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TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 1 Principles of Atomic Physics Preface page 1. Nuclear systematics (4 Figures) 1.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 1.2 The internal structure of atoms a. Nuclear systematics b. Atomic weights of the elements c. Binding energy of the nucleus d. Nuclear stability and abundance 1.3 Origin of the elements 1.4 Summary References 2. Decay modes of radionuclides 2.1 Beta decay Beta (negatron) decay Positron decay Electron capture decay Branched beta decay Energy profiles of isobaric sections 2.2 Alpha decay a. Parent-daughter relations b. Alpha-recoil energy c. Decay-scheme diagrams 2.3 Spontaneous and induced fission Spontaneous fission Induced fission 2.4 Summary References 3. Radioactive decay 3.1 Law of radioactivity 3.2 Radiation detectors Geiger-Müller counters Scintillation counters 3.3 Growth of radioactive daughters Decay to an unstable daughter Secular equilibrium 3.4 Units of radioactivity and dose 3.5 Medical effects of ionizing radiation 3.6 Sources of environmental radioactivity 3.7 Nuclear reactions 3.8 Neutron activation analysis 3.9 Summary References 4. Geochronometry 4.1 Growth of radiogenic daughters 4.2 Assumptions for dating Closed system Decay constants Initial abundance of radiogenic daughters Isochrons Terminology 4.3 Fitting of isochrons Unweighted regressions Weighted regressions Goodness of fit 4.4 Mass spectrometry and isotope dilution Principles of mass spectrometry Equations of motion of ions Ion microprobes Tandem accelerator mass spectrometers Isotope dilution analysis 4.5 Summary References Part 2 Radiogenic Isotope Geochronometers 5. The Rb-Sr method 5.1 Geochemistry of Rb and Sr 5.2 Principles of dating Fractionation correction Interlaboratory isotope standards Rb-Sr dates of minerals 5.3 Rb-Sr isochrons Mesozoic granite plutons of Nigeria Stony and iron meteorites Martian meteorites Lunar rocks 5.4 Dating metamorphic rocks Isotopic homogenization Carn Chuineag granite, Scotland Amitsoq gneiss, southwest Greenland La Gorce Formation, Wisconsin Range, Antarctica 5.5 Dating sedimentary rocks Geologic timescales Glauconite Authigenic feldspar Detrital minerals Bentonite and tuff Shale 5.6 Summary References Rb-Sr dating Meteorites (stones and irons) Martian meteorites Lunar rocks Dating metamorphic rocks Geologic timescales Glauconite Authigenic feldspar Detrital minerals Bentonite and tuff Shale 6. The K-Ar method 6.1 Principles and methodology 6.2 Retention of 40Ar Idaho Springs gneiss, Colorado Snowbank stock, Minnesota Excess 40Ar 6.3 K-Ar isochrons 6.4 Volcanic rocks of Tertiary age Rate of motion of the Hawaiian Islands Magnetic-reversal chronology Argon from the mantle 6.5 Dating sedimentary rocks Shale Bentonite and pyroclastics Volcanogenic minerals Metasedimentary rocks 6.6 Metamorphic veil Idaho batholith Continental crust 6.7 Precambrian timescales 6.8 Summary References Principles and methodology Retention of 40Ar Excess 40Ar K-Ar isochrons Rate of motion of the Hawaiian Islands Magnetic reversal chronology Argon in the mantle Dating sedimentary rocks (shale and bentonite) Volcanogenic minerals in sedimentary rocks Metasedimentary rocks and metamorphic veils Precambrians timescales 7. The 40Ar*/39Ar method 7.1 Principles and methodology 7.2 Incremental heating technique Marble Mountains, California Diabase dikes in Liberia, West Africa 7.3 Excess 40Ar a. Kola