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Contents in Brief Preface 00 Part One Theoretical Foundations Chapter 1 The Human Situation 3 Chapter 2 Human Societies as Sociocultural Systems 00 Chapter 3 The Evolution of Human Societies 00 Chapter 4 Types of Human Societies 00 Part Two Preindustrial Societies Chapter 5 Hunting and Gathering Societies 00 Chapter 6 Horticultural Societies 000 Chapter 7 Agrarian Societies 000 Chapter 8 Some Evolutionary Bypaths and a Brief Review 000 Part Three Industrial Societies and Industrializing Societies Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution 000 Chapter 10 Industrial Societies: Technologies and Economies 000 Chapter 11 Industrial Societies: Ideologies and Polities 000 Chapter 12 Industrial Societies: Social Stratification 000 Chapter 13 Industrial Societies: Population, the Family, and Leisure 000 Chapter 14 Industrializing Societies 000 Chapter 15 Major Social Experiments of the Twentieth Century: Testing the Limits of the Possible 000 Chapter 16 Retrospect and Prospect 000 Glossary 000 web pages of interest 000 Appendix 000 Notes 000 Photo Credits 000 Indexes 000 Contents Preface 00 Part One Theoretical Foundations Chapter 1 The Human Situation 3 Human Societies: Their Place in Nature Societies as Adaptive Mechanisms / A Definition of Human Societies Understanding Human Societies: Basic Assumptions Human Societies and the Environment / Human Societies: Their Genetic Heritage / Culture: A New Mode of Adaptation and a New Kind of Heritage Human Societies: The Basic Model Excursus: A Brief History of Sociology Chapter 2 Human Societies as Sociocultural Systems 00 Human Societies as Systems The Five Basic Components of Human Societies Population / Culture / Material Products / Social Organization / Social Institutions and Institutional Systems The World System of Societies Chapter 3 The Evolution of Human Societies 00 Forces Promoting Social and Cultural Continuity Forces Promoting Social and Cultural Change Forms of Innovation / Causes of Innovation / Variations in the Rate of Innovation Forces of Selection Intrasocietal Selection / Intersocietal Selection Societal Growth and Development Subsistence Technology's Role in Sociocultural Evolution / Ideology's Role in Sociocultural Evolution A Model of the Evolution of the World System of Societies Excursus: A Comparison of Biological and Sociocultural Evolution Chapter 4 Types of Human Societies 00 Classifying Human Societies Societal Types through History Historical Eras Differences among Types of Societies Size of Societies / Permanence of Settlements / Societal Complexity / Ideology Societal Types: What They Are and What They Are Not Technological Determinism Rejected Part Two Preindustrial Societies Chapter 5 Hunting and Gathering Societies 00 Hunting and Gathering Societies 100,000 b.c. to 8,000 b.c. Hunting and Gathering Societies of the Recent Past Population / Kinship / The Economy / The Polity / Stratification / Religion / Education / The Arts and Leisure / Tribal Ties: Links between Societies Hunting and Gathering Societies in Theoretical Perspective Archaeological and Ethnographic Evidence Compared / A Model of Limited Development / The Last Hunting and Gathering Societies Excursus: Human Origins Chapter 6 Horticultural Societies 000 Causes of the Shift from Hunting and Gathering to Horticulture The Technology of Horticulture Simple Horticultural Societies in Prehistoric Asia and Europe The First Great Social Revolution Simple Horticultural Societies in the Modern Era Population and Economy / The Continuing Importance of Kinship / Developments in Polity, Stratification, and Warfare Advanced Horticultural Societies in Prehistoric Asia and Europe The Shift from Stone to Metals / Social Consequences of Metal Tools and Weapons Advanced Horticultural Societies in the Modern Era Increased Size and Complexity / Political Development / Horticultural Societies in Southeast Asia Horticultural Societies in Theoretical Perspective Excursus: Race, Environment, and Societal Development Chapter 7 Agrarian Societies 000 Simple Agrarian Societies Technology / Religion and the Growth of the Economic Surplus / Population: Growth in Size of Communities and Societies / The Polity: Growth of the State / The Economy: The First Monetary Systems and the Growth of Trade / Stratification: Increasing Inequality / Slowdown in the Rate of Technological Innovation Advanced Agrarian Societies Technology / Population: Continuing Trends / The Economy: Increasing Differentiation / The Polity: Continuing Development of the State / Religion: The Emergence of Universal Faiths / Kinship: Changing Significance in Society / Leisure and the Arts / Stratification: Increasing Complexity Variations on Agrarian Themes Agrarian Societies in Theoretical Perspective Chapter 8 Some Evolutionary Bypaths and a Brief Review 000 Environmentally Specialized Societal Types Fishing Societies / Herding Societies / Maritime Societies A Brief Review: Sociocultural Evolution to the Eve of the Industrial Revolution Part Three Industrial Societies and Industrializing Societies Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution 000 Causes of the Industrial Revolution The Accumulation of Information in the Agrarian Era / Advances in Water Transportation and the Conquest of the New World / The Printing Press and the Spread of Information / Advances in Agriculture / A Model of the Causes of the Industrial Revolution A Brief History of the Industrial Revolution First Phase / Second Phase / Third Phase / Fourth Phase / New Energy, New Machines, New Materials: The Key Innovations Causes of the Continuing Industrial Revolution Greater Informational Resources and a Larger Population / Changing Attitudes toward Innovation / The Rise of Modern Science / The Threat of War / Environmental Feedback / The Desire for Ever Higher Standards of Living Varying Levels of Industrialization in the World System of Societies Consequences of the Industrial Revolution Initial Consequences / Long-Run Consequences: An Overview Chapter 10 Industrial Societies: Technologies and Economies 000 The Technological Foundation of Industrial Societies The Economies of Industrial Societies The Urbanization of Production / Rise in Productivity and in the Standard of Living / The Shift from Labor-Intensive to Capital-Intensive Industries / Changes in the Labor Force / The Rise of Market Economies / Moves toward Mixed Economies / Evolution of the Modern Corporation Increasing Economic Integration of the World System Chapter 11 Industrial Societies: Ideologies and Polities 000 Ideologies in Industrial Societies Theistic Religions / New Secular Ideologies Differences among Industrial Societies The Polities of Industrial Societies The Democratic Trend / Democracy as a Variable / Causes of the Democratic Trend / Mass Political Parties / Special Interest Groups / The Mass Media / Political Conflict and Stability / The Growth of Government / Governmental Bureaucracies: Their Expansion and Transformation Chapter 12 Industrial Societies: Social Stratification 000 Stratification in Industrial Societies Political Stratification / The Distribution of Income / The Distribution of Wealth / Occupational Stratification / Educational Stratification / Racial and Ethnic Stratification / Age and Sex Stratification Vertical Mobility Social Inequality: Two Basic Trends Chapter 13 Industrial Societies: Population, the Family, and Leisure 000 Population Growth in Size of Societies / Trends in Health and Longevity / Declining Birthrates and Increasing Immigration / Population Distribution: The Growth of Urban Populations The Family Changing Functions of the Family / Causes of Change in the Family / The Nuclear Family in Industrial Societies / The Changing Role of Women / The Changing Role of Youth Leisure and the Arts Problems and Progress Industrial Societies in Theoretical Perspective Chapter 14 Industrializing Societies 000 Types of Industrializing Societies Industrializing Agrarian Societies / Industrializing Horticultural Societies Technology and Productivity Population Growth and Its Consequences Economies Polities Social Stratification Cleavages and Conflicts Education Ideologies Old and New Kinship The Status of Women Industrializing Societies in Theoretical Perspective Chapter 15 Major Social Experiments of the Twentieth Century: Testing the Limits of the Possible 000 Some Successful Experiments A Tragically Flawed Experiment Some Successes and Partial Successes / The Failures / Summing Up Lessons to Be Learned Excursus: Is Free Market Capitalism the Cure? Chapter 16 Retrospect and Prospect 000 Looking Back The Divergent Path / The Question of Progress Looking Ahead Population / Natural Resources and the Biophysical Environment / Technology / Ideology / Polity / Economy / The World System / The Higher Goals Glossary 000 web pages of interEst 000 Appendix 000 Notes 000 Photo Credits 000 IndexES 000
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Macrosociology, Social evolution, Social systems History