Table of contents for Isotopes : principles and applications.


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	TABLE OF CONTENTS
	Part 1
	Principles of Atomic Physics
Preface	page
1.	Nuclear systematics (4 Figures)	
 
1.1	Discovery of Radioactivity	
 
1.2	The internal structure of atoms	
a.	Nuclear systematics
b.	Atomic weights of the elements
c.	Binding energy of the nucleus
d.	Nuclear stability and abundance
1.3	Origin of the elements	
1.4	Summary	
 
References	
2.	Decay modes of radionuclides	
2.1	Beta decay	
Beta (negatron) decay
Positron decay
Electron capture decay
Branched beta decay
Energy profiles of isobaric sections
2.2	Alpha decay	
a.	Parent-daughter relations
b.	Alpha-recoil energy
c.	Decay-scheme diagrams
2.3	Spontaneous and induced fission	
Spontaneous fission
Induced fission
2.4	Summary	
References	
3.	Radioactive decay	
3.1	Law of radioactivity	
3.2	Radiation detectors	
Geiger-Müller counters
Scintillation counters
3.3	Growth of radioactive daughters	
Decay to an unstable daughter
Secular equilibrium
3.4	Units of radioactivity and dose	
3.5	Medical effects of ionizing radiation	
3.6	Sources of environmental radioactivity	
3.7	Nuclear reactions	
3.8	Neutron activation analysis	
3.9	Summary	
References	
4.	Geochronometry 	
4.1	Growth of radiogenic daughters	
4.2	Assumptions for dating	
Closed system
Decay constants
Initial abundance of radiogenic daughters
Isochrons
Terminology
4.3	Fitting of isochrons	
Unweighted regressions
Weighted regressions
Goodness of fit
4.4	Mass spectrometry and isotope dilution	
Principles of mass spectrometry
Equations of motion of ions
Ion microprobes
Tandem accelerator mass spectrometers
Isotope dilution analysis
4.5	Summary	
References	
	Part 2
	Radiogenic Isotope Geochronometers
5.	The Rb-Sr method	
5.1	Geochemistry of Rb and Sr	
5.2	Principles of dating	
Fractionation correction
Interlaboratory isotope standards
Rb-Sr dates of minerals
5.3	Rb-Sr isochrons	
Mesozoic granite plutons of Nigeria
Stony and iron meteorites
Martian meteorites
Lunar rocks
5.4	Dating metamorphic rocks	
Isotopic homogenization
Carn Chuineag granite, Scotland
Amitsoq gneiss, southwest Greenland
La Gorce Formation, Wisconsin Range, Antarctica
5.5	Dating sedimentary rocks	
Geologic timescales
Glauconite
Authigenic feldspar
Detrital minerals
Bentonite and tuff
Shale
5.6	Summary	
References	
Rb-Sr dating
Meteorites (stones and irons)
Martian meteorites
Lunar rocks
Dating metamorphic rocks
Geologic timescales
Glauconite
Authigenic feldspar
Detrital minerals
Bentonite and tuff
Shale
6. The K-Ar method	
6.1	Principles and methodology	
6.2	Retention of 40Ar	
Idaho Springs gneiss, Colorado
Snowbank stock, Minnesota
Excess 40Ar
6.3	K-Ar isochrons	
6.4	Volcanic rocks of Tertiary age	
Rate of motion of the Hawaiian Islands
Magnetic-reversal chronology
Argon from the mantle
6.5	Dating sedimentary rocks	
Shale
Bentonite and pyroclastics
Volcanogenic minerals
Metasedimentary rocks
6.6	Metamorphic veil	
Idaho batholith
Continental crust
6.7	Precambrian timescales	
6.8	Summary	
References	
Principles and methodology
Retention of 40Ar
Excess 40Ar
K-Ar isochrons
Rate of motion of the Hawaiian Islands
Magnetic reversal chronology
Argon in the mantle
Dating sedimentary rocks (shale and bentonite)
Volcanogenic minerals in sedimentary rocks
Metasedimentary rocks and metamorphic veils
Precambrians timescales
7. The 40Ar*/39Ar method	
7.1	Principles and methodology	
7.2	Incremental heating technique	
Marble Mountains, California
Diabase dikes in Liberia, West Africa
7.3	Excess 40Ar	
