Table of contents for Juvenile justice : process and systems / Gus Martin.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Contents
Acknowledgments 
Introduction and Rationale
 Part 1. Understanding Juvenile Justice Process and Systems
Chapter 1. Juvenile Justice: An Introduction
Chapter Perspective: Teen Violence in Schools
Conceptual Introduction: Finding Justice for Juveniles
Definitional Concept: ?Juveniles
Broad Concepts: Official and Non-Official Juvenile Justice Institutions
Focused Concepts: Foundational Considerations for Providing Justice to Juveniles
Systemic Introduction: The Juvenile Justice System in Brief
The Police Subsystem
The Judicial Subsystem
The Corrections Subsystem
The Community-Based Subsystem
Procedural Introduction: Dispensing Juvenile Justice
Custody
Intake
Adjudication
Dispositions
Policy Introduction: Challenges for Juvenile Justice
Widening the Net: Configuring the Juvenile Justice System
Dealing with Juveniles: Competing Philosophies and Models
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Curfews as a Juvenile Crime-Fighting Strategy
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 2. Historical Perspectives
Chapter Perspective. Historical Perspectives of the Juvenile Court
Beginnings: Juveniles in Early History
Ancient Babylon
The Roman Empire
Roots of Anglo-American Law: Juvenile Justice in Old England
Feudal England: Life as ?Nasty, Brutish, and Short?
The Renaissance Period in England
Toward the Modern Era in England: The Reform Movement
Juvenile Justice in America: The Colonial Period Through the Nineteenth Century
English Roots During the Colonial Period
Toward the Modern Era in America: The Refuge and Child Savers Period
Juvenile Justice in America: The Twentieth Century
A New Philosophy: The Progressive Era
A New System: Juvenile Courts
Juvenile Justice from the Great Depression to the Great Society
The New Era of Juvenile Rights: Juvenile Justice During the Great Society
Strengthening Juvenile Rights: Juvenile Justice during the 1970s
Juvenile Justice in America: The Modern Era
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Idealism and the Child Savers Movement
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 3. Juvenile Delinquency: Theories of Causation
Chapter Perspective. Teenage Drug Use and Delinquency
Foreword to Theories of Juvenile Deviance
Fundamentals: Common Factors Influencing Juvenile Behavior
A Profile of Juvenile Deviance: Inception, Progression, and Outcome
Superstition and Myth: Early Theories of Delinquency and Crime
Naturalism
Demonology
Choice and Responsibility: Theories of the Classical School
Crime and Free Will
The American Context
Physical Qualities and Causation: Biological Theories
An Honest Appearance: Physiognomy
Bumps on the Head: Phrenology
Evolutionary Primitiveness: Atavism
The Bad Seed: Heredity
Body Types: Somatotyping
The Mind and Causation: Psychological Theories
Personality, Behavior, and Childhood: Psychoanalytic Theory
Learning by Experiencing: Conditioning Theory
Psychopathology Theory
Society and Causation: Sociological Theories
Norms, Means, and Ends: Anomie and Strain Theories
Concentric Urban Zones: Social Ecology (Structural) Theory
Differential Association Theory
The Impact of Injustice: Critical Theory
Conflict Theory
Radical Criminology
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Pop Culture and Delinquency
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 4. The Delinquency Picture: Measuring Juvenile Deviance
Foreword: Statistics and Perceptions
The Utility of Statistics
The Media and Public Perceptions of Crime
Chapter Perspective. Researching Juvenile Delinquency
Tools of the Trade: Estimating and Reporting Delinquency and Crime
Police Data: The Uniform Crime Report
Surveying the Public: National Crime Victimization Survey
Youths in the Judicial System: Juvenile Court Statistics
Surveying Delinquents and Criminals: Self-Reported Data
Applying the Data: Patterns of Delinquency and Crime
Preliminary Perspectives and Contexts
Delinquency and the Crime Picture
Postscript: Juvenile Victimization
The Victimization Picture
?Hidden? Victimization
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Girls, Delinquency, and Victimization
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 5. Children in Trouble and Children in Need
Chapter Perspective. Sexual Exploitation of Children
Modern Problems: Young People and Risk Factors
Juveniles and Violence in the Modern Era
Risky Behaviors: Youths and Substance Abuse
Risky Environments: Poverty and Homelessness
Missing Children
Unique Needs: Special Populations of Adolescents
Risk Factors
Youths in Conflict with Authority: Children in Trouble
Age of Majority
Status Offenders
Juvenile Delinquents
Youths Requiring Intervention: Children in Need
Child Dependency and Neglect
Child Abuse
Rescuing Youths: Helping Children in Trouble and Children in Need
The Immediate Community
Intervening Institutions
Remedial Institutions
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: A National Problem: Children on the Street
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
 Part 2. Process and Systems: Official Components
Chapter 6. The Role of the Police
Chapter Perspective. Police Special Gang Units
An examination of police anti-gang programs.
