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[p. v; TOC] Contents Acknowledgments Introduction and Rationale Part 1. Understanding Juvenile Justice Process and Systems Chapter 1. Juvenile Justice: An Introduction Chapter Perspective: Teen Violence in Schools Conceptual Introduction: Finding Justice for Juveniles Definitional Concept: ?Juveniles Broad Concepts: Official and Non-Official Juvenile Justice Institutions Focused Concepts: Foundational Considerations for Providing Justice to Juveniles Systemic Introduction: The Juvenile Justice System in Brief The Police Subsystem The Judicial Subsystem The Corrections Subsystem The Community-Based Subsystem Procedural Introduction: Dispensing Juvenile Justice Custody Intake Adjudication Dispositions Policy Introduction: Challenges for Juvenile Justice Widening the Net: Configuring the Juvenile Justice System Dealing with Juveniles: Competing Philosophies and Models Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Curfews as a Juvenile Crime-Fighting Strategy Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Chapter 2. Historical Perspectives Chapter Perspective. Historical Perspectives of the Juvenile Court Beginnings: Juveniles in Early History Ancient Babylon The Roman Empire Roots of Anglo-American Law: Juvenile Justice in Old England Feudal England: Life as ?Nasty, Brutish, and Short? The Renaissance Period in England Toward the Modern Era in England: The Reform Movement Juvenile Justice in America: The Colonial Period Through the Nineteenth Century English Roots During the Colonial Period Toward the Modern Era in America: The Refuge and Child Savers Period Juvenile Justice in America: The Twentieth Century A New Philosophy: The Progressive Era A New System: Juvenile Courts Juvenile Justice from the Great Depression to the Great Society The New Era of Juvenile Rights: Juvenile Justice During the Great Society Strengthening Juvenile Rights: Juvenile Justice during the 1970s Juvenile Justice in America: The Modern Era Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Idealism and the Child Savers Movement Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Chapter 3. Juvenile Delinquency: Theories of Causation Chapter Perspective. Teenage Drug Use and Delinquency Foreword to Theories of Juvenile Deviance Fundamentals: Common Factors Influencing Juvenile Behavior A Profile of Juvenile Deviance: Inception, Progression, and Outcome Superstition and Myth: Early Theories of Delinquency and Crime Naturalism Demonology Choice and Responsibility: Theories of the Classical School Crime and Free Will The American Context Physical Qualities and Causation: Biological Theories An Honest Appearance: Physiognomy Bumps on the Head: Phrenology Evolutionary Primitiveness: Atavism The Bad Seed: Heredity Body Types: Somatotyping The Mind and Causation: Psychological Theories Personality, Behavior, and Childhood: Psychoanalytic Theory Learning by Experiencing: Conditioning Theory Psychopathology Theory Society and Causation: Sociological Theories Norms, Means, and Ends: Anomie and Strain Theories Concentric Urban Zones: Social Ecology (Structural) Theory Differential Association Theory The Impact of Injustice: Critical Theory Conflict Theory Radical Criminology Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Pop Culture and Delinquency Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Chapter 4. The Delinquency Picture: Measuring Juvenile Deviance Foreword: Statistics and Perceptions The Utility of Statistics The Media and Public Perceptions of Crime Chapter Perspective. Researching Juvenile Delinquency Tools of the Trade: Estimating and Reporting Delinquency and Crime Police Data: The Uniform Crime Report Surveying the Public: National Crime Victimization Survey Youths in the Judicial System: Juvenile Court Statistics Surveying Delinquents and Criminals: Self-Reported Data Applying the Data: Patterns of Delinquency and Crime Preliminary Perspectives and Contexts Delinquency and the Crime Picture Postscript: Juvenile Victimization The Victimization Picture ?Hidden? Victimization Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Girls, Delinquency, and Victimization Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Chapter 5. Children in Trouble and Children in Need Chapter Perspective. Sexual Exploitation of Children Modern Problems: Young People and Risk Factors Juveniles and Violence in the Modern Era Risky Behaviors: Youths and Substance Abuse Risky Environments: Poverty and Homelessness Missing Children Unique Needs: Special Populations of Adolescents Risk Factors Youths in Conflict with Authority: Children in Trouble Age of Majority Status Offenders Juvenile Delinquents