Table of contents for Roman Berytus : Beirut in late antiquity / Linda Jones Hall.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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 CONTENTS
List of illustrations
Preface
Acknowledgments
List of abbreviations
Spelling conventions
Chapter One: Introduction
Historiographical background
Aspects of self-identification
Methodology
Sources
				
Chapter Two: The Geographical Setting
Location
The harbor
The coat road	
Berytus and other cities
	
Chapter Three: The Economic Base of the City
Traditional view of the ancient economy
The economy of late antique Berytus
Trade
Textile production and trade
Taxation as a measure of trade
Wealth from agricultural products
Redistribution of wealth by the church
Urban exchange of artisan goods and services
The effect of the law school on the economy of Berytus
Conclusions about the economy of Berytus
Chapter Four: Berytus as Colonia and Civitas
The earlier eras	
Colonia Romana
The military connections of the colony
Citizenship in the colony
The colony in the time of the Severans and Late Antiquity
City and council (Boule); the role of the curial classes
	
Chapter Five: The Built Environment of the City	
Urban life in the Classical and Late Antique city
Hellenistic polis and Roman colonia: the physical structures
The physical structures of Late Antique Berytus
Evidence of the earthquake narratives
	
Chapter Six: Provincial Organization in the Roman and Late Antique Eras
Syria under the Julio-Claudians and the Flavians
The Founding of the Roman Province of Phoenicia
Early Governors of Phoenicia
Governors known from the correspondence of Libanius
Phoenicia in the Late Fourth Century
Phoenicia in the Fifth Century
Phoenicia in the Sixth Century
	
Chapter Seven: Paganism and Cultural Identity
Paganism and cultural identification in Classical Berytus
"Roman" religion of the Colonia Augusta
Phoenician heritage in the religion of Berytus and environs
Severan construction of Phoenician religion
Julian and Late Antique paganism in Berytus and Phoenicia
Julian and the construction of Late Antique ethnicity and religion
Paganism as ethnic expression in Late Antiquity
Paganism as traditional praxis in Late Antique Berytus
Chapter Eight: Christianity as Change in Religious Identity
Conversion within the city of Berytus
Conversion outside the city of Berytus: the monastic phenomenon
The Late Antique church in Berytus and the construction of group identity
The churches of Berytus
Bishops of Berytus
Evidence for individual religious belief in Late Antique Berytus
Conclusion about Christian identity in Late Antique Berytus
Jews in Berytus: separateness and togetherness
Second to fourth century
Early sixth century
Chapter Nine: A City of Lawyers, Professors, and Students
The lawyers and the law students: construction of identity by education
Cultural diversity of the students
Self-identification of the law students and their professors
Religion, law, and Late Antique construction of self
Imperial confirmation of the role of Berytus
Education in Roman Berytus
Professors of the third and fourth centuries
Students in Berytus in the third century
Students in the fourth century
Professors of the fourth century
Fourth-century professors known from the letters of Libanius
Students known from the letters of Libanius
The fifth century in Berytus
Chapter Ten: Artisans, Occupational Identity, and Social Status
Silk workers
Linen workers
Weavers
Producers of purple: sellers, dyers, and "fishers"
Purple dyers
"Collectors of purple dye fish"
"Beautiful writer": scribe, artist, or embroiderer?
Artists and mosaicists
Glass artisans
Metal workers
Conclusion about the artisans of Berytus and environs
Chapter Eleven: Conclusion
Bibliography
Primary Sources
Secondary Sources
Appendix I; Province of Syria
Appendix II; Province of Phoenicia
Appendix III; lawyers, law professors and law students
Appendix IV;coins attributed to the mint in Berytus
PREFACE
This book presents a social history of Berytus (Beirut) from the third through sixth centuries A.D., when the city was known as the "most Roman" city in the East." I have attempted to recontruct the city as it existed in those centuries when many students came from distant areas to study jurisprudence and Latin. Furthermore, the law professors appear not only to have influenced future jurists who came to Berytus but also to have been involved in the framing of Justinian's Code, the lasting formulation of Roman law assembled in Constantinople. An exploration of the urban milieu which shaped the self-concepts of these jurists and of ordinary citizens should improve our understanding not only of Roman law as well as life in Late Antique cities of the Greek East. 	
As an urban history, this book presents aspects of the geographical setting, the political past, the physical layout of the city, the administrative structures, and the economic bases of trade, agriculture, and textile production. As a social history, the work studies such self-identifiers as cultural heritage, ethnic identification, religious practice and belief (pagan and Christian), and occupational identity.
In reconstructing the social history of Berytus, the technique of three-dimensional graphing seemed a good intellectual model. Bits of data from Berytus and the neighboring cities, especially Tyre, were fit together to produce a picture of life in the city from the time of Augustus to Justinian. Numerous primary texts and inscriptions provide the evidence for this study.
To reconstruct the self-identity of the inhabitants of Berytus, three types of questions were asked of the evidence. First, what did people say about themselves? Naming practices, declarative statements ("I am..."), and associative linkages ("I favor...") are particularly significant. Second, what did other people say about these individuals ("He/ she is...")? Did the person so characterized seem to accept the label or category? Third, did individuals act in such a way as to create new categories or definitions?
Several categories of self-identification are closely studied. Ethnic identity as "Phoenician," "Roman," "Hellene," or some other ethnos is probed. Occupational status, particularly of the lawyers and artisans, is examined. Religious identification is traced in various accounts of pagans, saints, and bishops associated with Berytus. The setting of the city and the self-view of the residents shaped the role of Berytus as an "outpost of empire" and thereby influenced the attitudes of the compilers of legal codes in the East and the West.
 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Beirut (Lebanon) History, Romans Lebanon Beirut