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CONTENTS Preface ix Acknowledgments xv Introduction xvi Part One: THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN THE 19TH CENTURY 1 1. Atoms and Elements 1 Nature's Building Blocks 2 The "New Chemistry" 4 Dalton's Atoms 5 Insight into Daltonism 6 Avogadro's Hypothesis 9 The Electric Connection 14 Volta and the Birth of the Battery 16 Davy's Electrochemistry 18 2. Chemistry's Perplexing World of Complexity and Order 24 The Karlsruhe Conference 25 Mendeleyev's Solitaire 26 Thumbprinting the Elements 30 Birth of Organic Chemistry 33 Explosives, Dyes, Perfumes, and Plastics: Organic Gifts to Industry 36 Grabbing the Ring 39 3. Indestructible Energy 42 Early Work 42 Joule's Measurement 44 The First Law 45 The Second Law 47 Kinetic Theory of Gases 49 Maxwell's Demon 49 Great Moments in Thermodynamics 51 4. Magnetism, Electricity and Light 52 An Ancient Mystery 52 Faraday, the Great Experimenter 53 Jane Marcet, Science-Writer 55 Thomas Alva Edison 63 The Scottish Theorist, James Clerk Maxwell 65 Hertz's Waves 67 Young, Fresnel, and Light Waves 68 Babbage, Lovelace, and the First Computers 72 5. Sky and Earth 74 Maria Mitchell, The First U.S. Woman Astronomer 76 Seeing Better 77 Missing Planets 79 Fraunhofer's Lines 80 Mary Somerville, Scientist-Writer 83 Photographing the Stars 85 Second-Guessing the Sun 85 Gauging the Earth's Age 86 Sideroads of Science: The Hollow Earth Theory 91 Part Two: THE LIFE SCIENCES IN THE 19TH CENTURY 93 6. Darwin and the Beagle's Bounty 93 Voyage of the Beagle 93 Pre-Darwinian Evolution 97 The Origin of Species 98 Cope and Marsh: Rival Bone Hunters 100 Letter from Malaysia 103 Descent of Man 104 The Neandertal Mystery 108 More Proof 111 7. From Macro to Micro: Organs, Germs, and Cells 113 Experimental Physiology 113 Pavlov and the Brain 116 Birth of Cell Theory 118 Virchow and Cell Pathology 120 Pasteur's Germ Theory 121 Shutting Out Germs 123 Robert Koch: Finding Causes of Disease 126 Sideroads of Science: Homeopathic Medicine 129 Part Three: SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN THE 19TH CENTURY 132 8. Pseudoscience Prospers 132 Testimony by Bumps 132 Rappings, Tappings, and Apparitions 137 9. American Commitment to Science 150 Legacy from the Colonies 150 Dashkova: First Woman Elected to APS Membership 152 Joseph Henry: Jumpstarting American Science 155 Joseph Henry: Underrated Physicist 157 10. The Great Age of Synthesis 160 Conclusion 170 Chronology 172 Glossary 182 Further Reading and Websites 185 The Periodical Table of Elements 194 Index 196
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Science History 19th century Juvenile literature, Science History