Table of contents for Language decline and death in Africa : causes, consequences and challenges / Herman M. Batibo.

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Table of Contents
 Page
Preface
Maps 
Chapter One:	The languages of Africa
1.1 The linguistic complexity of Africa
1
1.2 African plurilingulism
1.3 African Language families 
3
1.4 African languages in contact
7
1.5 Language and ethnicity in Africa
12
1.6 Summary and conclusions
15
Chapter Two: Patterns of language use in Africa
2.1 The complexity of language choice and use 
22
2.2 African linguistic dynamism
27
2.3 Language conflict as outcome of language dynamism
33
2.4 Summary and conclusions
35
Chapter Three: African languages as a resource
3.1 The different roles and functions of African languages
42
3.2 African languages as wealth and human heritage
47
3.3 African languages as vehicles of national development
53
3.4 Abuse of African languages as national resources
56
3.5 Summary and conclusions
59
Chapter Four: The minority languages of Africa
4.1 The position of the minority languages
61
4.2 Common characteristics of the minority languages
64
4.3 The disadvantages suffered by minority language speakers
65
4.4 Some misgivings about the minority languages
68
4.5 Summary and conclusions
71
Chapter Five: The endangered languages of Africa
5.1 Definition of an endangered language
73
5.2 Factors likely to cause language endangerment
74
5.3 A survey of the endangered languages of Africa
77
5.4 Summary and conclusions
101
Chapter Six: Language shift and death in Africa
6.1 Definition of language shift and language death
103
6.2 Major theoretical perspectives of language shift and death
103
6.3 The relevance of the two models to the African situation
108
6.4 When is a language extinct?
112
6.5 The role of attitude in language shift and death
114
6.6 The effect of language promotion on minority languages
116
6.7 Summary and conclusions
117
Chapter Seven: Language maintenance
7.1 Language shift and maintenance in contact situations
121
7.2 Auburger's theory of language maintenance
123
7.3 Proposed guidelines for language maintenance
125
7.4 The role of attitude in language maintenance
128
7.5 The role of national language policies
129
7.6 Language survival and revival
130
7.7 Summary and conclusions
131
Chapter Eight: Language empowerment measures
8.1 Processes of language empowerment
133
8.2 Language planning in Africa
135
8.3 Institutional support in language empowerment
140
8.4 The future of African languages
146
8.5 Summary and conclusions
147
References
149
Index of languages
176
Index of subjects
 189
Appendices
 Appendix 1. Country-by-country list of the dominant languages 
219
 Appendix 2. The highly endangered and extinct languages in Africa
 223
 Appendix 3. Summary of the dominant, highly endangered and extinct 
 languages
 226

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Sociolinguistics -- Africa.
Language attrition -- Africa.
Language obsolescence -- Africa.
Language maintenance -- Africa.