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CHAPTER ONE BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS 1 1-1 Thermodynamics and Energy 2 Application Areas of Thermodynamics 3 1-2 A Note on Dimensions and Units 3 Some SI and English Units 5 Dimensional Homogeneity 7 1-3 Closed and Open Systems 8 1-4 Properties of a System 10 1-5 State and Equilibrium 12 1-6 Processes and Cycles 13 The Steady-Flow Process 14 1-7 Forms of Energy 14 Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy 16 More on Nuclear Energy 18 1-8 Energy and Environment 19 Ozone and Smog 21 Acid Rain 21 The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate Change 22 1-9 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 25 Temperature Scales 25 1-10 Pressure 28 Variation of Pressure with Depth 30 1-11 The Manometer 33 Other Pressure Measurement Devices 35 1-12 Barometer and the Atmospheric Pressure 36 1-13 Problem-Solving Technique 38 A Remark of Significant Digits 40 Engineering Software Packages 41 Engineering Equation Solver (EES) 42 Topics of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of Biological Systems 43 Food and Exercise 45 Dieting 48 Summary 51 References and Suggested Reading 51 Problems 52 CHAPTER TWO PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES 63 2-1 Pure Substance 64 2-2 Phases of a Pure Substance 64 2-3 Phase-Change Processes of Pure Substances 65 Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid 65 Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor 66 Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure 67 Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence 68 2-4 Property Diagrams for Phase-Change Processes 70 1 The T-v Diagram 70 2 The P-v Diagram 71 Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase 73 3 The P-T Diagram 74 The P-v-T Surface 76 2-5 Property Tables 77 Enthalpy A Combination Property 77 1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States 78 1b Saturated Liquid¥Vapor Mixture 79 2 Superheated Vapor 83 3 Compressed Liquid 84 Reference State and Reference Values 85 2-6 The Ideal-Gas Equation of State 87 Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas? 89 2-7 Compressibility Factor¥A Measure of Deviation from Ideal-Gas Behavior 89 2-8 Other Equations of State 94 Van der Waals Equation of State 94 Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State 95 Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State 95 Virial Equation of State 96 2-9 Specific Heats 98 2-10 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases 100 Specific-Heat Relations of Ideal Gases 103 2-11 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Solids and Liquids 105 Internal Energy Changes 106 Enthalpy Changes 106 Topics of Special Interest: Vapor Pressure and Phase Equilibrium 107 Summary 111 References and Suggested Reading 112 Problems 112 CHAPTER THREE ENERGY TRANSFER BY HEAT, WORK, AND MASS 123 3-1 Heat Transfer 124 Historical Background on Heat 125 3-2 Energy Transfer by Work 126 Electrical Work 129 3-3 Mechanical Forms of Work 129 1 Moving Boundary Work 130 2 Shaft Work 136 3 Spring Work 137 4 Other Mechanical Forms of Work 138 3-4 Nonmechanical Forms of Work 140 3-5 Conservation of Mass Principle 141 Mass and Volume Flow Rates 141 Conservation of Mass Principle 143 Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes 144 3-6 Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid 147 Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid 148 Energy Transport by Mass 148 Topics of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 150 Summary 155 References and Suggested Reading 156 Problems 156 CHAPTER FOUR THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 165 4-1 The First Law of Thermodynamics 166 Energy Balance 167 Energy Change of a System, Esystem 168 Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout 168 4-2 Energy Balance for Closed Systems 170 4-3 Energy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 181 Energy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 182 4-4 Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices 184 1 Nozzles and Diffusers 184 2 Turbines and Compressors 188 3 Throttling Valves 190 4a Mixture Chambers 192 4b Heat Exchangers 193 5 Pipe and Duct Flow 196 4-5 Energy Balance for Unsteady-Flow Processes 197 Mass Balance 198 Energy Balance 198 Topics of Special Interest: Refrigeration and Freezing of Foods 203 Thermal Properties of Foods 205 Refrigeration of Fruits and Vegetables 207 Refrigeration of Meats 208 Poultry Products 209 Summary 214 Referenced and Suggested Reading 215 Problems 216 CHAPTER FIVE THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 245 5-1 Introduction to the Second Law 246 5-2 Thermal Energy Reservoirs 247 5-3 Heat Engines 247 Can We Save Qout? 250 