grammar Evaluating Universal Grammar Neuroscience and Linguistics: The Wernicke-Geschwind Model Evaluating the Wernicke-Geschwind Model Artificial Intelligence and Linguistics: Natural Language Processing Speech Recognition Syntactic Analysis Semantic Analysis Pragmatic Analysis Evaluation of Natural Language Processing Overall Evaluation of the Linguistic Approach ?In depth?: The Logogen Model of Word Recognition Modern Conceptions of the Lexicon ?Minds on? Exercise: Conversational Pragmatics Chapter 10. Artificial Intelligence I: Definitional Perspective Introduction Historical and Philosophical Roots The Quest for ?Mechanical Life.? Philosophical Origins?Man as a Machine Evaluating Descartes? Approach Mechanical Computation Defining Artificial Intelligence (AI) Evaluating the Concept of AI Cognitive Simulation and Natural Language Communication Learning Operant Conditioning Reasoning Problem Solving Perception AI Methodologies The Computer as the Tool of AI Research Evaluation of the Computer as Model of Brain Organization Programming Evaluation of Programming Languages Alan Turing and The Great Debate Evaluation of the TT and Turing?s Detractors The TT as an Operational Definition of AI The TT and Behaviorism Is the TT too easy or too difficult? Overall Evaluation of the AI Concept. Summarizing the Meaning of AI ?In-Depth?: Behaviorism and Ned Block Evaluating the Block Approach ?Minds on? Exercise: Play the IG game Chapter 11. Artificial Intelligence II: Operational Perspective Introduction The Practical World of AI Goals of Practical Machines Approaches to the Design of Intelligent Agents Machine Intelligence, Knowledge and Machine Reasoning Machine Representation of Knowledge The Cyc Project Evaluation of the Cyc Project Objectives of KR Characteristics of Knowledge Representations Predicates Semantic Networks Frames Cases Scripts Machine Reasoning Predicate Calculus Logical Reasoning (Deduction, Abduction, Induction) Drawing Inferences Forward Chaining Backward Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Evaluation of Rule-Based Reasoning Expert Systems Expert Systems in Action Breadth-First Searching Depth-First Searching Breadth-First versus Depth-First Tradeoffs Evaluations of Expert Systems Counter Arguments Fuzzy Logic Representation of Information in the Fuzzy World Fuzzy Logic Rules Fuzzy Advice for Decision-Making or Management Evaluation of Fuzzy Logic Systems Artificial Neural Nets (ANNs) Overall Evaluation of the Operational Perspective ?In-Depth?: The ID3 Algorithm ?Minds on? Exercise: Decision Making Chapter 12. Robotics: The Ultimate Intelligent Agents Introduction Some Robotic Achievements Evaluating Robotic Potentials Biological Foundations of Robotic Paradigms Evaluation of the Lorenz/Tinbergen Approach Transferring Biological (Behavioral) Models to Robotics Evaluation of the Biological Basis of Robotics Foundations of Robotic Paradigms Evaluation of Paradigm Foundations Robotic Paradigms Hierarchical Paradigm Evaluation of the Hierarchical Paradigm The Reactive Paradigm Evaluation of the Reactive Paradigm The Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm Evaluation of Hybrid Architectures Overall Evaluation of Robots as Ultimate Intelligent Agents ?In-Depth?: Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA) ?Minds on? Exercise: Relational Graphs Chapter 13. Conclusion The Benefits of Cognitive Science Working Memory: An Example of an Integrated Program of Study The Philosophical approach The Psychological approach The Cognitive approach The Neuroscience approach The Network approach The Evolutionary approach The Linguistic approach The Artificial intelligence approach The Robotics approach Issues in Cognitive Science A General Issue: Lack of a Single Unified Theory Specific Issues Facing Cognitive Science Emotions Consciousness Physical Environments Social Environments Individual and Cultural Differences Enhancing Cognitive Science Evaluating Cognitive Science Theories. Thagard (2000) The Role of Integration Integration across Levels of Description Integration across Disciplines Integration across Methodology The Future ?In depth?: Multiagent Systems ?Minds on? Exercise: Evaluating Theories of Mind Author Index Subject Index About the Authors
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Cognitive science -- Textbooks.