Youths Requiring Intervention: Children in Need Child Dependency and Neglect Child Abuse Rescuing Youths: Helping Children in Trouble and Children in Need The Immediate Community Intervening Institutions Remedial Institutions Chapter Summary Discussion Box: A National Problem: Children on the Street Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Part 2. Process and Systems: Official Components Chapter 6. The Role of the Police Chapter Perspective. Police Special Gang Units An examination of police anti-gang programs. Background: Historical Perspectives on Policing Eras of American Policing Policing Eras and Juvenile Relations First Contact with Juveniles: Police Dispositions Initial Contact Custody Detention Decision-Making: Police Discretion and Procedural Formality Police Discretion Procedural Formality: Official and Unofficial Police Procedures Issues Arising from Police Contacts with Juveniles Juvenile Constitutional Rights: Search and Seizure Procedural Distinctions: Booking, Fingerprinting, and Photographing Interrogating Juveniles Lineups Use of Force Case in Point: Juvenile Records Accessing the Community: Police Relationship-Building Strategies The Role of Specialized Juvenile Units Delinquency and Victimization Prevention Programs Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Police-Juvenile Relations Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Chapter 7. The Role of the Court Chapter Perspective. Teenagers on Death Row Background: The Role of the Juvenile Court Reformers and the Origins of the Modern Juvenile Court Breakthrough: The First Juvenile Court Professionalization: Advancing the Juvenile Court Concept Sources of Court Authority: Juvenile Court Jurisdiction No Single Model: Types of Juvenile Courts Implementing Court Authority: Juvenile Court Participants Arbiters of Juvenile Justice: Juvenile Court Judges Representatives of the State: Juvenile Court Prosecutors Representing Youths in the Courtroom: The Juvenile Defense Counsel Gatekeeping: Juvenile Intake and Probation Officers Moving Through the System: Juvenile Court Process Entering the System: Juvenile Custody and Detention Command Appearances: Juvenile Petitions and Summons Center of the System: Juvenile Court Hearings Punishing Criminal Behavior: Juveniles in Adult Court Juveniles as Legal ?Adults?: Judicial Waiver and Certification Significance of Assignment to Criminal Court Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Who is Responsible? Parents of Juvenile Offenders Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Chapter 8. Institutional Corrections for Juveniles Chapter Perspective. The World Within: Subcultures in Juvenile Correctional Institutions Historical Perspectives on Juvenile Corrections Perspectives on Juvenile Corrections During the Colonial Era Perspectives on Juvenile Corrections During the Refuge and Child-Saving Era Modern Institutionalization in Perspective Understanding the System: Goals of Juvenile Corrections Political and Popular Culture: Conservatives vs. Liberals Classifying Correctional Philosophies Innovation and Ingenuity: Nominal and Intermediate Sanctions Detention and Correction: Confinement Options Non-Secure Residential Facilities Juvenile Detention Centers Jails Training Schools Alternative Detention Programs Examining Confinement: Controversies and Protections The Demographics of Confinement Fundamental Issues Harsh Realities: Quality of Life in Juvenile Institutions Final Thoughts: Correctional Policies and Protections Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Treating Juvenile Delinquents as Adult Criminals Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Part 3. Process and Systems: Community-Based Components Chapter 9. Juvenile Probation, Parole, and Aftercare Chapter Perspective. Terms and Conditions for Juvenile Probation, Parole, and Aftercare Background: The Development of Probation, Parole, and Aftercare The Origins of Probation The Origins of Parole and Aftercare On the Front Line: Juvenile Probation and Parole Officers Non-Institutional Corrections: Juvenile Probation What Works? Models for Juvenile Probation Systems Who Should Participate? Assessing Candidacy and Managing Participants Restricted Freedom: Requirements and Conditions of Probation Failure to Comply: Revocation of Probation Post-Institutional Corrections: Juvenile Parole and Aftercare Differentiating Early Release: Parole and Aftercare in Context What Works? Models for Juvenile Parole and Aftercare Systems Who Should Participate? Assessing Candidacy and Managing Participants Restricted Freedom, Revisited: Requirements and Conditions of Parole and Aftercare Failure to Comply, Revisited: