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Contents Preface 1 Defining The Field of Applied Social Psychology Frank W. Schneider, Jamie Gruman, and Larry M. Coutts Social Psychology Defining Social Psychology Social Psychology as a Science Applied Social Psychology Applied Social Psychology as a Science The Role of Personal Values Historical Context of Applied Social Psychology A Problem Focus Social Influences on Behavior: The Power of the Situation Levels of Analysis Applied Social Psychology Requires a Broad Approach Various Roles of Applied Social Psychologists Overview of Book Summary 2 Social Psychological Theory Shelagh M. J. Towson The Scientific Process Theory in Social Psychology Functions of Social Psychological Theories Characteristics of Social Psychological Theories Cognitive Dissonance Theory Description Organization Direction Intervention Summing up Cognitive Dissonance Theory Groupthink Description Organization Direction Intervention Summing up Groupthink Theory Summary 3 Applied Social Research: What It Is and How to Do It Kenneth M. Cramer and Louise R. Alexitch Methods of Data Collection Self-Report Measures: The Special Case of Surveys Observational Methods Qualitative Methods Research Designs True Experiments QuasiExperiments Correlational Studies Descriptive Studies Research Settings Research Ethics Epilogue Summary 4 Intervention and Evaluation Adam Lodzinski, Michiko S. Motomura, and Frank W. Schneider Design of Interventions Nature of Interventions Key Tasks in Intervention Design and Delivery Evaluation of Interventions Reasons for Evaluating Interventions Interventions Do Fail Types of Evaluation Importance of Research Design in Evaluating Interventions An Intervention Example: Reducing Alcohol Problems on Campus Problem Identification Development of a Solution: Forming the Intervention Hypothesis Goal Setting and Designing the Intervention Implementing the Intervention Evaluating the Intervention Application of Social Norm Theory to Different Levels of Analysis Examples of Other Interventions Influencing Social Policy Intervention Issues Process Issues Ethical Issues Summary 5 Applying Social Psychology in Everyday Life Randolph A. Smith and Ann L. Weber Personal Relationships The Need to be Close Attraction Proximity and familiarity Physical Attractiveness Attachment Attachment Styles The Selection Process Conclusion: The science of closeness The Classroom as a Social Psychology Lab Cognitive Errors Fundamental Attribution Error Belief Perseverance Social Categorization Self Perceptions SelfHandicapping SelfServing Bias Overjustification Effect Conclusion: Social psychology in the classroom Summary Epilogue 6 Social Psychology Applied to Clinical-Counseling Psychology Kenneth E. Hart and David M. Ledgerwood The Social-Dysgenic Subdomain The Social Psychological Roots of Anxiety A Social Psychological Model of Depression The Social-Therapeutic Subdomain Self-Presentational Approach to Treating Social Anxiety Hopelessness Theory Approach to Treating Depression The Social-Diagnostic Subdomain Biases in Clinical Decision Making Final Thoughts Summary 7 Applying Social Psychology to Sports Teams Philip Sullivan and Deborah L. Feltz Team Dynamics Team Cohesion Team Confidence Effective Communication Team Goal Setting Team Building Family-Psychology Intervention Communication-Training Intervention Performance-Profiling Intervention Summary 8 Applying Social Psychology to the Media David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen and Beverly Roskos-Ewoldsen How Does Media Violence Affect Us? What are the Consequences of Viewing Media Violence? Imitation of Violence Media Violence and Aggressive Thoughts Media Violence and Fear What Happens When We Watch Pornography? Effects of Long-term Exposure to Nonviolent Pornography Effects of Exposure to Sexual Violence Reducing the Harmful Effects of Exposure to Violent Sexuality Political News Coverage Do the Media Control Our Thoughts? Effects of Negative Media Coverage of the Government Summary 9 Applying Social Psychology to Your Health Kathryn D. Lafreniere and Kenneth M. Cramer Health Psychology Defined The biopsychosocial model Social variables and health Promoting Health and Preventing Illness Persuasion and social influence in media health coverage Family, peer, and school influences Changing Health Behavior Health belief model Theory of planned behavior Transtheoretical model Stress, Coping, and Social Support Stress and coping Social support Summary 10 Applying Social Psychology to Education Louise Alexitch Intrapersonal Processes: Increasing Success, Reducing Failure What Factors Affect Student Performance? How Can Student Performance Be Improved? Interpersonal Processes: Teachers and Students Interacting Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement Students Interacting with Other Students When Interactions Turn Deadly: School Violence Summary 11 Social Psychology Applied to Organizations Larry M. Coutts and Jamie Gruman The Individual in an Organizational Context Making Sense of Others in the Work Environment Job Satisfaction: Antecedents and Consequences Interpersonal Processes in Organizations Communication Group Decision Making Summary 12 Applying Social Psychology to the Criminal Justice System David M. Day The Crime and the Criminal The Social Psychology of a Crime Explaining Criminal Behavior The Response of the Criminal Justice System The Police Investigation The Investigative Interview Witness Identification of Suspects The Courtroom Jury Size Juror Impartiality Inadmissible Evidence The Prison Setting Goals of Prison Social Climate of Prisons Prison Approaches to Rehabilitation Summary 13 Applying Social Psychology to the Community Stewart Page and Kathryn Lafreniere What Is Community Psychology? The Origins of Community Psychology How Is Social Psychology Relevant to Community Psychology? Community Psychology Approaches and Goals Perspectives on Community-Based Research: Unobtrusive Methods Environmental Influence: Classic Studies Relevant to Community Psychology Behavior as Autonomous Versus Social Conformist Prejudice as Conformity to Social Rules and Community Norms Bystander Effects Life in the City Stigmatization and Related Issues in the Community Self-fulfilling Effects in a Community Context Self-fulfilling Effects in the Classroom Studies of Stigmatization The Media and Stigmatization Some Issues Related to Social Change and Prevention Social Action A General Perspective on Community Prevention Different Perspectives on Prevention The Internet as a Community and Source of Help Reflections on Community Violence and Future Research Summary 14 Applying Social Psychology to the Environment Robert Gifford Resource Dilemmas A Family of Dilemmas What is a Resource Dilemma? Studying Resource Dilemmas Social Design Growing Collaboration When and How Social Design Helps Six Goals of Social Design Outdoor Spaces Defensible Space Convenience Stores and Banks Residences Communities Epilogue Summary 15 Applying Social Psychology to Diversity Catherine T. Kwantes, Sherry Bergeron, and Ritu Kaushal Cultural Diversity Hofstede?s Cultural Dimensions Schwartz?s Value Framework Demographics: Personal Diversity Gender Ethnic Background Social Class Diversity: Opportunities Creativity and Innovation Problem Solving Diversity: Challenges Prejudice and Discrimination Conflict Conflict Management and Resolution Summary 16 You Can Change the World: Action, Participatory, and Activist Research Charlene Y. Senn Definitions of Different Types of Social Change Research Action Research Participatory Research Activism in Research Differences and Similarities Between Action and Participatory Research Differences Between Traditional Psychological Research and Social Change Research Moving Away from Strict Definitions: Research That Influences Society Influencing Policy Directly Influencing Society by Changing Structural or Social Barriers Difficulties and Limitations of Research for Social Change Summary Endnotes References Name Index Author Index About the Editors About the Contributors
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