a.	Kola Peninsula, Russia
b.	Anorthoclase, Mt. Erebus, Antarctica
7.4	Argon-isotope correlation diagram	
Portage Lake Volcanics, Michigan
Change of decay constant
Lunar basalt and orange glass
7.5	Laser ablation	
Dating meteorite-impact craters
Sanidine crystals, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming
Intercalibrations
7.6	Sedimentary rocks	
Loss of 39Ar by recoil
Glauconite and illite
7.7	Metasedimentary rocks	
Meguma Group, Nova Scotia
Barberton greenstone belt, Swaziland, South Africa
Dating low-K minerals
7.8	Metamorphic rocks: Broken Hill, N.S.W., Australia	
7.9	Thermochronometry: Haliburton Highlands, Ontario, Canada	
7.10	Summary	
References	
Principles and methodology
Marble Mountains, California
Diabase dikes, Liberia, West Africa
Excess 40Ar
Ultramafic rocks, Kola Peninsula, Russia
Anorthoclase, Mt. Erebus, Antarctica
Argon-isotope correlation diagram
Portage Lake Volcanics, Michigan
Lunar basalt and meteorites
Laser ablation
Meteorite-impact craters
Sanidine
Intercalibrations
Sedimentary rocks
Metasedimentary rocks
Meguma Group, Nova Scotia, Canada
Barberton greenstone belt, Swaziland, South Africa
Low-K minerals
Broken Hill, N.S.W., Australia
Thermochronometry
8. The K-Ca method	
8.1	Principles and methodology	
Pikes Peak granite, Colorado
Lunar granite
8.2	Isotope geochemistry of calcium	
Radiogenic 40Ca in terrestrial rocks
Mass-dependent isotope fractionation
Isotope anomalies in the solar nebula
8.3	Summary	
References	
Principles and methodology
Pikes Peak granite, Colorado
Lunar granite
Radiogenic 40Ca in terrestrial rocks
Mass-dependent isotope fractionation
Isotope anomalies in the solar nebula
9. The Sm-Nd method	
9.1	Geochemistry of Sm and Nd	
9.2	Principles and methodology	
Isotope fractionation
Model dates based on CHUR
Isotope standards
Epsilon notation
9.3	Dating by the Sm-Nd method	
Onverwacht Group, South Africa
Growth of the continental crust
9.4	Meteorites and Martian rocks	
9.5	Lunar rocks	
9.6	Summary	
References	
Principles and methodology
Sm-Nd dates of metavolcanic rocks
Growth of the continental crust
Meteorites and lunar rocks
10. The U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb methods	
10.1	Geochemistry of U and Th	
10.2	Decay of U and Th isotopes	
10.3	Principles and methodology	
10.4	U-Pb and Th-Pb dating of minerals	
10.5	Wetherill's concordia	
a.	Gain or loss of U and Pb
b.	Morton gneiss, Minnesota
c.	U-Th-Pb concordia diagrams
10.6	Alternative Pb-loss models	
a.	Continuous diffusion
b.	Dilatancy model
c.	Chemical weathering
Cores and overgrowths
10.7	Refinements of analytical methods	
Purification of zircon grains
SHRIMP
LA-ICP-MS
EMP
 
10.8	Dating detrital zircon grains	
Potsdam sandstone, New York
Pontiac sandstone, Abitibi belt, Ontario/Quebec
10.9 Tera-Wasserburg concordia	
Lunar basalt 14053
Other applications of the T-W concordia
10.10 U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb isochrons (Granite Mountains, Wyoming)	
U, Th-Pb isochrons
Pb-Pb isochrons
10.11 Pb-Pb dating of carbonate rocks	
Marine geochemistry of U, Th, and Pb
Mushandike limestone, Zimbabwe
Transvaal dolomite, South Africa
10.12 U-Pb and Th-Pb dating of carbonate rocks	
Lucas Formation (Middle Devonian), Ontario
Zn-Pb deposits, Tri-State District, USA
Speleothems of Quaternary age
10.13 Summary	
References	
Geochemistry and principles
U-Pb and Th-Pb dating of minerals
Wetherill's concordia and Pb-loss models
Purification of zircon grains
SHRIMP
LA-ICP-MS
EMP
Dating individual zircon grains
Tera-Wasserburg concordia