The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck Statement 253 5-4 Energy Conversion Efficiencies 253 5-5 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 257 Coefficient Performance 258 Heat Pumps 259 The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Clausius Statement 262 Equivalence of the Two Statements 262 5-6 Perpetual-Motion Machines 263 5-7 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 265 Irreversibilities 267 Internally and Externally Reversible Processes 268 5-8 The Carnot Cycle 269 The Reversed Carnot Cycle 271 5-9 The Carnot Principles 271 5-10 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 272 5-11 The Carnot Heat Engine 275 The Quality of Energy 276 Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life 277 5-12 The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump 278 Topics of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators 281 Summary 285 References and Suggested Reading 286 Problems 286 CHAPTER SIX ENTROPY 301 6-1 Entropy 302 A Special Case: Internally Reversible Isothermal Heat Transfer Processes 304 6-2 The Increase of Entropy Principle 305 Some Remarks about Entropy 307 6-3 Entropy Change of Pure Substances 309 6-4 Isentropic Processes 313 6-5 Property Diagrams Involving Entropy 314 6-6 What Is Entropy? 316 Entropy and Entropy Generation in Daily Life 318 6-7 The T ds Relations 319 6-8 Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids 321 6-9 The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases 324 Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 325 Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 326 Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases 327 Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 328 Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 328 Relative Pressure and Relative Specific Volume 329 6-10 Reversible Steady-Flow Work 332 Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver the Most and Consume the Least Work when the Process Is Reversible 335 6-11 Minimizing the Compressor Work 336 Multistage Compression with Intercooling 337 6-12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-Flow Devices 340 Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines 341 Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps 343 Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles 345 6-13 Entropy Balance 347 Entropy Change of a System, Ssystem 348 Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout 348 Entropy Generation, Sgen 350 Closed Systems 351 Control Volumes 351 Entropy Generation Associated with a Heat Transfer Process 358 Topics of Special Interest: Reducing the Cost of Compressed Air 360 Summary 370 References and Suggested Reading 372 Problems 372 CHAPTER SEVEN EXERGY: A MEASURE OF WORK POTENTIAL 391 7-1 Exergy: Work Potential of Energy 392 Exergy (Work Potential) Associated with Kinetic Energy, ke 395 Exergy Associated with Potential Energy, pe 395 7-2 Reversible Work and Irreversibility 395 7-3 Second-Law Efficiency, II 399 7-4 Exergy Change of a System 402 Energy of a Fixed Mass: Nonflow (or Closed System) Exergy 405 Exergy of a Flow Stream: Flow (or Stream) Exergy 407 7-5 Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass 408 Exergy Transfer by Heat Transfer, Q 410 Exergy Transfer by Work, W 411 Exergy Transfer by Mass, m 412 7-6 The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy Destruction 410 Exergy Destruction 413 7-7 Exergy Balance: Closed Systems 412 7-8 Exergy Balance: Control Volumes 424 Exergy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 425 Topics of Special Interest: Second-Law Aspects of Daily Life 432 Summary 435 References and Suggested Reading 437 Problems 437 CHAPTER EIGHT GAS POWER CYCLES 451 8-1 Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power Cycles 452 8-2 The Carnot Cycle and Its Value in Engineering 454 8-3 Air-Standard Assumptions 456 8-4 An Overview of Reciprocating Engines 456 8-5 Otto Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition Engines 457 8-6 Diesel Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Compression-Ignition Engines 463 8-7 Stirling and Ericsson Cycles 466 8-8 Brayton Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Gas-Turbine Engines 470 Development of Gas Turbines 473 Deviation of Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles from Idealized Ones 476 8-9 The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration 477 8-10 The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration 479 8-11 Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycles 483 Modifications to Turbojet Engines 487 8-12 Second-Law Analysis of Gas Power Cycles 490 Topics of Special Interest: Saving Fuel and Money by Driving Sensibly 493 Before Driving 494 While Driving 496 After Driving 498 