Table of contents for Medical microbiology / Fritz H. Kayser ... [et al.].

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Table of Contents
I Basic principles of medical microbiology and immunology
1 General aspects of medical microbiology
F. H. Kayser
1.1 The history of infectious diseases
1.1.1 The past
1.1.2 The Henle-Koch postulates
1.1.3 The present
1.2 Pathogens
1.2.1 Subcellular infectious entities
1.2.2 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
1.2.3 Bacteria
1.2.4 Fungi and protozoans
1.2.5 Animals
1.3 Host-pathogen interactions
1.3.1 Basic terminology of infectiology
1.3.2 Determinants of bacterial pathogenicity and virulence
Invasion and spread
Strategies against nonspecific immunity
Strategies against specific immunity
Clinical disease
Regulation of bacterial virulence
The genetics of bacterial pathogenicity
1.3.3 Defenses against infection
Nonspecific defense mechanisms
Specific defense mechanisms
Defects in immune defenses
1.3.4 Normal flora
1.4 General epidemiology
1.4.1 Epidemiological terminology
1.4.2 Transmission, sources of infection
Sources of infection
1.4.3 The fight against infectious diseases
Exposure prophylaxis
Immunization prophylaxis
1.5 Principles of sterilization and disinfection
1.5.1 Terms and general introduction
The kinetics of germ killing
Mechanisms of action
1.5.2 Physical germicidal methods
1.5.3	Chemical germicidal methods
1.5.4 Practical disinfection
2 Basic principles of immunology
R. M. Zinkernagel
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The immunological apparatus
2.2.1 The B cell system
Immunoglobulin structure
Diversity in the variable domains of the immunoglobulins
The different classes of immunoglobulins
2.2.2 The T cell system
T cell receptors (TCR) and accessory molecules
T cell specificity and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
T cell maturation: positive and negative selection
T cell subpopulations
2.3 Immune response types and mechanisms
2.3.1 B cells
B cell epitopes and B cell proliferation
Monoclonal antibodies
T-independent B cell responses
2.3.2 T cells
T cell activation
T cell activation by superantigens
2.3.3 Interaction between the immune cell systems
T helper cells (CD4 T cells) and TB collaboration
Subpopulations of T helper cells
Cytotoxic T cells (CD8 T cells)
Cytokines (interleukins) and adhesion
Antibody-dependent cellular immunity and natural killer cells
Humoral, antibody-dependent effector mechanisms
2.3.4 The complement system
2.3.5 Immunological cell death
2.4 Immunological tolerance
2.4.1 T cell tolerance
2.4.2 B cell tolerance
2.5 Immunological memory
2.5.1 B cell memory
2.5.2 T cell memory
2.6 Immune defenses against infection and tumor immunity
2.6.1 General rules applying to infection defenses
2.6.2 Immune protection and immunopathology
Influence of prophylactic immunization on the immune defenses
2.6.3 Tumor immunity
2.7 The pathological immune response
2.7.1 Type I: IgE-triggered anaphylaxis
2.7.2 Type II: Cytotoxic humoral immune responses
Autoantibody responses
Anti-blood group antibody reactions
2.7.3 Type III: Diseases caused by immune complexes
2.7.4 Type IV: Hypersensitivity or delayed-type, cell-mediated hypersensitivity
2.8 Transplantation immunity
2.9 Immune defects and immune response modulation
2.9.1 Immune defects
2.9.2 Immunoregulation
Adaptive immunotherapy
2.10 Immunological test methods
2.10.1 Antigen and antibody assays
Immunoprecipitation in liquids and gel mediums
Immunoprecipitation combined with electrophoresis
Agglutination reaction
Complement fixation reaction (CFR)
Direct and indirect immunofluorescence
Radioimmunological and enzyme immunological tests
2.10.2 In vitro cellular immunity reactions 
Isolation of lymphocytes
Lymphocyte function tests
II Bacteriology
3 General bacteriology
F. H. Kayser
3.1 The morphology and fine structure of bacteria 
3.1.1 Bacterial forms
3.1.2 Fine structures of bacteria
Nucleoid (nucleus equivalent) and plasmids
The cytoplasmic membrane 
Cell wall
Attachment pili (fimbriae), conjugation pili
Bacterial spores
3.2 The physiology of metabolism and growth in bacteria
3.2.1 Bacterial metabolism
Types of metabolism
Catabolic reactions
Anabolic reactions
Metabolic regulation
3.2.2 Growth and culturing of bacteria
Growth and cell death
3.3 The molecular basis of bacterial genetics
3.3.1 The structure of bacterial DNA
3.3.2 DNA replication
3.3.3 Transcription and translation
3.3.4 Regulation of gene expression
3.4 The genetic variability of bacteria
3.4.1 Molecular mechanisms of genetic variability
Spontaneous and induced mutation
