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CONTENTS List of illustrations Preface Acknowledgments List of abbreviations Spelling conventions Chapter One: Introduction Historiographical background Aspects of self-identification Methodology Sources Chapter Two: The Geographical Setting Location The harbor The coat road Berytus and other cities Chapter Three: The Economic Base of the City Traditional view of the ancient economy The economy of late antique Berytus Trade Textile production and trade Taxation as a measure of trade Wealth from agricultural products Redistribution of wealth by the church Urban exchange of artisan goods and services The effect of the law school on the economy of Berytus Conclusions about the economy of Berytus Chapter Four: Berytus as Colonia and Civitas The earlier eras Colonia Romana The military connections of the colony Citizenship in the colony The colony in the time of the Severans and Late Antiquity City and council (Boule); the role of the curial classes Chapter Five: The Built Environment of the City Urban life in the Classical and Late Antique city Hellenistic polis and Roman colonia: the physical structures The physical structures of Late Antique Berytus Evidence of the earthquake narratives Chapter Six: Provincial Organization in the Roman and Late Antique Eras Syria under the Julio-Claudians and the Flavians The Founding of the Roman Province of Phoenicia Early Governors of Phoenicia Governors known from the correspondence of Libanius Phoenicia in the Late Fourth Century Phoenicia in the Fifth Century Phoenicia in the Sixth Century Chapter Seven: Paganism and Cultural Identity Paganism and cultural identification in Classical Berytus "Roman" religion of the Colonia Augusta Phoenician heritage in the religion of Berytus and environs Severan construction of Phoenician religion Julian and Late Antique paganism in Berytus and Phoenicia Julian and the construction of Late Antique ethnicity and religion Paganism as ethnic expression in Late Antiquity Paganism as traditional praxis in Late Antique Berytus Chapter Eight: Christianity as Change in Religious Identity Conversion within the city of Berytus Conversion outside the city of Berytus: the monastic phenomenon The Late Antique church in Berytus and the construction of group identity The churches of Berytus Bishops of Berytus Evidence for individual religious belief in Late Antique Berytus Conclusion about Christian identity in Late Antique Berytus Jews in Berytus: separateness and togetherness Second to fourth century Early sixth century Chapter Nine: A City of Lawyers, Professors, and Students The lawyers and the law students: construction of identity by education Cultural diversity of the students Self-identification of the law students and their professors Religion, law, and Late Antique construction of self Imperial confirmation of the role of Berytus Education in Roman Berytus Professors of the third and fourth centuries Students in Berytus in the third century Students in the fourth century Professors of the fourth century Fourth-century professors known from the letters of Libanius Students known from the letters of Libanius The fifth century in Berytus Chapter Ten: Artisans, Occupational Identity, and Social Status Silk workers Linen workers Weavers Producers of purple: sellers, dyers, and "fishers" Purple dyers "Collectors of purple dye fish" "Beautiful writer": scribe, artist, or embroiderer? Artists and mosaicists Glass artisans Metal workers Conclusion about the artisans of Berytus and environs Chapter Eleven: Conclusion Bibliography Primary Sources Secondary Sources Appendix I; Province of Syria Appendix II; Province of Phoenicia Appendix III; lawyers, law professors and law students Appendix IV;coins attributed to the mint in Berytus PREFACE This book presents a social history of Berytus (Beirut) from the third through sixth centuries A.D., when the city was known as the "most Roman" city in the East." I have attempted to recontruct the city as it existed in those centuries when many students came from distant areas to study jurisprudence and Latin. Furthermore, the law professors appear not only to have influenced future jurists who came to Berytus but also to have been involved in the framing of Justinian's Code, the lasting formulation of Roman law assembled in Constantinople. An exploration of the urban milieu which shaped the self-concepts of these jurists and of ordinary citizens should improve our understanding not only of Roman law as well as life in Late Antique cities of the Greek East. As an urban history, this book presents aspects of the geographical setting, the political past, the physical layout of the city, the administrative structures, and the economic bases of trade, agriculture, and textile production. As a social history, the work studies such self-identifiers as cultural heritage, ethnic identification, religious practice and belief (pagan and Christian), and occupational identity. In reconstructing the social history of Berytus, the technique of three-dimensional graphing seemed a good intellectual model. Bits of data from Berytus and the neighboring cities, especially Tyre, were fit together to produce a picture of life in the city from the time of Augustus to Justinian. Numerous primary texts and inscriptions provide the evidence for this study. To reconstruct the self-identity of the inhabitants of Berytus, three types of questions were asked of the evidence. First, what did people say about themselves? Naming practices, declarative statements ("I am..."), and associative linkages ("I favor...") are particularly significant. Second, what did other people say about these individuals ("He/ she is...")? Did the person so characterized seem to accept the label or category? Third, did individuals act in such a way as to create new categories or definitions? Several categories of self-identification are closely studied. Ethnic identity as "Phoenician," "Roman," "Hellene," or some other ethnos is probed. Occupational status, particularly of the lawyers and artisans, is examined. Religious identification is traced in various accounts of pagans, saints, and bishops associated with Berytus. The setting of the city and the self-view of the residents shaped the role of Berytus as an "outpost of empire" and thereby influenced the attitudes of the compilers of legal codes in the East and the West.
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Beirut (Lebanon) History, Romans Lebanon Beirut