Peninsula, Russia b. Anorthoclase, Mt. Erebus, Antarctica 7.4 Argon-isotope correlation diagram Portage Lake Volcanics, Michigan Change of decay constant Lunar basalt and orange glass 7.5 Laser ablation Dating meteorite-impact craters Sanidine crystals, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming Intercalibrations 7.6 Sedimentary rocks Loss of 39Ar by recoil Glauconite and illite 7.7 Metasedimentary rocks Meguma Group, Nova Scotia Barberton greenstone belt, Swaziland, South Africa Dating low-K minerals 7.8 Metamorphic rocks: Broken Hill, N.S.W., Australia 7.9 Thermochronometry: Haliburton Highlands, Ontario, Canada 7.10 Summary References Principles and methodology Marble Mountains, California Diabase dikes, Liberia, West Africa Excess 40Ar Ultramafic rocks, Kola Peninsula, Russia Anorthoclase, Mt. Erebus, Antarctica Argon-isotope correlation diagram Portage Lake Volcanics, Michigan Lunar basalt and meteorites Laser ablation Meteorite-impact craters Sanidine Intercalibrations Sedimentary rocks Metasedimentary rocks Meguma Group, Nova Scotia, Canada Barberton greenstone belt, Swaziland, South Africa Low-K minerals Broken Hill, N.S.W., Australia Thermochronometry 8. The K-Ca method 8.1 Principles and methodology Pikes Peak granite, Colorado Lunar granite 8.2 Isotope geochemistry of calcium Radiogenic 40Ca in terrestrial rocks Mass-dependent isotope fractionation Isotope anomalies in the solar nebula 8.3 Summary References Principles and methodology Pikes Peak granite, Colorado Lunar granite Radiogenic 40Ca in terrestrial rocks Mass-dependent isotope fractionation Isotope anomalies in the solar nebula 9. The Sm-Nd method 9.1 Geochemistry of Sm and Nd 9.2 Principles and methodology Isotope fractionation Model dates based on CHUR Isotope standards Epsilon notation 9.3 Dating by the Sm-Nd method Onverwacht Group, South Africa Growth of the continental crust 9.4 Meteorites and Martian rocks 9.5 Lunar rocks 9.6 Summary References Principles and methodology Sm-Nd dates of metavolcanic rocks Growth of the continental crust Meteorites and lunar rocks 10. The U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb methods 10.1 Geochemistry of U and Th 10.2 Decay of U and Th isotopes 10.3 Principles and methodology 10.4 U-Pb and Th-Pb dating of minerals 10.5 Wetherill's concordia a. Gain or loss of U and Pb b. Morton gneiss, Minnesota c. U-Th-Pb concordia diagrams 10.6 Alternative Pb-loss models a. Continuous diffusion b. Dilatancy model c. Chemical weathering Cores and overgrowths 10.7 Refinements of analytical methods Purification of zircon grains SHRIMP LA-ICP-MS EMP 10.8 Dating detrital zircon grains Potsdam sandstone, New York Pontiac sandstone, Abitibi belt, Ontario/Quebec 10.9 Tera-Wasserburg concordia Lunar basalt 14053 Other applications of the T-W concordia 10.10 U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb isochrons (Granite Mountains, Wyoming) U, Th-Pb isochrons Pb-Pb isochrons 10.11 Pb-Pb dating of carbonate rocks Marine geochemistry of U, Th, and Pb Mushandike limestone, Zimbabwe Transvaal dolomite, South Africa 10.12 U-Pb and Th-Pb dating of carbonate rocks Lucas Formation (Middle Devonian), Ontario Zn-Pb deposits, Tri-State District, USA Speleothems of Quaternary age 10.13 Summary References Geochemistry and principles U-Pb and Th-Pb dating of minerals Wetherill's concordia and Pb-loss models Purification of zircon grains SHRIMP LA-ICP-MS EMP Dating individual zircon grains Tera-Wasserburg concordia