Background: Historical Perspectives on Policing
Eras of American Policing
Policing Eras and Juvenile Relations
First Contact with Juveniles: Police Dispositions
Initial Contact
Custody
Detention
Decision-Making: Police Discretion and Procedural Formality
Police Discretion
Procedural Formality: Official and Unofficial Police Procedures
Issues Arising from Police Contacts with Juveniles
Juvenile Constitutional Rights: Search and Seizure
Procedural Distinctions: Booking, Fingerprinting, and Photographing
Interrogating Juveniles
Lineups
Use of Force
Case in Point: Juvenile Records
Accessing the Community: Police Relationship-Building Strategies
The Role of Specialized Juvenile Units
Delinquency and Victimization Prevention Programs
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Police-Juvenile Relations
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 7. The Role of the Court
Chapter Perspective. Teenagers on Death Row
Background: The Role of the Juvenile Court
Reformers and the Origins of the Modern Juvenile Court
Breakthrough: The First Juvenile Court
Professionalization: Advancing the Juvenile Court Concept
Sources of Court Authority: Juvenile Court Jurisdiction
No Single Model: Types of Juvenile Courts
Implementing Court Authority: Juvenile Court Participants
Arbiters of Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court Judges
Representatives of the State: Juvenile Court Prosecutors
Representing Youths in the Courtroom: The Juvenile Defense Counsel
Gatekeeping: Juvenile Intake and Probation Officers
Moving Through the System: Juvenile Court Process
Entering the System: Juvenile Custody and Detention
Command Appearances: Juvenile Petitions and Summons
Center of the System: Juvenile Court Hearings
Punishing Criminal Behavior: Juveniles in Adult Court
Juveniles as Legal ?Adults?: Judicial Waiver and Certification
Significance of Assignment to Criminal Court
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Who is Responsible? Parents of Juvenile Offenders
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 8. Institutional Corrections for Juveniles
Chapter Perspective. The World Within: Subcultures in Juvenile Correctional Institutions
Historical Perspectives on Juvenile Corrections
Perspectives on Juvenile Corrections During the Colonial Era
Perspectives on Juvenile Corrections During the Refuge and Child-Saving Era
Modern Institutionalization in Perspective
Understanding the System: Goals of Juvenile Corrections
Political and Popular Culture: Conservatives vs. Liberals
Classifying Correctional Philosophies
Innovation and Ingenuity: Nominal and Intermediate Sanctions
Detention and Correction: Confinement Options
Non-Secure Residential Facilities
Juvenile Detention Centers
Jails
Training Schools
Alternative Detention Programs
Examining Confinement: Controversies and Protections
The Demographics of Confinement
Fundamental Issues
Harsh Realities: Quality of Life in Juvenile Institutions
Final Thoughts: Correctional Policies and Protections
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Treating Juvenile Delinquents as Adult Criminals
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
 Part 3. Process and Systems: Community-Based Components
Chapter 9. Juvenile Probation, Parole, and Aftercare
Chapter Perspective. Terms and Conditions for Juvenile Probation, Parole, and Aftercare
Background: The Development of Probation, Parole, and Aftercare
The Origins of Probation
The Origins of Parole and Aftercare
On the Front Line: Juvenile Probation and Parole Officers
Non-Institutional Corrections: Juvenile Probation
What Works? Models for Juvenile Probation Systems
Who Should Participate? Assessing Candidacy and Managing Participants
Restricted Freedom: Requirements and Conditions of Probation
Failure to Comply: Revocation of Probation
Post-Institutional Corrections: Juvenile Parole and Aftercare
Differentiating Early Release: Parole and Aftercare in Context
What Works? Models for Juvenile Parole and Aftercare Systems
Who Should Participate? Assessing Candidacy and Managing Participants
Restricted Freedom, Revisited: Requirements and Conditions of Parole and Aftercare
Failure to Comply, Revisited: Revocation of Parole and Aftercare
Contending Questions: Ongoing Issues and Special Needs
Whom is Served? Balancing the Duties of Probation and Parole Officers
Which Process is Due? The Question of Proper Revocation
What of Special Populations? Addressing the Needs of Vulnerable Youths
How to Manage the System? An Evolving Philosophy
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box. The Utility of Net-Widening
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 10. Community-Based Juvenile Programs
Chapter Perspective. The Broken Windows Theory
Origins: Background to Community-Based Juvenile Programs
Fundamental Concepts: Understanding ?Community?
