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Table of Contents Tables, Figures, and Boxes Preface Introduction PART I: THE STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT 1 Voters Turnout: Why People Don't Vote Turnout: Why People Do Vote-A Theory of Social Connectedness In the Minds of Voters: Party Parties as Aggregates of Loyal Voters Ideologies, Candidates, and Issues in the Minds of Voters Changes in Party Identification: Social Habit Versus Contemporary Evaluation A Central Strategic Problem: The Attentiveness of Voters 2 Groups The Presidential Vote as an Aggregation of Interest Groups Variations among Interest Groups "Special" Interests and Public Interest Groups Political Parties as Organizations Third Parties 3 Rules and Resources Rules: The Electoral College Thinking about Resources Resources: Money Raising Money in the Prenomination Period The Beverly Hills Primary Why Do They Need It? Raising and Spending Money in the General Election Does Money Buy Elections? Reform Resources: Control over Information Newspapers Television Incumbency as a Resource: The Presidency Incumbency as a Liability: The Vice Presidency Convertability of Resources PART II: SEQUENCES 4 The Nomination Process Before the Primaries Iowa and New Hampshire: The First Hurdles 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 What Do These Historical Vignettes Teach? Primaries State and District Conventions/Caucuses At the Convention: Housekeeping Candidates and Their Organizations Delegates and Caucuses The Convention as Advertising The Vice-Presidential Nominee The Future of National Conventions 5 The Campaign What Do They Do? The Professionalization of the Campaign Issues Advising the Candidate Domestic Issues, Foreign Issues Social Issues Getting Good Press Polling Focus Groups Advertising Television Targeting Radio and Newspapers Other Media Strategies and Tactics Negative Campaigning Presentation of Self Debates Blunders PART III: ISSUES 6 Appraisals The Political Theory of Policy Government Reform by Means of Participatory Democracy Some Specific Reforms The Nomination Process The Decline of the National Convention The Electoral College Party Platforms and Party Differences 7 American Parties and Democracy Elections and Public Policy Parties of Advocacy Versus Parties of Intermediation Appendix A Vote by Groups in Presidential Elections, 1952-2000 B Participation in National Elections, by Population Characteristics, 1968-2000 Index About the Authors
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Presidents United States Election