3.4.2 Intercellular mechanisms of genetic variability
Restriction, modification and gene cloning
3.5 Bacteriophages
3.5.1 Definition
3.5.2 Morphology
3.5.3 Composition
3.5.4 Reproduction
3.6 The principles of antibiotic therapy
3.6.1 Definitions
3.6.2 Spectrum of action
3.6.3 Efficacy
3.6.4 Mechanisms of action
3.6.5 Pharmacokinetics
3.6.6 Side effects
3.6.7 The problem of resistance
Incidence, significance
Resistance mechanisms
Evolution of resistance to antiinfective agents
Resistance tests
3.6.8 Combination therapy
3.6.9 Chemoprophylaxis
3.6.10 Immunomodulators
3.7 Laboratory diagnosis
3.7.1 Preconditions, general methods, evaluation
General methods and evaluation
3.7.2 Sampling and transport of test material
3.7.3 Microscopy
3.7.4 Culturing methods
3.7.5 Identification of bacteria
3.7.6 Molecular methods
3.7.7 Direct detection of bacterial antigens
3.7.8 Diagnostic animal tests
3.7.9 Laboratory safety
3.8 Taxonomy and overview of human pathogenic bacteria
3.8.1 Classification
3.8.2 Nomenclature
4 Bacteria as pathogens
F. H. Kayser
4.1 Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus aureus
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)
4.2 Streptococcus and Enterococcus
Streptococcus pyogenes (A streptococci)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci)
Streptococcus agalactiae (B streptococci)
Oral streptococci
Enterococcus (enterococci)
4.3 Gram-positive, anaerobic cocci
4.4 Bacillus
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
4.5 Clostridium
The pathogens that cause gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) and anaerobic cellulitis
Clostridium tetani (tetanus)
Clostridium botulinum (botulism)
Clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous colitis)
4.6 Listeria, Erysipelothrix and Gardnerella
Listeria monocytogenes
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Gardnerella vaginalis
4.7 Corynebacterium, Actinomyces, other gram-positive rod bacteria
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria)
Other gram-positive rod bacteria
4.8 Mycobacterium
Tuberculosis bacteria (TB)
Leprosy bacteria (LB)
Nontuberculous (atypical) mycobacteria (NTM)
4.9 Nocardia
4.10 Neisseria, Acinetobacter and Moraxella
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea)
Neisseria meningitidis (meningitis, sepsis)
Acinetobacter and Moraxella
4.11 Enterobacteriaceae, overview
4.12 Salmonella (gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever)
4.13 Shigella (bacterial dysentery)
4.14 Yersinia (plague, enteritis)
Yersinia pestis
Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
4.15 Escherichia coli
4.16 Opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae
4.17 Vibrio, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas
Vibrio cholerae (cholera)
Other vibrio bacteria
Aeromonas and Plesiomonas
4.18 Haemophilus and Pasteurella
Haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus ducreyi and Haemophilus aegyptius
4.19 Other gram-negative rod bacteria
4.20 Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Spirillum
Helicobacter pylori
Spirillum minus
4.21 Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Burkholderia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Other Pseudomonas species, Stenotrophomonas and Burkholderia
4.22 Legionella (legionnaire's disease)
4.23 Brucella, Bordetella, Francisella
Brucella (brucellosis, Bang disease)
Bordetella (whooping cough, pertussis)
Francisella tularensis (tularemia)
4.24 Bacteroidaceae
4.25 Treponema (syphilis, yaws, pinta)
Treponema pallidum, subsp. pallidum (syphilis)
Treponema pallidum, subsp. endemicum (nonvenereal syphilis)
Treponema pallidum, subsp. pertenue (yaws)
Treponema carateum (pinta)
4.26 Borrelia (relapsing fever, Lyme disease, borreliosis)
Borrelia that cause relapsing fevers
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
4.27 Leptospira (leptospirosis, Weil's syndrome)
4.28 Rickettsia, Coxiella, Orientia and Ehrlichia
(typhus, spotted fever, Q fever, ehrlichioses)
4.29 Bartonella and Afipia
Afipia felis
4.30 Chlamydia
Overview and general characteristics of chlamydiae
Chlamydia psittaci (ornithosis, psittacosis)
Chlamydia trachomatis (trachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum)
Chlamydia pneumoniae
4.31 Mycoplasma
4.32 Nosocomial infections
Pathogens, infections, frequency
Sources of infection, transmission pathways
III Mycology
5 General Mycology 
F. H. Kayser
5.1 General characteristics of fungi
5.1.1 Definition and taxonomy
5.1.2 Morphology
5.1.3 Metabolism
5.1.4 Reproduction in fungi
5.2 General aspects of fungal disease