U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb isochrons (silicate rocks)
Pb-Pb and U-Pb isochrons (carbonate rocks)
11. The common-lead method	
11.1	The Holmes-Houtermans model	
Decay of U to Pb
Decay of Th to Pb
Analytical methods
Primeval Pb in meteorites
The age of meteorites and the Earth
11.2	Dating common lead	
The geochron
Dating single-stage leads
Lead from Cobalt, Ontario
Limitations of the single-stage model
The Stacey-Kramers model
Balmat, St. Lawrence County, New York
11.3	Dating K-feldspar	
11.4	Anomalous leads in galena	
Two-stage model dates
Instantaneous growth of radiogenic Pb
Continuous growth of radiogenic Pb
Pb-Pb isochrons
Thorogenic Pb
Unresolved issues
11.5	Lead-zinc deposits, SE Missouri	
Pb in the ore minerals
Pb in pyrite
Synthesis
11.6	Multi-stage leads	
11.7	Summary	
References	
Holmes-Houtermans model
Analytical methods
Primeval Pb in meteorites
Dating common Pb in galena
Dating K-feldspar
Anomalous Pb in ore deposits
Pb-Zn deposits, southeastern Missouri
12. The Lu-Hf method	
12.1	Geochemistry of Lu and Hf	
12.2	Principles and methodology	
12.3	CHUR and epsilon	
12.4	Model Hf dates derived from CHUR	
12.5	Applications of Lu-Hf dating	
Amitsoq Gneiss, Godthåb area, West Greenland
Detrital zircons, Mt. Narryer, Western Australia
12.6	Summary	
References	
Geochemistry and methodology
CHUR, epsilon, and model dates
Applications
13. The Re-Os method	
13.1	Rhenium and Osmium in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Rocks	
13.2	Principles and methodology	
13.3	Molybdenite and 187Re - 187Os isochrons	
Molybdenite
187Re - 187Os isochrons
Chromite
13.4	Meteorites and CHUR-Os	
Iron meteorites
Chondrites
CHUR-Os and gamma-Os
Model dates
13.5	The Cu-Ni Sulfide ores, Noril'sk, Siberia	
13.6	Origin of other sulfide ore deposits	
13.7	Metallic PGE minerals	
13.8	Gold deposits of the Witwatersrand, South Africa	
Osmiridium
Gold
Pyrite
The solution to the problem
13.9	The Pt-Os method	
13.10	Summary	
References	
Principles and methodology
Molybdenite, chromite, and 187Re-187Os isochrons
Meteorites and CHUR-Os
Noril'sk and other sulfide deposits
Gold and osmiridium, Witwatersrand, S. Africa
The Pt-Os method
14. The La-Ce method	
14.1	Geochemistry of La and Ce	
14.2	Principles and methodology	
14.3	La-Ce isochrons	
Bushveld Complex, South Africa
Lewisian gneiss, Scotland
14.4	Meteorites and CHUR-Ce	
14.5	Volcanic rocks	
14.6	Cerium in the oceans	
Ferromanganese nodules
Chert
Model dates for chert
Seawater
14.7	Summary	
References	
15. The La-Ba method	
15.1	Geochemistry and La and Ba	
15.2	Principles and methodology	
15.3	Amitsoq gneiss, West Greenland	
15.4	Mustikkamäki pegmatite, Finland	
15.5	Summary	
References	
	Part 3
	Geochemistry of Radiogenic Isotopes
16. Mixing Theory	
16.1	Chemical compositions of mixtures	
Two-component mixtures
Sequential two-component mixtures
Three-component mixtures
16.2	Isotopic mixtures of Sr	
16.3	Isotopic mixtures of Sr and Nd	
16.4	Three-component isotopic mixtures	
16.5	Water-rock interactions	
16.6	Applications	
North Channel, Lake Huron, Canada
Detrital silicate sediment, Red Sea
Fictiteous Rb-Sr isochrons
Potassic lavas, Toro-Ankole, East Africa
16.7	Summary	
References	
17. Origin of Igneous Rocks	
17.1 The plume theory	
17.2	Magma sources in the mantle	
17.3	Mid-ocean ridge basalt	
Plumes of the Azores
Undifferentiated mantle reservoir of Sr
17.4	Basalt and rhyolite of Iceland	
Iceland and the Reykjanes Ridge
Lead in Iceland Basalt
Mixing of Sr and Pb
Origin of rhyolites
History of the Iceland plume
17.5	The Hawaiian Islands	
