Table of contents for Thermodynamics : an engineering approach / Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles.

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CHAPTER ONE
BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS 1
1-1 Thermodynamics and Energy 2
Application Areas of Thermodynamics 3
1-2 A Note on Dimensions and Units 3
Some SI and English Units 5
Dimensional Homogeneity 7
1-3 Closed and Open Systems 8
1-4 Properties of a System 10
1-5 State and Equilibrium 12
1-6 Processes and Cycles 13
The Steady-Flow Process 14
1-7 Forms of Energy 14
Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy 16
More on Nuclear Energy 18
1-8 Energy and Environment 19
Ozone and Smog 21
Acid Rain 21
The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate Change 22
1-9 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 25
Temperature Scales 25
1-10 Pressure 28
Variation of Pressure with Depth 30
1-11 The Manometer 33
Other Pressure Measurement Devices 35
1-12 Barometer and the Atmospheric Pressure 36
1-13 Problem-Solving Technique 38
A Remark of Significant Digits 40
Engineering Software Packages 41
Engineering Equation Solver (EES) 42
Topics of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of Biological Systems 43
Food and Exercise 45
Dieting 48
Summary 51
References and Suggested Reading 51
Problems 52
CHAPTER TWO
PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES 63
2-1 Pure Substance 64
2-2 Phases of a Pure Substance 64
2-3 Phase-Change Processes of
Pure Substances 65
Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid 65
Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor 66
Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure 67
Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence 68
2-4 Property Diagrams for
Phase-Change Processes 70
1 The T-v Diagram 70
2 The P-v Diagram 71
Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase 73
3 The P-T Diagram 74
The P-v-T Surface 76
2-5 Property Tables 77
Enthalpy A Combination Property 77
1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States 78
1b Saturated Liquid¥Vapor Mixture 79
2 Superheated Vapor 83
3 Compressed Liquid 84
Reference State and Reference Values 85
2-6 The Ideal-Gas Equation of State 87
Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas? 89
2-7 Compressibility Factor¥A Measure of
Deviation from Ideal-Gas Behavior 89
2-8 Other Equations of State 94
Van der Waals Equation of State 94
Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State 95
Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State 95
Virial Equation of State 96
2-9 Specific Heats 98
2-10 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases 100
Specific-Heat Relations of Ideal Gases 103
2-11 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Solids and Liquids 105
Internal Energy Changes 106
Enthalpy Changes 106
Topics of Special Interest: Vapor Pressure and Phase Equilibrium 107
Summary 111
References and Suggested Reading 112
Problems 112
CHAPTER THREE
ENERGY TRANSFER BY HEAT, WORK, AND MASS 123
3-1 Heat Transfer 124
Historical Background on Heat 125
3-2 Energy Transfer by Work 126
Electrical Work 129
3-3 Mechanical Forms of Work 129
1 Moving Boundary Work 130
2 Shaft Work 136
3 Spring Work 137
4 Other Mechanical Forms of Work 138
3-4 Nonmechanical Forms of Work 140
3-5 Conservation of Mass Principle 141
Mass and Volume Flow Rates 141
Conservation of Mass Principle 143
Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes 144
3-6 Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid 147
Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid 148
Energy Transport by Mass 148
Topics of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 150
Summary 155
References and Suggested Reading 156
Problems 156
CHAPTER FOUR
THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 165
4-1 The First Law of Thermodynamics 166
Energy Balance 167
Energy Change of a System, Esystem 168
Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout 168
4-2 Energy Balance for Closed Systems 170
4-3 Energy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 181
Energy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 182
4-4 Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices 184
1 Nozzles and Diffusers 184
2 Turbines and Compressors 188
3 Throttling Valves 190
4a Mixture Chambers 192
4b Heat Exchangers 193
5 Pipe and Duct Flow 196
4-5 Energy Balance for
Unsteady-Flow Processes 197
Mass Balance 198
Energy Balance 198
Topics of Special Interest:
Refrigeration and Freezing of Foods 203
Thermal Properties of Foods 205
Refrigeration of Fruits and Vegetables 207
Refrigeration of Meats 208
Poultry Products 209
Summary 214
Referenced and Suggested Reading 215
Problems 216 
CHAPTER FIVE
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 245
5-1 Introduction to the Second Law 246