U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb isochrons (silicate rocks) Pb-Pb and U-Pb isochrons (carbonate rocks) 11. The common-lead method 11.1 The Holmes-Houtermans model Decay of U to Pb Decay of Th to Pb Analytical methods Primeval Pb in meteorites The age of meteorites and the Earth 11.2 Dating common lead The geochron Dating single-stage leads Lead from Cobalt, Ontario Limitations of the single-stage model The Stacey-Kramers model Balmat, St. Lawrence County, New York 11.3 Dating K-feldspar 11.4 Anomalous leads in galena Two-stage model dates Instantaneous growth of radiogenic Pb Continuous growth of radiogenic Pb Pb-Pb isochrons Thorogenic Pb Unresolved issues 11.5 Lead-zinc deposits, SE Missouri Pb in the ore minerals Pb in pyrite Synthesis 11.6 Multi-stage leads 11.7 Summary References Holmes-Houtermans model Analytical methods Primeval Pb in meteorites Dating common Pb in galena Dating K-feldspar Anomalous Pb in ore deposits Pb-Zn deposits, southeastern Missouri 12. The Lu-Hf method 12.1 Geochemistry of Lu and Hf 12.2 Principles and methodology 12.3 CHUR and epsilon 12.4 Model Hf dates derived from CHUR 12.5 Applications of Lu-Hf dating Amitsoq Gneiss, Godthåb area, West Greenland Detrital zircons, Mt. Narryer, Western Australia 12.6 Summary References Geochemistry and methodology CHUR, epsilon, and model dates Applications 13. The Re-Os method 13.1 Rhenium and Osmium in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Rocks 13.2 Principles and methodology 13.3 Molybdenite and 187Re - 187Os isochrons Molybdenite 187Re - 187Os isochrons Chromite 13.4 Meteorites and CHUR-Os Iron meteorites Chondrites CHUR-Os and gamma-Os Model dates 13.5 The Cu-Ni Sulfide ores, Noril'sk, Siberia 13.6 Origin of other sulfide ore deposits 13.7 Metallic PGE minerals 13.8 Gold deposits of the Witwatersrand, South Africa Osmiridium Gold Pyrite The solution to the problem 13.9 The Pt-Os method 13.10 Summary References Principles and methodology Molybdenite, chromite, and 187Re-187Os isochrons Meteorites and CHUR-Os Noril'sk and other sulfide deposits Gold and osmiridium, Witwatersrand, S. Africa The Pt-Os method 14. The La-Ce method 14.1 Geochemistry of La and Ce 14.2 Principles and methodology 14.3 La-Ce isochrons Bushveld Complex, South Africa Lewisian gneiss, Scotland 14.4 Meteorites and CHUR-Ce 14.5 Volcanic rocks 14.6 Cerium in the oceans Ferromanganese nodules Chert Model dates for chert Seawater 14.7 Summary References 15. The La-Ba method 15.1 Geochemistry and La and Ba 15.2 Principles and methodology 15.3 Amitsoq gneiss, West Greenland 15.4 Mustikkamäki pegmatite, Finland 15.5 Summary References Part 3 Geochemistry of Radiogenic Isotopes 16. Mixing Theory 16.1 Chemical compositions of mixtures Two-component mixtures Sequential two-component mixtures Three-component mixtures 16.2 Isotopic mixtures of Sr 16.3 Isotopic mixtures of Sr and Nd 16.4 Three-component isotopic mixtures 16.5 Water-rock interactions 16.6 Applications North Channel, Lake Huron, Canada Detrital silicate sediment, Red Sea Fictiteous Rb-Sr isochrons Potassic lavas, Toro-Ankole, East Africa 16.7 Summary References 17. Origin of Igneous Rocks 17.1 The plume theory 17.2 Magma sources in the mantle 17.3 Mid-ocean ridge basalt Plumes of the Azores Undifferentiated mantle reservoir of Sr 17.4 Basalt and rhyolite of Iceland Iceland and the Reykjanes Ridge Lead in Iceland Basalt Mixing of Sr and Pb Origin of rhyolites History of the Iceland plume 17.5 The Hawaiian Islands