Isotopic mixtures of Sr, Nd, and Pb
Hafnium in basalt of Oahu
Osmium in Hawaiian basalt
17.6	HIMU magma sources of Polynesia	
17.7	Subduction zones	
Mariana Islands
Andes of Peru
Ignimbrites
17.8	Continental flood basalts	
Columbia River, USA
Paraná basalt, Brazil
17.9	Alkali-rich lavas	
Central Italy
Leucite Hills, Wyoming, USA
17.10	Origin of granite	
Batholiths of California
Genetic classifications of granites
17.11	Summary	
References	
Plumes and magma sources
Azores
Iceland
Hawaiian Islands
Polynesia
Mariana Islands
Andes of South America
Columbia River basalt, USA
Paraná basalt, Brazil
Akali-rich lavas, Italy and Wyoming
Origin of granite
18. Water and Sediment	
18.1	Strontium in streams	
Rivers, Precambrian shield, Canada
Groundwater, Precambrian shield, Canada
18.2	Sediment in streams	
Murray River, N.S.W., Australia
Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada
18.3	Zaire and Amazon Rivers	
Strontium and neodymium in water and sediment
Confluence at Manaus, Brazil
Model dates of sediment, Amazon River
Lead isotopes, Zaire and Amazon
Implications for petrogenesis
18.4	Summary	
References	
Geochemistry of lakes and streams
Rivers of Canada and the world
Sediment, Murray and Fraser rivers
Zaire and Amazon rivers
19. The Oceans	
19.1	Strontium in the Phanerozoic oceans	
Present-day seawater
Phanerozoic carbonates
Mixing models
Sr chronometry (Cenozoic Era)
The Cambrian explosion
19.2	Strontium in the Precambrian oceans	
Late Proterozoic carbonates
Snowball Earth glaciation
Early Proterozoic and Archean carbonates
19.3	Neodymium in the oceans	
Continental run-off
Mixing of Nd in the Baltic Sea
Present-day seawater
Ferromanganese nodules and crusts
Water-rock interaction (ophiolites)
19.4	Lead in the oceans	
Sorption of Pb2+ by oxyhydroxide particles
Aerosols and eolian dust
Seawater and snow
Ferromanganese nodules and crusts
19.5	Osmium in continental run-off	
Rivers
Soils
Lacustrine Fe-Mn deposits
Anthropogenic contamination
19.6	Osmium in the oceans	
Seawater
Meteoritic dust
Fe - Mn deposits
Isotopic evolution (Cenozoic)
19.7	Hafnium in the oceans	
Terrestrial Hf-Nd array
Rivers and seawater
Recent ferromanganese nodules
Secular variation 
19.8	Summary	
References	
Sr in Phanerozoic carbonates
Sr in Precambrian carbonates
Nd: environmental geochemistry
Nd in ferromanganese deposits
Pb: environmental geochemistry
Pb in ferromanganese deposits
Osmium
Hafnium
	Part 4
	Short-Lived Radionuclides
20. Uranium/thorium-series disequilibria	
20.1	238U-234U-230Th series geochronometers	
The 230Th/232Th method
Sedimentation rate in the oceans
The 234U-230Th method
238U-234U disequilibrium
230Th with 234U/238U disequilibrium
Coral terraces on Barbados
20.2	Radium	
a.	The 226Ra-Ba method
The 228Ra-228Th method
The 228Ra/226Ra method
Isotope geochemistry of Ra
20.3	Protactinium	
The 230Th/231Pa method
Rosholt's 230Th/231Pa geochronometer
Carbonates
231Pa-230Th concordia
20.4	Lead-210	
Sorption by soil
Seawater
Lake Rockwell, Ohio
Snow in Antarctica
20.5	Archeology and Anthropology	
Homo erectus
The Mojokerto child
Neandertals and Homo sapiens
Speleothems and travertine
20.6	Volcanic rocks	
Dating with 230Th
Age of the Olby-Laschamp Event
Dating with 231Pa
20.7	Magma Formation
MORBs and OIBs
Oceanic and continental andesites
Carbonatites
Applications to petrogenesis
20.8	Summary	
References	
U-series disequilibrium dating
Radium
Protactinium
Lead - 210
Archeology/anthropology
Volcanic rocks
21. Helium and Tritium	
21.1	U-Th/He method of dating	
Geochronometry equation
