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CONTENTS List of plates List of colour plates List of figures List of tables Preface Acknowlegements PART ONE - THE NATURE OF HAZARD 1.0 HAZARD IN THE ENVIRONMENT 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Changing perspectives 1.3 What are environmental hazards? 1.4 Hazard, risk and disaster 1.5 Human vulnerability to disaster Key reading Box 1.1 Paradigms of hazard Box 1.2 The rich and the poor 2.0 DIMENSIONS OF DISASTER 2.1 Auditing disaster 2.2 Disaster patterns 2.3 Disaster trends Key reading Box 2.1 Types of disaster impact Box 2.2 Other disaster databases 3.0 RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT 3.1 The nature of risk 3.2 Risk assessment 3.3 Extreme event analysis 3.4 Risk perception and communication 3.5 Risk management Key reading Box 3.1 Quantitative risk assessment Box 3.2 Information technology and disaster management 4.0 REDUCING THE IMPACTS OF DISASTER 4.1 The range of options 4.2 Mitigation - disaster aid 4.3 Mitigation - insurance 4.4 Protection - hazard resistance 4.5 Adaptation - preparedness 4.6 Adaptation - predictions, forecasts and warnings 4.7 Adaptation - land use planning Key reading Box 4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of commercial insurance Box 4.2 Avalanche deflecting dams in Iceland Box 4.3 Earthquake hazard zoning in California PART TWO - THE EXPERIENCE AND REDUCTION OF HAZARD 5.0 TECTONIC HAZARDS - EARTHQUAKES 5.1 Earthquake hazards 5.2 The nature of earthquakes 5.3 Primary earthquake hazards 5.4 Secondary earthquake hazards 5.5 Mitigation 5.6 Protection 5.7 Adaptation Key reading Box 5.1 The Mercalli earthquake intensity scale Box 5.2 Ground shaking in earthquakes Box 5.3 Earthquake safety and buildings 6.0 TECTONIC HAZARDS - VOLCANOES 6.1 Volcanic hazards 6.2 The nature of volcanoes 6.3 Primary volcanic hazards 6.4 Secondary volcanic hazards 6.5 Mitigation 6.6 Protection 6.7 Adaptation Key reading Box 6.1 Crater-lake lahars in the wet tropics Box 6.2 Some precursors of volcanic eruption 7.0 MASS MOVEMENT HAZARDS 7.1 Landslide and avalanche hazards 7.2 Landslides 7.3 Causes of landslides 7.4 Snow avalanches 7.5 Mitigation 7.6 Protection 7.7 Adaptation Key reading Box 7.1 How snow avalanches start 8.0 SEVERE STORM HAZARDS 8.1 Atmospheric hazards 8.2 Tropical cyclone hazards 8.3 Nature of tropical cyclones 8.4 Severe summer storms 8.5 Severe winter storms 8.6 Mitigation 8.7 Protection 8.8 Adaptation Key reading Box 8.1 How tropical cyclones form and develop Box 8.2 The dream of severe storm suppression Box 8.3 Improving hurricane evacuation in the United States 9.0 BIOPHYSICAL HAZARDS 9.1 Thermal extremes, disease epidemics and wildfires 9.2 Extreme temperature hazards 9.3 The nature of disease epidemics 9.4 Some important infectious diseases 9.5 Disease hazard reduction 9.6 Wildfire hazards 9.7 The nature of wildfires 9.8 Wildfire hazard reduction Key reading Box 9.1 Diseases and disasters Box 9.2 The emerging flaviviruses 10.0 HYDROLOGICAL HAZARDS - FLOODS 10.1 Flood hazards 10.2 Flood-prone environments 10.3 The nature of floods 10.4 Mitigation 10.5 Protection 10.6 Adaptation Key reading Box 10.1 Flood management on the Yangtze river, China Box 10.2 Flood-intensifying conditions Box 10.3 The levee effect Box 10.4 The National Flood Insurance Program in the USA 11.0 HYDROLOGICAL HAZARDS - DROUGHTS 11.1 Drought hazards 11.2 Types of drought 11.3 Causes of drought 11.4 Mitigation 11.5 Protection 11.6 Adaptation Key reading Box 11.1 The relationship between famine and drought Box 11.2 Drought in the African Sahel 12.0 TECHNOLOGICAL HAZARDS 12.1 Nature and definition 12.2 Theory and practice 12.3 Perception - the transport and nuclear industries 12.4 Mitigation 12.5 Protection 12.6 Adaptation Key reading Box 12.1 The safety of dams Box 12.2 The disaster at Bhopal, India Box 12.3 The growth of industrial hazards Box 12.4 The disaster at Chernobyl, Belarus 13.0 CONTEXT HAZARDS 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Chronic hazards 13.3 Rare hazards Key reading Box 13.1 Climate change, climate variability and global warming 14.0 POSTSCRIPT 14.1 Challenges and opportunities Appendix Some useful Web pages
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Natural disasters, Disasters, Environmental risk assessment