Isotopic mixtures of Sr, Nd, and Pb Hafnium in basalt of Oahu Osmium in Hawaiian basalt 17.6 HIMU magma sources of Polynesia 17.7 Subduction zones Mariana Islands Andes of Peru Ignimbrites 17.8 Continental flood basalts Columbia River, USA Paraná basalt, Brazil 17.9 Alkali-rich lavas Central Italy Leucite Hills, Wyoming, USA 17.10 Origin of granite Batholiths of California Genetic classifications of granites 17.11 Summary References Plumes and magma sources Azores Iceland Hawaiian Islands Polynesia Mariana Islands Andes of South America Columbia River basalt, USA Paraná basalt, Brazil Akali-rich lavas, Italy and Wyoming Origin of granite 18. Water and Sediment 18.1 Strontium in streams Rivers, Precambrian shield, Canada Groundwater, Precambrian shield, Canada 18.2 Sediment in streams Murray River, N.S.W., Australia Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada 18.3 Zaire and Amazon Rivers Strontium and neodymium in water and sediment Confluence at Manaus, Brazil Model dates of sediment, Amazon River Lead isotopes, Zaire and Amazon Implications for petrogenesis 18.4 Summary References Geochemistry of lakes and streams Rivers of Canada and the world Sediment, Murray and Fraser rivers Zaire and Amazon rivers 19. The Oceans 19.1 Strontium in the Phanerozoic oceans Present-day seawater Phanerozoic carbonates Mixing models Sr chronometry (Cenozoic Era) The Cambrian explosion 19.2 Strontium in the Precambrian oceans Late Proterozoic carbonates Snowball Earth glaciation Early Proterozoic and Archean carbonates 19.3 Neodymium in the oceans Continental run-off Mixing of Nd in the Baltic Sea Present-day seawater Ferromanganese nodules and crusts Water-rock interaction (ophiolites) 19.4 Lead in the oceans Sorption of Pb2+ by oxyhydroxide particles Aerosols and eolian dust Seawater and snow Ferromanganese nodules and crusts 19.5 Osmium in continental run-off Rivers Soils Lacustrine Fe-Mn deposits Anthropogenic contamination 19.6 Osmium in the oceans Seawater Meteoritic dust Fe - Mn deposits Isotopic evolution (Cenozoic) 19.7 Hafnium in the oceans Terrestrial Hf-Nd array Rivers and seawater Recent ferromanganese nodules Secular variation 19.8 Summary References Sr in Phanerozoic carbonates Sr in Precambrian carbonates Nd: environmental geochemistry Nd in ferromanganese deposits Pb: environmental geochemistry Pb in ferromanganese deposits Osmium Hafnium Part 4 Short-Lived Radionuclides 20. Uranium/thorium-series disequilibria 20.1 238U-234U-230Th series geochronometers The 230Th/232Th method Sedimentation rate in the oceans The 234U-230Th method 238U-234U disequilibrium 230Th with 234U/238U disequilibrium Coral terraces on Barbados 20.2 Radium a. The 226Ra-Ba method The 228Ra-228Th method The 228Ra/226Ra method Isotope geochemistry of Ra 20.3 Protactinium The 230Th/231Pa method Rosholt's 230Th/231Pa geochronometer Carbonates 231Pa-230Th concordia 20.4 Lead-210 Sorption by soil Seawater Lake Rockwell, Ohio Snow in Antarctica 20.5 Archeology and Anthropology Homo erectus The Mojokerto child Neandertals and Homo sapiens Speleothems and travertine 20.6 Volcanic rocks Dating with 230Th Age of the Olby-Laschamp Event Dating with 231Pa 20.7 Magma Formation MORBs and OIBs Oceanic and continental andesites Carbonatites Applications to petrogenesis 20.8 Summary References U-series disequilibrium dating Radium Protactinium Lead - 210 Archeology/anthropology Volcanic rocks 21. Helium and Tritium 21.1 U-Th/He method of dating Geochronometry