Diffusion of He in minerals
21.2	Thermochronometry	
a.	Otway basin, South Australia
Mt. Whitney, Sierra Nevada Mountains
21.3	He-dating of iron-ore deposits	
21.4	Tritium- 3He dating	
Production and decay of tritium
Thermonuclear tritium
Dating water (cosmogenic tritium)
Traveltime of water in confined aquifers
Tritiogenic helium
Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, New Jersey
21.5	Meteorites and oceanic basalt	
Cosmogenic 3He
Meteorites
Oceanic basalt
21.6	Continental crust	
Ultramafic inclusions and basalt
Diamonds
Effect of tectonic age on He in groundwater
Geothermal systems
Geothermal He, New Zealand
21.7.	Summary	
References	
Historical review
Diffusion of 4He in minerals
Thermochronometry
Iron ore
Tritium-3He dating
He in meteorites and basalt
He in the continental crust 
22. Radiation damage methods	
22.1	Alpha decay	
Pleochroic haloes
Alpha-recoil tracks
22.2	Fission tracks	
Methodology
Assumptions
Geochronometry
Track fading and closure temperature
Plateau dates
Applications
22.3	Thermoluminescence	
Principles
Methodology
Applications
22.4	Electron spin resonance	
Principles
Assumptions
Methodology
22.5	Summary	
References	
Pleochroic haloes
Alpha-recoil tracks
Thermoluminescence
Electron spin resonance
Cosmogenic radionuclides	
23.1	Carbon-14 (radiocarbon)	
Principles
Assumptions
Radiocarbon dates
Secular variations
Isotope fractionation
Methodology
Carbonates and water
Applications
23.2	10Be and 26Al (atmospheric)	
Principles
Deep-sea sediment
Ferromanganese nodules
Continental ice sheets
23.3	Exposure dating (10Be and 26Al)	
Quartz
Erosion rates
The crux of the problem
23.4.	Cosmogenic and thermonuclear 36Cl	
Water and ice 
Exposure dating
23.5	Meteorites	
Irradiation ages
Terrestrial ages
23.6	Other longlived cosmogenic radionuclides	
23.7	Summary	
References	
Introduction
Radiocarbon
Deep-sea sediment and ferromanganese nodules (10Be and 26Al)
Continental ice sheets (10Be and 26Al)
Exposure dating of quartz (10Be and 26Al)
Exposure dating (36Cl)
Meteorites
24. Extinct Radionuclides	
24.1	The Pd-Ag chronometer	
24.2.	The Al-Mg chronometer	
24.3	The Hf-W chronometer	
24.4	FUN in the solar system	
24.5	Summary	
References	
Introduction
Pd-Ag chronometer
Al-Mg chronometer
Hf-W chronometer
FUN isotope anomalies
25. Thermonuclear radionuclides	
25.1	Fission products and transuranium elements	
Fission products
Transuranium elements
Disposal of radwaste (Yucca Mountain, Nevada)
Reactor accidents: Chernobyl, Ukraine
25.2	Strontium- 90 in the environment	
Global distribution (90Sr)
Oceans
Human diet
25.3	Cesium-137 in the environment 	
Human diet
Soil and plants
Lake sediment
25.4	Arctic Ocean (90Sr/137Cs, 239, 240Pu and 241Am)	
25.5	Summary	
References	
Fission-product radionuclides and transuranium elements
Yucca Mountain, Nevada
Chernobyl
Global distribution of 90Sr
90Sr in human diet and bones
137Cs in soil, plants, and lakes
Arctic Ocean: 137Cs, 90Sr, 239, 240Pu, and 241Am
	Part 5
	Fractionation of Stable Isotopes
26. Hydrogen and oxygen	
26.1	Atomic properties	
26.2	Mathematical relations	
26.3	Meteoric precipitation	
Temperature-dependence of fractionation
The Rayleigh equations
Meteoric-water line
Climate records in ice cores
26.4	Paleothermometry based on Ca carbonate	
Principles
Assumptions
Oxygen-isotope stratigraphy
26.5	Silicate minerals and rocks	
Basalt and the mantle
Thermometry of silicates and oxides
26.6	Water-rock interactions (rocks)	
Fossil hydrothermal systems
Hydrothermal ore deposits
26.7	Water-rock interactions (water)	
Hotsprings and geysers