5.2.1 Fungal allergies and fungal toxicoses
Mycogenic allergies
5.2.2 Mycoses
6 Fungi as pathogens
F. H. Kayser
6.1 Primary mycoses
Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis)
Coccidioides immitis (coccidioidomycosis)
Blastomyces dermatitidis (North American blastomycosis)
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (South American blastomycosis)
6.2 Opportunistic mycoses (OM)
Candida (soor)
Aspergillus (aspergillosis)
Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis)
Mucor, Absidia, Rhizopus (mucormycoses)
Phaeohyphomycetes, hyalohyphomycetes, opportunistic yeasts, Penicillium marneffei
Pneumocystis carinii (pneumocystosis)
6.3 Subcutaneous mycoses
6.4 Cutaneous mycoses
Dermatophytes (dermatomycoses or dermatophytoses)
Other cutaneous mycoses
IV Virology
7 General Virology
K. A. Bienz
7.1 Definition
7.2 Morphology and structure
7.3 Classification
7.4 Replication
7.5 Viral protein synthesis
7.6 Genetics
7.7 Host cell reactions
7.7.1 Cell destruction (cytocidal infection, necrosis)
7.7.2 Virus replication without cell destruction (noncytocidal infection)
7.7.3 Latent infection
7.7.4 Tumor transformation
Carcinogenic retroviruses ("oncoviruses")
DNA tumor viruses
7.8 Pathogenesis
7.9 Defense mechanisms
7.9.1 Nonspecific immune defenses
7.9.2 Specific immune defenses
7.10 Prevention
7.11 Chemotherapy
7.12 Laboratory diagnosis
7.12.1 Virus isolation by culturing
7.12.2 Direct virus detection
Virus detection following biochemical amplification
7.12.3 Serodiagnosis
8 Viruses as pathogens
K. A. Bienz
8.1 DNA viruses
8.1.1 Viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes
Parvo viruses
8.1.2 Viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes
Papilloma viruses
Polyoma viruses
Adeno viruses
Herpes viruses
Pox viruses
Hepadna viruses: hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus
8.2 RNA viruses
8.2.1 Viruses with single-stranded RNA genomes, sense strand orientation
Picorna viruses
Astro and calici viruses; hepatitis E
Astro viruses
Calici viruses
Hepatitis E viruses
Toga viruses
Flavi viruses
Corona viruses
Retro viruses
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV)
8.2.2 Viruses with double-stranded RNA genomes
8.2.3 Viruses with single-stranded RNA genomes, antisense strand orientation
Filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola viruses)
8.3 Subviral pathogens: viroids and prions
V Parasitology
9 Protozoa
J. Eckert
9.1 Giardia intestinalis
9.2 Trichomonas vaginalis
9.3 Trypanosoma
9.4 Leishmania
9.5 Entamoeba histolytica and other intestinal amoebas
9.6 Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia
9.7 Toxoplasma gondii
9.8 Isospora
9.9 Cyclospora cayetanensis
9.10 Sarcocystis
9.11 Cryptosporidium
9.12 Plasmodium
9.13 Babesia
9.14 Microsporidia
9.15 Balantidium coli
10 Helminths
10.1 Platyhelminths
10.1.1 Trematoda (flukes)
Schistosoma (blood flukes)
Fasciola species
Opisthorchis and Clonorchis
(cat liver fluke, Chinese liver fluke)
Paragonimus (lung fluke)
10.1.2 Cestoda (tapeworms)
Taenia species
10.2 Nematoda (roundworms)
10.2.1 Intestinal nematodes
Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm)
Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
Ancylostoma and Necator (hookworms)
10.2.2 Nematodal infections of tissues and the vascular system
Filarioidea (filariae)
Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia species
Mansonella species
10.2.3 Infections caused by nematodal larvae
Larva migrans externa or cutaneous larva migrans (CLM)
("creeping eruption")
Larva migrans interna or
visceral larva migrans (VLM)
11 Arthropods
J. Eckert
11.1 Arachnea
Ticks (Ixodida)
11.2 Insects
Lice (Anoplurida)
True bugs (Heteroptera)
Mosquitoes and flies (Nematocera and Brachycera)
Fleas (Siphonaterida)
Appendix to chapters 9-11
Transporting specimens to the laboratory
Bronchial specimens
Detection by culturing
Material for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay
Methods of immunodiagnostics and molecular diagnostics
VI Organ system infections
12 Etiological and laboratory diagnostic summaries in tabular form
F.H. Kayser, J. Eckert and K.A. Bienz
Upper respiratory tract
Lower respiratory tract
Urogenital tract
Genital tract (venereal diseases)
Gastrointestinal tract
Digestive glands and peritoneal space
Nervous system
Cardiovascular system
Hematopoietic and lymphoreticular system
Skin and subcutaneous connective tissue (local or systemic infections with mainly cutaneous manifestation)
Locomotor system
Eyes and ears

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Medical microbiology.