Programmatic Origins
Juvenile Diversion: A Non-Institutional Alternative
Basic Concepts: Models and Principles of Diversion
From Theory to Practice: Operationalizing Diversion
Disagreement on Implementation: Critiquing Diversion
Widening the Net: Partner Institutions and Placement Alternatives
Restrictive Community Placement: Group Homes
Benign Community Placement: Foster Homes and Day Treatment Centers
Experiential Community Placement: ?Wilderness? Programs
Anticipating and Managing Juvenile Problems: Prevention and Treatment Models
Anticipating the Problem: Prevention
Managing the Problem: Treatment
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: ?It Takes a Village to Raise a Single Child?
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
 Part 4. Final Perspectives and Projections
Chapter 11. Anti-Social Youth Cultures and the Case of Youth Gangs
Chapter Perspective. The Influence of Adult Hate Groups on Youth Culture: The Case of the Skinheads
Background: Causes of Anti-Social Behavior Among Juveniles
Explanatory Factors: Focusing on the Individual?s Environment
Explanatory Factors: Focusing on the Juvenile Group
History and Implications: An Overview of Youth Gangs
Origins: Historical, Regional, and National Perspectives
Societal Implications: Community Perspectives
Gang Characteristics: Demographics and Behavior
Common Characteristics: The Definitional Dialogue
Demographic Characteristics: Age, Ethnicity, and Gender
Operational Characteristics: Living the Life of a Gangbanger
A Policy Dilemma: Responding to the Gang Problem
Gang Suppression
Gang Prevention
Gang Intervention
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Drug Gangs
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 12. Global Perspectives: Juvenile Justice in an International Context
Chapter Perspective. Sweden?s Pro-Child Approach
Global Perspectives: Juvenile Justice Process in Developed Nations
The Role of the Police in Developed Countries: The Case of British-Influenced Western Nations
The Role of the Court in Developed Countries: The Case of British-Influenced Western Nations
Juvenile Corrections in Developed Countries: The Case of British-Influenced Western Nations
Global Perspectives: Juvenile Justice Process in Developing Nations
An Overview of Juvenile Justice in Developing Countries: The Cases of India and China
The Role of the Police in Developing Countries: The Cases of India and China
The Role of the Court in Developing Countries: The Cases of India and China
Juvenile Corrections in Developing Countries: The Cases of India and China
Children?s Rights: A Global Approach to Juvenile Justice
Children in Trouble: Conditions of Juveniles in Custody
At-Risk Populations: Displaced and Victimized Children
Taking Advantage of the Young: Exploited Children
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Juvenile Justice: The Cultural Dimension
Questions for Review
Key Terms and Concepts
Recommended Web Sites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 13. What is to be Done? Projections and Conclusion
Chapter Perspective. American Gangs in the 21st Century
What Next? Likely Challenges for the Juvenile Justice System
Factors Shaping the Juvenile?s Environment: Enduring Influences on Juvenile Behavior
Factors Shaping Juvenile Justice Policy: Illustrative Examples
Professionals, Process, and Policy: Configuring the Juvenile Justice System
Responding to Juvenile Problems: Finding a Guiding Philosophy
An Enduring Institution: Juvenile Court Process and Policy
Rehabilitation or Punishment? Corrections Process and Policy
Protecting Due Process: The Legal Advocates (Attorneys)
Widening the Net: Community-Based Professionals and Policies
A Final Thought: Managing the Problem
Chapter Summary
Discussion Box: Law Enforcement and Juvenile Justice in the United States
Questions for Review
Recommended Readings
Glossary
Appendices
Subject/Name Index
About the Author

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Juvenile justice, Administration of -- United States.
Juvenile justice, Administration of -- Cross-cultural studies.