Mixing of water
Oilfield brines, USA and Canada
Saline minewaters
26.8.	Clay minerals	 
26.9	Marine carbonates	
 
26.10	Marine phosphates	
Paleothermometry
Fishbones
Mammalian bones
Phosphorites
26.11	Biogenic silica and hydroxides of Fe and Al	
26.12	Chert (Phanerozoic and Precambrian)	
26.13	Extraterrestrial rocks	
Meteorites
Martian rocks
Moon
Nucleosynthesis of O isotopes
26.14	Summary	
References	
a.	General
Isotope fractionation
Meteoric precipitation
Ice Cores
Paleothermometry (carbonates)
Silicates: basalt and the mantle
Thermometry of silicates and oxides
Water-rock interactions (rocks)
Water-rock interactions (water)
Clay minerals
Marine carbonate rocks
Marine phosphates
Biogenic silica and hydroxides of Fe and Al
Extraterrestrial rocks
27. Carbon	
27.1	Biosphere	
Carbon dioxide
Green plants 
Life in extreme environments
27.2.	Life in Precambrian oceans	
Carbon isotopes in Precambrian kerogen
Hydrogen isotopes in thermophilic organisms
Signs of life at 3.8 Ga
27.3	Carbon-isotope stratigraphy	
Isotope fractionation
Carbonate rocks
Frasnian-Famennian
Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian
27.4	Fossil fuel	
Bituminous coal
Petroleum and natural gas 
27.5	Precambrian carbonates	
Carbon-isotope excursions
Snowball Earth
27.6	Igneous and metamorphic rocks	
Volcanic gases
Volcanic rocks
Graphite and calcite
Greek marbles
Diamonds
Carbonatites
27.7	Extraterrestrial carbon	
Stony meteorites
Iron metorites
Lunar carbon
27.8	Search for life on Mars	
Martian meteorites
ALH 84001
27.9	Summary	
References	
Introduction and carbon dioxide
Plants in normal and extreme environments
Organic matter in Precambrian rocks (C and H)
Fossil fuel
Carbon-isotope stratigraphy (Phanerozoic)
Precambrian carbonates
Snowball Earth
Volcanic rocks and gases
Graphite and calcite
Greek marbles
Diamonds
Carbonatites
Meteorites
Moon
Mars
28. Nitrogen	
28.1	Geochemistry	
28.2	Isotope fractionation	
28.3	Nitrogen on the surface of the Earth	
28.4	Fossil fuel	
28.5	Igneous rocks and the mantle	
28.6	Ultramafic xenoliths	
28.7	Diamonds	
28.8	Meteorites	
28.9	Moon	
28.10	Mars	
28.11	Summary	
References	
29. Sulfur	
29.1	Isotope geochemistry	
29.2	Biogenic isotope fractionation	
29.3	Sulfur in recent sediment	
29.4	Fossil fuels	
Petroleum
Coal
29.5	Native sulfur deposits	
29.6	Sedimentary rocks of Precambrian age	
29.7	Isotopic evolution of marine sulfate	
29.8	Igneous rocks	
Contamination
Alteration by seawater
Outgassing of SO2
29.9	Sulfide ore deposits	
a. Isotope fractionation among sulfide minerals
b. Isotope fractionation in ore-forming fluids
29.10	Sulfur in the environment	
29.11	Mass-independent isotope fractionation
29.12	Summary	
References	
Isotope geochemistry
Biogenic isotope fractionation 
Recent sediment
Fossil fuels
Native sulfur in salt domes
Precambrian sedimentary rocks
Phanerozoic marine sulfate
Igneous rocks
Sulfide minerals
Environmental sulfur
Sulfate in soil and desert varnish
30. Boron and other elements	
30.1	Boron	
Geochemistry 
Isotopic composition
Meteorites
Summary
References	
Terrestrial rocks
Meteorites 	
30.2	Lithium	
Geochemistry
Isotope composition
Summary
References	
30.3	Silicon	
1. Geochemistry
2. Isotope composition
3. Terrestrial rocks
4. Marine diatoms
5. Aqueous isotope geochemistry
6. Extraterrestrial rocks
7. Summary
References	
30.4	Chlorine	
1. Geochemistry
2. Isotope geochemistry
3. Summary
References
30.5	Postscript	
Author Index	
Subject index	
Appendix: Geological timescale	




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Isotope geology