5-2 Thermal Energy Reservoirs 247
5-3 Heat Engines 247
Can We Save Qout? 250
The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck Statement 253
5-4 Energy Conversion Efficiencies 253
5-5 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 257
Coefficient Performance 258
Heat Pumps 259
The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Clausius Statement 262
Equivalence of the Two Statements 262
5-6 Perpetual-Motion Machines 263
5-7 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 265
Irreversibilities 267
Internally and Externally Reversible Processes 268
5-8 The Carnot Cycle 269
The Reversed Carnot Cycle 271
5-9 The Carnot Principles 271
5-10 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 272
5-11 The Carnot Heat Engine 275
The Quality of Energy 276
Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life 277
5-12 The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump 278
Topics of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators 281
Summary 285
References and Suggested Reading 286
Problems 286
CHAPTER SIX
ENTROPY 301
6-1 Entropy 302
A Special Case: Internally Reversible Isothermal Heat Transfer Processes 304
6-2 The Increase of Entropy Principle 305
Some Remarks about Entropy 307
6-3 Entropy Change of Pure Substances 309
6-4 Isentropic Processes 313
6-5 Property Diagrams Involving Entropy 314
6-6 What Is Entropy? 316
Entropy and Entropy Generation in Daily Life 318
6-7 The T ds Relations 319
6-8 Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids 321
6-9 The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases 324
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 325
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 326
Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases 327
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 328
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 328
Relative Pressure and Relative Specific Volume 329
6-10 Reversible Steady-Flow Work 332
Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver the Most and Consume the Least Work when 
the Process Is Reversible 335
6-11 Minimizing the Compressor Work 336
Multistage Compression with Intercooling 337
6-12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-Flow Devices 340
Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines 341
Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps 343
Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles 345
6-13 Entropy Balance 347
Entropy Change of a System, Ssystem 348
Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout 348
Entropy Generation, Sgen 350
Closed Systems 351
Control Volumes 351
Entropy Generation Associated with a Heat Transfer Process 358
Topics of Special Interest: Reducing the Cost of Compressed Air 360
Summary 370
References and Suggested Reading 372
Problems 372
CHAPTER SEVEN
EXERGY: A MEASURE OF WORK POTENTIAL 391
7-1 Exergy: Work Potential of Energy 392
Exergy (Work Potential) Associated with Kinetic Energy, ke 395
Exergy Associated with Potential Energy, pe 395
7-2 Reversible Work and Irreversibility 395
7-3 Second-Law Efficiency, II 399
7-4 Exergy Change of a System 402
Energy of a Fixed Mass: Nonflow (or Closed System) Exergy 405
Exergy of a Flow Stream: Flow (or Stream) Exergy 407
7-5 Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass 408
Exergy Transfer by Heat Transfer, Q 410
Exergy Transfer by Work, W 411
Exergy Transfer by Mass, m 412
7-6 The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy Destruction 410
Exergy Destruction 413
7-7 Exergy Balance: Closed Systems 412
7-8 Exergy Balance: Control Volumes 424
Exergy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 425
Topics of Special Interest: Second-Law Aspects of Daily Life 432
Summary 435
References and Suggested Reading 437
Problems 437
CHAPTER EIGHT
GAS POWER CYCLES 451
8-1 Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power Cycles 452
8-2 The Carnot Cycle and Its Value in Engineering 454
8-3 Air-Standard Assumptions 456
8-4 An Overview of Reciprocating Engines 456
8-5 Otto Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition Engines 457
8-6 Diesel Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Compression-Ignition Engines 463
8-7 Stirling and Ericsson Cycles 466
8-8 Brayton Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Gas-Turbine Engines 470
Development of Gas Turbines 473
Deviation of Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles from Idealized Ones 476
8-9 The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration 477
8-10 The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration 479
8-11 Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycles 483
Modifications to Turbojet Engines 487
8-12 Second-Law Analysis of Gas Power Cycles 490
Topics of Special Interest: Saving Fuel and Money by Driving Sensibly 493