Revocation of Parole and Aftercare Contending Questions: Ongoing Issues and Special Needs Whom is Served? Balancing the Duties of Probation and Parole Officers Which Process is Due? The Question of Proper Revocation What of Special Populations? Addressing the Needs of Vulnerable Youths How to Manage the System? An Evolving Philosophy Chapter Summary Discussion Box. The Utility of Net-Widening Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Chapter 10. Community-Based Juvenile Programs Chapter Perspective. The Broken Windows Theory Origins: Background to Community-Based Juvenile Programs Fundamental Concepts: Understanding ?Community? Programmatic Origins Juvenile Diversion: A Non-Institutional Alternative Basic Concepts: Models and Principles of Diversion From Theory to Practice: Operationalizing Diversion Disagreement on Implementation: Critiquing Diversion Widening the Net: Partner Institutions and Placement Alternatives Restrictive Community Placement: Group Homes Benign Community Placement: Foster Homes and Day Treatment Centers Experiential Community Placement: ?Wilderness? Programs Anticipating and Managing Juvenile Problems: Prevention and Treatment Models Anticipating the Problem: Prevention Managing the Problem: Treatment Chapter Summary Discussion Box: ?It Takes a Village to Raise a Single Child? Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Part 4. Final Perspectives and Projections Chapter 11. Anti-Social Youth Cultures and the Case of Youth Gangs Chapter Perspective. The Influence of Adult Hate Groups on Youth Culture: The Case of the Skinheads Background: Causes of Anti-Social Behavior Among Juveniles Explanatory Factors: Focusing on the Individual?s Environment Explanatory Factors: Focusing on the Juvenile Group History and Implications: An Overview of Youth Gangs Origins: Historical, Regional, and National Perspectives Societal Implications: Community Perspectives Gang Characteristics: Demographics and Behavior Common Characteristics: The Definitional Dialogue Demographic Characteristics: Age, Ethnicity, and Gender Operational Characteristics: Living the Life of a Gangbanger A Policy Dilemma: Responding to the Gang Problem Gang Suppression Gang Prevention Gang Intervention Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Drug Gangs Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Chapter 12. Global Perspectives: Juvenile Justice in an International Context Chapter Perspective. Sweden?s Pro-Child Approach Global Perspectives: Juvenile Justice Process in Developed Nations The Role of the Police in Developed Countries: The Case of British-Influenced Western Nations The Role of the Court in Developed Countries: The Case of British-Influenced Western Nations Juvenile Corrections in Developed Countries: The Case of British-Influenced Western Nations Global Perspectives: Juvenile Justice Process in Developing Nations An Overview of Juvenile Justice in Developing Countries: The Cases of India and China The Role of the Police in Developing Countries: The Cases of India and China The Role of the Court in Developing Countries: The Cases of India and China Juvenile Corrections in Developing Countries: The Cases of India and China Children?s Rights: A Global Approach to Juvenile Justice Children in Trouble: Conditions of Juveniles in Custody At-Risk Populations: Displaced and Victimized Children Taking Advantage of the Young: Exploited Children Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Juvenile Justice: The Cultural Dimension Questions for Review Key Terms and Concepts Recommended Web Sites Web Exercise Recommended Readings Chapter 13. What is to be Done? Projections and Conclusion Chapter Perspective. American Gangs in the 21st Century What Next? Likely Challenges for the Juvenile Justice System Factors Shaping the Juvenile?s Environment: Enduring Influences on Juvenile Behavior Factors Shaping Juvenile Justice Policy: Illustrative Examples Professionals, Process, and Policy: Configuring the Juvenile Justice System Responding to Juvenile Problems: Finding a Guiding Philosophy An Enduring Institution: Juvenile Court Process and Policy Rehabilitation or Punishment? Corrections Process and Policy Protecting Due Process: The Legal Advocates (Attorneys) Widening the Net: Community-Based Professionals and Policies A Final Thought: Managing the Problem Chapter Summary Discussion Box: Law Enforcement and Juvenile Justice in the United States Questions for Review Recommended Readings Glossary Appendices Subject/Name Index About the Author
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Juvenile justice, Administration of -- United States.
Juvenile justice, Administration of -- Cross-cultural studies.