Summary 499 References and Suggested Reading 501 Problems 501 CHAPTER NINE VAPOR AND COMBINED POWER CYCLES 513 9-1 The Carnot Vapor Cycle 514 9-2 Rankine Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Vapor Power Cycles 515 Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle 516 9-3 Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles from Idealized Ones 519 9-4 How Can We Increase the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle? 521 1 Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers Tlow, av) 522 2 Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures (Increases Thigh, av) 522 3 Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Increases Thigh, av) 523 9-5 The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle 525 9-6 The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle 529 Open Feedwater Heaters 529 Closed Feedwater Heaters 531 9-7 Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles 537 9-8 Cogeneration 539 9-9 Combined Gas-Vapor Power Cycles 543 Topics of Special Interest: Binary Vapor Cycles 547 Summary 549 References and Suggested Reading 550 Problems 550 CHAPTER TEN REFRIGERATION CYCLES 563 10-1 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 564 10-2 The Reversed Carnot Cycle 565 10-3 The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 567 10-4 Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 570 10-5 Selecting the Right Refrigerant 573 10-6 Heat Pump Systems 575 10-7 Innovative Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems 576 Cascade Refrigeration Systems 577 Multistage Compression Refrigeration Systems 579 Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems with a Single Compressor 582 Liquefaction of Gases 583 10-8 Gas Refrigeration Cycles 584 10-9 Absorption Refrigeration Systems 588 Topics of Special Interest: Thermoelectric Power Generation and Refrigeration Systems 590 Summary 592 References and Suggested Reading 593 Problems 594 CHAPTER ELEVEN THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY RELATIONS 603 11-1 A Little Math Partial Derivatives and Associated Relations 604 Partial Differentials 605 Partial Differential Relations 607 11-2 The Maxwell Relations 609 11-3 The Clapeyron Equation 610 11-4 General Relations for du, dh, ds, Cv, and Cp 613 Internal Energy Changes 613 Enthalpy Changes 614 Entropy Changes 615 Specific Heats Cv and Cp 616 11-5 The Joule-Thomson Coefficient 620 11-6 The _h, _u, and _s of Real Gases 622 Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases 622 Internal Energy Changes of Real Gases 623 Entropy Changes of Real Gases 623 Summary 626 References and Suggested Reading 627 Problems 627 CHAPTER TWELVE GAS MIXTURES 633 12-1 Composition of a Gas Mixture: Mass and Mole Fractions 634 12-2 P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases 636 Ideal-Gas Mixtures 637 Real-Gas Mixtures 637 12-3 Properties of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases 641 Ideal-Gas Mixtures 642 Real-Gas Mixtures 645 Topics of Special Interest: Chemical Potential and the Separation Work of Mixtures 648 Ideal Gas Mixtures and Ideal Solutions 651 Minimum Work of Separation of Mixtures 653 Reversible Mixing Processes 654 Second-Law Efficiency 654 Special-Case: Separation of a Two-Component Mixture 655 An Application: Desalination Processes 656 Summary 659 References and Suggested Reading 660 Problems 660 CHAPTER THIRTEEN GASDVAPOR MIXTURES AND AIR-CONDITIONING 667 13-1 Dry and Atmospheric Air 668 13-2 Specific and Relative Humidity of Air 669 13-3 Dew-Point Temperature 672 13-4 Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperatures 673 13-5 The Psychrometric Chart 676 13-6 Human Comfort and Air-Conditioning 678 13-7 Air-Conditioning Processes 680 1 Simple Heating and Cooling (w constant) 680 2 Heating with Humidification 681 3 Cooling with Dehumidification 683 4 Evaporative Cooling 685 5 Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams 687 6 Wet Cooling Towers 689 Summary 691 References and Suggested Reading 692 Problems 693 CHAPTER FOURTEEN CHEMICAL REACTIONS 701 14-1 Fuels and Combustion 702 14-2 Theoretical and Actual Combustion Processes 706 14-3 Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Combustion 711 14-4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 715 Steady-Flow Systems 715 Closed Systems 716 14-5 Adiabatic Flame Temperature 720 14-6 Entropy Change of Reacting Systems 723 14-7 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 724 Topics of Special Interest: Fuel Cells 730 Summary 732 References and Suggested Reading 733 Problems 734 CHAPTER FIFTEEN CHEMICAL AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM 743 15-1 Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium 744 15-2 The Equilibrium Constant for Ideal-Gas Mixtures 746 15-3 Some