Before Driving 494
While Driving 496
After Driving 498
Summary 499
References and Suggested Reading 501
Problems 501
CHAPTER NINE
VAPOR AND COMBINED POWER CYCLES 513
9-1 The Carnot Vapor Cycle 514
9-2 Rankine Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Vapor Power Cycles 515
Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle 516
9-3 Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles from Idealized Ones 519
9-4 How Can We Increase the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle? 521
1 Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers Tlow, av) 522
2 Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures (Increases Thigh, av) 522
3 Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Increases Thigh, av) 523
9-5 The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle 525
9-6 The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle 529
Open Feedwater Heaters 529
Closed Feedwater Heaters 531
9-7 Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles 537
9-8 Cogeneration 539
9-9 Combined Gas-Vapor Power Cycles 543
Topics of Special Interest: Binary Vapor Cycles 547
Summary 549
References and Suggested Reading 550
Problems 550
CHAPTER TEN
REFRIGERATION CYCLES 563
10-1 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 564
10-2 The Reversed Carnot Cycle 565
10-3 The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 567
10-4 Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 570
10-5 Selecting the Right Refrigerant 573
10-6 Heat Pump Systems 575
10-7 Innovative Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems 576
Cascade Refrigeration Systems 577
Multistage Compression Refrigeration Systems 579
Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems with a Single Compressor 582
Liquefaction of Gases 583
10-8 Gas Refrigeration Cycles 584
10-9 Absorption Refrigeration Systems 588
Topics of Special Interest: Thermoelectric Power Generation and Refrigeration 
Systems 590
Summary 592
References and Suggested Reading 593
Problems 594
CHAPTER ELEVEN
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY RELATIONS 603
11-1 A Little Math Partial Derivatives and Associated Relations 604
Partial Differentials 605
Partial Differential Relations 607
11-2 The Maxwell Relations 609
11-3 The Clapeyron Equation 610
11-4 General Relations for du, dh, ds, Cv, and Cp 613
Internal Energy Changes 613
Enthalpy Changes 614
Entropy Changes 615
Specific Heats Cv and Cp 616
11-5 The Joule-Thomson Coefficient 620
11-6 The _h, _u, and _s of Real Gases 622
Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases 622
Internal Energy Changes of Real Gases 623
Entropy Changes of Real Gases 623
Summary 626
References and Suggested Reading 627
Problems 627
CHAPTER TWELVE
GAS MIXTURES 633
12-1 Composition of a Gas Mixture: Mass and Mole Fractions 634
12-2 P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases 636
Ideal-Gas Mixtures 637
Real-Gas Mixtures 637
12-3 Properties of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases 641
Ideal-Gas Mixtures 642
Real-Gas Mixtures 645
Topics of Special Interest: Chemical Potential and the Separation Work of 
Mixtures 648
Ideal Gas Mixtures and Ideal Solutions 651
Minimum Work of Separation of Mixtures 653
Reversible Mixing Processes 654
Second-Law Efficiency 654
Special-Case: Separation of a Two-Component Mixture 655
An Application: Desalination Processes 656
Summary 659
References and Suggested Reading 660
Problems 660
CHAPTER THIRTEEN
GASDVAPOR MIXTURES AND
AIR-CONDITIONING 667
13-1 Dry and Atmospheric Air 668
13-2 Specific and Relative Humidity of Air 669
13-3 Dew-Point Temperature 672
13-4 Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperatures 673
13-5 The Psychrometric Chart 676
13-6 Human Comfort and Air-Conditioning 678
13-7 Air-Conditioning Processes 680
1 Simple Heating and Cooling (w constant) 680
2 Heating with Humidification 681
3 Cooling with Dehumidification 683
4 Evaporative Cooling 685
5 Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams 687
6 Wet Cooling Towers 689
Summary 691
References and Suggested Reading 692
Problems 693
CHAPTER FOURTEEN
CHEMICAL REACTIONS 701
14-1 Fuels and Combustion 702
14-2 Theoretical and Actual Combustion Processes 706
14-3 Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Combustion 711
14-4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 715
Steady-Flow Systems 715
Closed Systems 716
14-5 Adiabatic Flame Temperature 720
14-6 Entropy Change of Reacting Systems 723
14-7 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 724
Topics of Special Interest: Fuel Cells 730
Summary 732
References and Suggested Reading 733
Problems 734
CHAPTER FIFTEEN
CHEMICAL AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM 743
15-1 Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium 744
