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[Page v, Begin TOC.] Contents Preface 000 Chapter 1: The Assessment of Individuals: The Critical Role and Fundamentals of Measurement 000 Measurement in the Physical Sciences Measurement in the Social Sciences Historical Highlights of Measurement Statistics Background Scales of Measurement The Normal Distribution Probability and Statistical Significance Sampling Distributions Correlation Linear Regression Score Meaning The First Step: Identifying the Construct Links Between Constructs Construct Cleanliness Single versus Multiple Constructs Summary and Next Step Problems and Exercises Chapter 2: Designing and Writing Items Empirical, Theoretical and Rational Approaches to Item Literature Search Subject Matter Experts How Many Items? Attitudinal Items: Early Work in Item Generation Paired Comparisons Items in Ranked Categories Items in Interval-Level Categories Guttman Scales Assessing Behaviors Critical Incident Technique Pilot Testing Summary and Next Step Problems and Exercises Chapter 3: Designing and Scoring Responses Open-Ended Responses Closed-Ended Questions Example 1: Proportional Differences for a Single Variable Example 2: Proportional Differences for Two Variables Dichotomous Responses Multiple Choice Tests Distractors Guessing Speeded and Power Tests Omitted and Partial Credit Continuous Responses Summated Rating Scales Variations and Issues with Likert Scales Other Types of Continuous Response Scales Intensity versus Frequency Likert-Type Scales Ipsative versus Normative Scales Difference and Change Scores Summary and Next Step Problems and Exercises Chapter 4: Collecting Data: Sampling and Screening Probability Sampling Non-Probability Sampling Sample Sizes Missing Data Preparing to Analyze Your Data Summary and Next Step Problems and Exercises Chapter 5: Classical Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations and Item Analyses Classical Test Theory Theory of True and Error Scores: Description and Assumptions Ramifications and Limitations of Classical Test Theory Assumptions Item Analysis within CTT: Approaches, Statistical Analyses, and Interpretation Descriptive Statistics Difficulty Level Discrimination Index Using P-Levels to Plot Item Curves Item-to-total correlations Item-to-Criterion Correlations Inter-Item and Item-to-Criterion Paradox Differential Item Weighting Summary Problems and Exercises Chapter 6: Modern Test Theory: Assumptions, Equations, Limitations and Item Analyses Modern Test Theory Models One-Parameter Logistic Model Two-Parameter Logistic Model Three-Parameter Logistic Model Multiple-response IRT Models Nominal Responses Graded Responses Partial Credit Responses Parameter Estimation Maximum Likelihood Estimation Bayesian Estimation Scoring Respondents Model Fit Assumptions Ramifications of the Assumptions of Modern Test Theory Practical Advantages of Modern Test Theory Limitations of Modern Test Theory Computer Programs Practical Considerations Summary Next Steps Problems and Exercises Chapter 7: Reliability of Test Scores and Test Items Test-retest Reliability Alternative Forms Reliability Measures of Internal Consistency Split-Half Cronbach?s alpha (?) Coefficient Theta (?) Kuder-Richardson 21 (KR21) Setting Confidence Intervals Reliability of a Composite Difference Scores?A Reliability Concern Practical Questions Summary and Next Steps Problems and Exercises Chapter 8: Reliability of Raters Inter-Rater Reliability Indices Observer Agreement Percentage Interobserver Correlations Kendall?s Coefficient of Concordance Cohen?s Kappa Coefficient rwg Generalizability Theory and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient Reliability Generalization Modern Test Theory Approaches to Reliability Summary and Next Steps Problems and Exercises Chapter 9: Assessing Validity Using Content and Criterion Methods Asking the Test Takers Asking the Subject Matter Experts Assessments Using Correlation and Regression: Criterion-Related Studies Convergent/Divergent Assessment Upper Bounds of Validity and Correction for Unreliability Range Restriction and Correction Making Decisions: Cutoffs and the Roles of the Standard Error of Estimate and the Standard Error of Measurement Multiple Criteria Classification Approaches to Test Score Validation Predictive Accuracy with a Dichotomous Predictor and Criterion Discriminant Function Analysis Group Differences and Test Bias Extending the Inferences of Criterion-Related Validity Studies Validity Generalization Meta-Analysis Synthetic Validity Summary Problems and Exercises Chapter 10: Assessing Validity Via Item Internal Structure Principal Components Analysis Common Factor Analysis Common Factor Analysis using Analysis of Covariance Structures Some Other Issues in Factor Analysis Practical Issues Concluding Comments on Internal Structure and Validity Threats to the Validity of Scores Multitrait-Multimethod Assessment Closing Comments on Test Score Validity Summary Problems and Exercises Chapter 11: Ethics and Professional Issues in Testing Professional Standards and Guidelines Ethical Procedures and Protocols Test Administration Integrity Testing Computerized Testing Coaching, Testwiseness, and Re-takes Testing Legislation Test Item Bias and Adverse Impact à2 Approach to Item Bias Assessment. Item bias detection using IRT. Translation Issues Electronic Presentation and Capture Summary Problems and Exercises Chapter 12: Brief Reviews of Some Selected Tests and Concluding Comments Information about Existing Tests Some Intelligence Tests Stanford-Binet Intelligence Tests Wechsler Intelligence Scales Academic Achievement Tests Scholastic Assessment Tests (SAT) Graduate Record Examination. Structured Personality Tests California Psychological Inventory NEO Personality Inventory. Career Interest/Guidance Instruments Strong Inventories Self-Directed Search Chapter Summary A Quick Book Review Concluding Comments Problems and Exercises Appendices Unit Normal (z) Distribition Critical Values of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient Critical Values of the F-Distributions Critical Values of the t-Distributions Critical Values of the Chi-Square Distributions Critical Values of the Spearman Rho Correlation Coefficient References Index
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