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Table of Contents Preface ii Chapter One: Terrorism in the World: Today and Yesterday 1 Terms 11 Further Reading 11 Chapter Two: What is Terrorism? A Definition and Typology 13 Defining Terrorism 13 Classification and Categories 27 Causes of Terrorism 32 Prevalence of Terrorism 38 Summary 43 Terms 44 Further Reading 44 Chapter Three: Tactics, Weapons, and Targets 46 Techniques 47 Weapons 51 Conventional Weapons 52 Weapons of Mass Destruction 58 Targets 66 Structures and People as Targets 67 Vulnerability of Democratic Countries 75 Summary 87 Terms 88 Further Reading 89 Chapter Four: State Sponsors and Supporters of Terrorism 90 True State Control 90 State Support of Terrorism 94 Case Studies 100 Italy and Hungary in Yugoslavia-Fishing in Troubled Waters 101 Iraq 105 Iran 109 The United States and the Contras in Nicaragua 116 North Korea 122 Summary 127 Terms 130 Further Reading 131 Chapter Five: Religious Justifications for Terrorism 132 Terrorism and the World's Religions 134 Case Studies 152 The Zealots in Judea 153 The Sikhs and Khaliastan 157 Algeria in the 1990s 164 Aum Shinrikyo 170 Osama bin Laden and the Al Qaeda Network 174 Summary 182 Terms 186 Further Reading 187 Chapter Six: Ethnic and National Bases of Terrorism 189 Modernity and Ethnic Conflict 190 Case Studies 201 The Boston Tea Party 201 The Mau Mau Uprising in Colonial Kenya 204 Basque Nationalists in Spain 208 Dayaks and Migrants on Borneo 215 Albanians in Kosovo and Macedonia 219 The Palestinian Liberation Organization and the Struggle with Israel 227 Summary 237 Terms 241 Further Reading 243 Chapter Seven: Terrorism and Ideologies of the Left 244 Ideology and Beliefs 245 Dissatisfaction from the Left 247 Case Studies 262 The Baader-Meinhof Gang in West Germany 263 The Italian Red Brigades 270 17 November Organization in Greece 277 The Montoneros in Argentina 284 The Islamic Republic of Iran and the Mujaheden-el-Khalq 290 The Animal Liberation Front and Animal Rights Militia 295 Summary 301 Terms 307 Further Reading 309 Chapter Eight: Terrorism and Ideologies of the Right 311 Right Wing Dissatisfaction: Marxism and Minorities 313 Case Studies 321 Stormtroopers in Weimar Germany 322 Neo-Fascism in Postwar Italy 328 The American Militia/Patriot Movement 333 Neo-Nazis and Skinheads in Europe 345 Summary 355 Terms 360 Further Reading 363 Chapter Nine: Terrorism and Multiple Motivations 363 Terrorist Campaigns and Complex Causes 363 Case Studies 372 Insurgency and Terror in Malaya 373 Leftists and Indigenous Populations in Peru 377 Irish Republicanism 384 Colombia-Regionalism, Ideology, and Narcotics 395 Summary 402 Terms 407 Further Reading 408 Chapter Ten: State Use of Domestic Terrorism and Repression 410 Government Induced Fear and Compliance 411 Government Complicity in Terrorism by Non-State Groups 413 Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing 419 Case Studies 424 Terror in the First Years of the French Revolution 425 The Cherokee Nations versus the State of Georgia 429 Paramilitary Militias in East Timor 435 Farm Invasions in Zimbabwe 439 Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia and Herzegovina 444 Genocide in Rwanda 450 Summary 458 Terms 463 Further Reading 464 Chapter Eleven: Countries with Multiple Crises: Does Violence Beget Violence? 466 The Prevalence of Multiple Crises 466 Waves of Violence and Terrorism in Sri Lanka 473 Summary 487 Terms 490 Further Reading 490 Chapter Twelve: Terrorism: A Continuing Phenomenon 492 What Is To Be Done? 492 Increased Security 493 Intelligence Gathering--Detection and Prevention 495 Finances 500 Repression 503 Retaliation or Punishment 506 Preemptive Action 511 Special Counterterrorism Units 515 Concessions and Reforms 518 Diplomatic Approaches 522 Weapons of Mass Destruction and Mass Casualties 525 Summary 528 Terms 532 Further Reading 533 Chapter Thirteen: Terrorism a Continuing Phenomenon 534 Why Terrorism Continues 536 Continuing Causes of Terrorism 536 Terrorism Works 539 What We Know from the Historical Experience 545 Glossary 548 Bibliography 589
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Terrorism