Remarks about the Kp of Ideal-Gas Mixtures 749 15-4 Chemical Equilibrium for Simultaneous Reactions 754 15-5 Variation of Kp with Temperature 756 15-6 Phase Equilibrium 757 Phase Equilibrium for a Single-Component System 758 The Phase Rule 759 Phase Equilibrium for a Multicomponent System 760 Summary 765 References and Suggested Reading 766 Problems 766 CHAPTER SIXTEEN THERMODYNAMICS OF HIGH-SPEED GAS FLOW 773 16-1 Stagnation Properties 774 16-2 Velocity of Sound and Mach Number 778 16-3 One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow 782 Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area 784 Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases 786 16-4 Isentropic Flow through Nozzles 788 Converging Nozzles 789 Converging-Diverging Nozzles 793 16-5 Normal Shocks in Nozzle Flow 797 16-6 Flow through Actual Nozzles and Diffusers 803 16-7 Steam Nozzles 810 Summary 813 References and Suggested Reading 815 Problems 815 APPENDIX 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) 823 Table A-1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Critical-Point Properties 824 Table A-2 Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Various Common Gases 825 Table A-3 Properties of Common Liquids, Solids, and Foods 828 Table A-4 Saturated Water-Temperature Table 830 Table A-5 Saturated Water-Pressure Table 832 Table A-6 Superheated Water 834 Table A-7 Compressed Liquid Water 838 Table A-8 Saturated Ice Water-Vapor 839 Figure A-9 T-s Diagram for Water 840 Figure A-10 Mollier Diagram for Water 841 Table A-11 Saturated Refrigerant-134aD Temperature Table 842 Table A-12 Saturated Refrigerant-134aD Pressure Table 843 Table A-13 Superheated Refrigerant-134a 844 Figure A-14 P-h Diagram for Refrigerant-134a 846 Table A-15 One-Dimensional Isentropic Compressible-Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with Constant Specific Heats and Molar Mass, and k _ 1.4 847 Table A-16 One-Dimensional Normal-Shock Functions for an Ideal Gas with Constant Specific Heats and Molar Mass, and k _ 1.4 848 Table A-17 Ideal-Gas Properties of Air 849 Table A-18 Ideal-Gas Properties of Nitrogen, N2 851 Table A-19 Ideal-Gas Properties of Oxygen, O2 853 Table A-20 Ideal-Gas Properties of Carbon Dioxide, CO2 855 Table A-21 Ideal-Gas Properties of Carbon Monoxide, CO 857 Table A-22 Ideal-Gas Properties of Hydrogen, H2 859 Table A-23 Ideal-Gas Properties of Water Vapor, H2O 860 Table A-24 Ideal-Gas Properties of Monatomic Oxygen, O 862 Table A-25 Ideal-Gas Properties of Hydroxyl, OH 862 Table A-26 Enthalpy of Formation, Gibbs Function of Formation, and Absolute Entropy at 25-C, 1 atm 863 Table A-27 Properties of Some Common Fuels and Hydrocarbons 864 Table A-28 Logarithms to Base of the Equilibrium Constant Kp 865 Table A-29 Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude 866 Figure A-30a Nelson-Obert Generalized Compressibility Chart-Low Pressures 867 Figure A-30b Nelson-Obert Generalized Compressibility Chart-Intermediate Pressures 868 Figure A-30c Nelson-Obert Generalized Compressibility Chart-High Pressures 869 Figure A-31 Generalized Enthalpy Departure Chart 870 Figure A-32 Generalized Entropy Departure Chart 871 Figure A-33 Psychrometric Chart at 1 atm Total Pressure 872 APPENDIX 2 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) 873 Table A-1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Critical-Point Properties 874 Table A-2E Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Various Common Gases 875 Table A-3E Properties of Common Liquids, Solids and Foods 878 Table A-4E Saturated Water-Temperature Table 880 Table A-5E Saturated Water-Pressure Table 881 Table A-6E Superheated Water 883 Table A-7E Compressed Liquid Water 887 Table A-8E Saturated Ice-Water Vapor 888 Figure A-9E T-s Diagram for Water 889 Figure A-10E Mollier Diagram for Water 890 Table A-11E Saturated Refrigerant-134aD Temperature Table 891 Table A-12E Saturated Refrigerant-134aD Pressure Table 892 Table A-13E Superheated Refrigerant-134a 893 Figure A-14E P-h Diagram for Refrigerant-134a 895 Table A-17E Ideal-Gas Properties of Air 896 Table A-18E Ideal-Gas Properties of Nitrogen, N2 898 Table A-19E Ideal-Gas Properties of Oxygen, O2 900 Table A-20E Ideal-Gas Properties of Carbon Dioxide, CO2 902 Table A-21E Ideal-Gas Properties of Carbon Monoxide, CO 904 Table A-22E Ideal-Gas Properties of Hydrogen, H2 906 Table A-23E Ideal-Gas Properties of Water Vapor, H2O 907 Table A-26E Enthalpy of Formation, Gibbs Function of Formation, and Absolute Entropy 909 Table A-27E Properties of Some Common Fuels and Hydrocarbons 910 Table A-29E Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude 911 Figure A-33E Psychrometric Chart at 1 atm Total Pressure 912 APPENDIX 3 Index 926

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Thermodynamics.