15-2 The Equilibrium Constant for Ideal-Gas Mixtures 746
15-3 Some Remarks about the Kp of Ideal-Gas Mixtures 749
15-4 Chemical Equilibrium for Simultaneous Reactions 754
15-5 Variation of Kp with Temperature 756
15-6 Phase Equilibrium 757
Phase Equilibrium for a Single-Component System 758
The Phase Rule 759
Phase Equilibrium for a Multicomponent System 760
Summary 765
References and Suggested Reading 766
Problems 766
CHAPTER SIXTEEN
THERMODYNAMICS OF HIGH-SPEED GAS FLOW 773
16-1 Stagnation Properties 774
16-2 Velocity of Sound and Mach Number 778
16-3 One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow 782
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area 784
Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases 786
16-4 Isentropic Flow through Nozzles 788
Converging Nozzles 789
Converging-Diverging Nozzles 793
16-5 Normal Shocks in Nozzle Flow 797
16-6 Flow through Actual Nozzles and Diffusers 803
16-7 Steam Nozzles 810
Summary 813
References and Suggested Reading 815
Problems 815
APPENDIX 1
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) 823
Table A-1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Critical-Point Properties 824
Table A-2 Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Various Common Gases 825
Table A-3 Properties of Common Liquids, Solids, and Foods 828
Table A-4 Saturated Water-Temperature Table 830
Table A-5 Saturated Water-Pressure Table 832
Table A-6 Superheated Water 834
Table A-7 Compressed Liquid Water 838
Table A-8 Saturated Ice Water-Vapor 839
Figure A-9 T-s Diagram for Water 840
Figure A-10 Mollier Diagram for Water 841
Table A-11 Saturated Refrigerant-134aD
Temperature Table 842
Table A-12 Saturated Refrigerant-134aD
Pressure Table 843
Table A-13 Superheated Refrigerant-134a 844
Figure A-14 P-h Diagram for Refrigerant-134a 846
Table A-15 One-Dimensional Isentropic Compressible-Flow Functions for an
Ideal Gas with Constant Specific Heats and Molar Mass, and k _ 1.4 847
Table A-16 One-Dimensional Normal-Shock Functions for an Ideal Gas with
Constant Specific Heats and Molar Mass, and k _ 1.4 848
Table A-17 Ideal-Gas Properties of Air 849
Table A-18 Ideal-Gas Properties of Nitrogen, N2 851
Table A-19 Ideal-Gas Properties of Oxygen, O2 853
Table A-20 Ideal-Gas Properties of Carbon Dioxide, CO2 855
Table A-21 Ideal-Gas Properties of Carbon Monoxide, CO 857
Table A-22 Ideal-Gas Properties of Hydrogen, H2 859
Table A-23 Ideal-Gas Properties of Water Vapor, H2O 860
Table A-24 Ideal-Gas Properties of Monatomic Oxygen, O 862
Table A-25 Ideal-Gas Properties of Hydroxyl, OH 862
Table A-26 Enthalpy of Formation, Gibbs Function of Formation, and Absolute 
Entropy at 25-C, 1 atm 863
Table A-27 Properties of Some Common Fuels and Hydrocarbons 864
Table A-28 Logarithms to Base of the Equilibrium Constant Kp 865
Table A-29 Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude 866
Figure A-30a Nelson-Obert Generalized Compressibility Chart-Low Pressures 867
Figure A-30b Nelson-Obert Generalized Compressibility Chart-Intermediate 
Pressures 868
Figure A-30c Nelson-Obert Generalized Compressibility Chart-High Pressures 869
Figure A-31 Generalized Enthalpy Departure Chart 870
Figure A-32 Generalized Entropy Departure Chart 871
Figure A-33 Psychrometric Chart at 1 atm Total Pressure 872
APPENDIX 2
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) 873
Table A-1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Critical-Point Properties 874
Table A-2E Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Various Common Gases 875
Table A-3E Properties of Common Liquids, Solids and Foods 878
Table A-4E Saturated Water-Temperature Table 880
Table A-5E Saturated Water-Pressure Table 881
Table A-6E Superheated Water 883
Table A-7E Compressed Liquid Water 887
Table A-8E Saturated Ice-Water Vapor 888
Figure A-9E T-s Diagram for Water 889
Figure A-10E Mollier Diagram for Water 890
Table A-11E Saturated Refrigerant-134aD Temperature Table 891
Table A-12E Saturated Refrigerant-134aD Pressure Table 892
Table A-13E Superheated Refrigerant-134a 893
Figure A-14E P-h Diagram for Refrigerant-134a 895
Table A-17E Ideal-Gas Properties of Air 896
Table A-18E Ideal-Gas Properties of Nitrogen, N2 898
Table A-19E Ideal-Gas Properties of Oxygen, O2 900
Table A-20E Ideal-Gas Properties of Carbon Dioxide, CO2 902
Table A-21E Ideal-Gas Properties of Carbon Monoxide, CO 904
Table A-22E Ideal-Gas Properties of Hydrogen, H2 906
Table A-23E Ideal-Gas Properties of Water Vapor, H2O 907
Table A-26E Enthalpy of Formation, Gibbs Function of Formation,
and Absolute Entropy 909
Table A-27E Properties of Some Common Fuels and Hydrocarbons 910
Table A-29E Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude 911
Figure A-33E Psychrometric Chart at 1 atm Total Pressure 912
APPENDIX 3
Index 926

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Thermodynamics.