equation Diffusion of He in minerals 21.2 Thermochronometry a. Otway basin, South Australia Mt. Whitney, Sierra Nevada Mountains 21.3 He-dating of iron-ore deposits 21.4 Tritium- 3He dating Production and decay of tritium Thermonuclear tritium Dating water (cosmogenic tritium) Traveltime of water in confined aquifers Tritiogenic helium Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, New Jersey 21.5 Meteorites and oceanic basalt Cosmogenic 3He Meteorites Oceanic basalt 21.6 Continental crust Ultramafic inclusions and basalt Diamonds Effect of tectonic age on He in groundwater Geothermal systems Geothermal He, New Zealand 21.7. Summary References Historical review Diffusion of 4He in minerals Thermochronometry Iron ore Tritium-3He dating He in meteorites and basalt He in the continental crust 22. Radiation damage methods 22.1 Alpha decay Pleochroic haloes Alpha-recoil tracks 22.2 Fission tracks Methodology Assumptions Geochronometry Track fading and closure temperature Plateau dates Applications 22.3 Thermoluminescence Principles Methodology Applications 22.4 Electron spin resonance Principles Assumptions Methodology 22.5 Summary References Pleochroic haloes Alpha-recoil tracks Thermoluminescence Electron spin resonance Cosmogenic radionuclides 23.1 Carbon-14 (radiocarbon) Principles Assumptions Radiocarbon dates Secular variations Isotope fractionation Methodology Carbonates and water Applications 23.2 10Be and 26Al (atmospheric) Principles Deep-sea sediment Ferromanganese nodules Continental ice sheets 23.3 Exposure dating (10Be and 26Al) Quartz Erosion rates The crux of the problem 23.4. Cosmogenic and thermonuclear 36Cl Water and ice Exposure dating 23.5 Meteorites Irradiation ages Terrestrial ages 23.6 Other longlived cosmogenic radionuclides 23.7 Summary References Introduction Radiocarbon Deep-sea sediment and ferromanganese nodules (10Be and 26Al) Continental ice sheets (10Be and 26Al) Exposure dating of quartz (10Be and 26Al) Exposure dating (36Cl) Meteorites 24. Extinct Radionuclides 24.1 The Pd-Ag chronometer 24.2. The Al-Mg chronometer 24.3 The Hf-W chronometer 24.4 FUN in the solar system 24.5 Summary References Introduction Pd-Ag chronometer Al-Mg chronometer Hf-W chronometer FUN isotope anomalies 25. Thermonuclear radionuclides 25.1 Fission products and transuranium elements Fission products Transuranium elements Disposal of radwaste (Yucca Mountain, Nevada) Reactor accidents: Chernobyl, Ukraine 25.2 Strontium- 90 in the environment Global distribution (90Sr) Oceans Human diet 25.3 Cesium-137 in the environment Human diet Soil and plants Lake sediment 25.4 Arctic Ocean (90Sr/137Cs, 239, 240Pu and 241Am) 25.5 Summary References Fission-product radionuclides and transuranium elements Yucca Mountain, Nevada Chernobyl Global distribution of 90Sr 90Sr in human diet and bones 137Cs in soil, plants, and lakes Arctic Ocean: 137Cs, 90Sr, 239, 240Pu, and 241Am Part 5 Fractionation of Stable Isotopes 26. Hydrogen and oxygen 26.1 Atomic properties 26.2 Mathematical relations 26.3 Meteoric precipitation Temperature-dependence of fractionation The Rayleigh equations Meteoric-water line Climate records in ice cores 26.4 Paleothermometry based on Ca carbonate Principles Assumptions Oxygen-isotope stratigraphy 26.5 Silicate minerals and rocks Basalt and the mantle Thermometry of silicates and oxides 26.6 Water-rock interactions (rocks) Fossil hydrothermal systems Hydrothermal ore deposits 26.7 Water-rock interactions (water) Hotsprings and geysers Mixing of water Oilfield brines, USA and Canada Saline minewaters 26.8. Clay minerals 26.9 Marine carbonates 26.10 Marine phosphates Paleothermometry Fishbones Mammalian bones Phosphorites 26.11 Biogenic silica and hydroxides of Fe and Al 26.12 Chert (Phanerozoic and Precambrian) 26.13 Extraterrestrial rocks Meteorites Martian rocks Moon Nucleosynthesis of O isotopes 26.14 Summary References a. General Isotope fractionation Meteoric precipitation Ice Cores Paleothermometry (carbonates) Silicates: basalt and the mantle Thermometry of silicates and oxides Water-rock interactions (rocks) Water-rock interactions (water) Clay minerals Marine carbonate rocks Marine phosphates Biogenic silica and hydroxides of Fe and Al Extraterrestrial rocks 27. Carbon 27.1 Biosphere Carbon dioxide Green plants Life in extreme environments 27.2. Life in Precambrian oceans Carbon isotopes in Precambrian kerogen Hydrogen isotopes in thermophilic organisms Signs of life at 3.8 Ga 27.3 Carbon-isotope stratigraphy Isotope fractionation Carbonate rocks Frasnian-Famennian Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian 27.4 Fossil fuel Bituminous coal Petroleum and natural gas 27.5 Precambrian carbonates Carbon-isotope excursions Snowball Earth 27.6 Igneous and metamorphic rocks Volcanic gases Volcanic rocks Graphite and calcite Greek marbles Diamonds Carbonatites 27.7 Extraterrestrial carbon Stony meteorites Iron metorites Lunar carbon 27.8 Search for life on Mars Martian meteorites ALH 84001 27.9 Summary References Introduction and carbon dioxide Plants in normal and extreme environments Organic matter in Precambrian rocks (C and H) Fossil fuel Carbon-isotope stratigraphy (Phanerozoic) Precambrian carbonates Snowball Earth Volcanic rocks and gases Graphite and calcite Greek marbles Diamonds Carbonatites Meteorites Moon Mars 28. Nitrogen 28.1 Geochemistry 28.2 Isotope fractionation 28.3 Nitrogen on the surface of the Earth 28.4 Fossil fuel 28.5 Igneous rocks and the mantle 28.6 Ultramafic xenoliths 28.7 Diamonds 28.8 Meteorites 28.9 Moon 28.10 Mars 28.11 Summary References 29. Sulfur 29.1 Isotope geochemistry 29.2 Biogenic isotope fractionation 29.3 Sulfur in recent sediment 29.4 Fossil fuels Petroleum Coal 29.5 Native sulfur deposits 29.6 Sedimentary rocks of Precambrian age 29.7 Isotopic evolution of marine sulfate 29.8 Igneous rocks Contamination Alteration by seawater Outgassing of SO2 29.9 Sulfide ore deposits a. Isotope fractionation among sulfide minerals b. Isotope fractionation in ore-forming fluids 29.10 Sulfur in the environment 29.11 Mass-independent isotope fractionation 29.12 Summary References Isotope geochemistry Biogenic isotope fractionation Recent sediment Fossil fuels Native sulfur in salt domes Precambrian sedimentary rocks Phanerozoic marine sulfate Igneous rocks Sulfide minerals Environmental sulfur Sulfate in soil and desert varnish 30. Boron and other elements 30.1 Boron Geochemistry Isotopic composition Meteorites Summary References Terrestrial rocks Meteorites 30.2 Lithium Geochemistry Isotope composition Summary References 30.3 Silicon 1. Geochemistry 2. Isotope composition 3. Terrestrial rocks 4. Marine diatoms 5. Aqueous isotope geochemistry 6. Extraterrestrial rocks 7. Summary References 30.4 Chlorine 1. Geochemistry 2. Isotope geochemistry 3. Summary References 30.5 Postscript Author Index Subject index Appendix: Geological timescale
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Isotope geology