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Contents Chapter 1: Historical Overview of Research on Attention with Kim-Phuong L. Vu The Philosophical Period The Period from 1860 to 1909 Speed of Mental Processes Effects of Attention The Period from 1910 to 1949 The Period from 1950 to 1974 The Period from 1975 to Present Summary and Preview of the Book Chapter 2: Information Processing and the Study of Attention The Information Processing Approach Information Theory Information and Stages Mental Resources Arousal and Performance An Energetic Systems Model of Information Processing Behavioral Measures Reaction Time Accuracy Signal Detection Methods Psychophysiological Measures Brain Imaging Techniques Summary Chapter 3: Selective Visual Attention The Function of Selective Attention Attention for Perception Attention for Awareness Attention for Action The Locus of Selection The Early-selection View The Late-Selection View Is Selection Early or Late? The Spotlight of Attention Focusing the Attentional Spotlight Moving the Attentional Spotlight The Resolution of the Attentional Spotlight An Attentional Gradient? Attentional Control Overt and Covert Orienting Exogenous and Endogenous Orienting Space-based versus Object-based Attention Is Space Special? Allocating Attention to Objects Visual Search Feature Integration Theory Guided Search 2.0 Combining Object- and Space-based Selection in Theories of Visual Attention A Theory of Visual Attention The CODE Theory of Visual Attention Summary Chapter 4: Auditory and Crossmodal Attention Auditory Selective Attention The Dichotic Listening Paradigm Factors Affecting the Ease of Selection Processing of Unselected Information Divided Auditory Attention The Split-span Technique Auditory Monitoring Alerting and Orienting Functions of Auditory Attention Attentional Set Attending to Multiple Locations or Modalities Visual Dominance Effects of Visual Information on Auditory Localization Effects of Attention on Pain Perception Cross-modal Attention Cross-modal Attention Cuing A Single Supra-modal Spatial Attention Controller? Summary Chapter 5: Attention and Inhibition Types of Inhibition Inhibition That Counters Activation Reactive Inhibition Behavioral Inhibition (Attempted) Inhibition of Irrelevant Information The Stroop Effect The Simon Effect A Response-Selection Basis for Spatial Compatibility Effects Flanker-compatibility Effects Inhibition of Return Inhibition of Return and Visual Search Attentional and Motor Effects in Inhibition of Return Visual Marking Negative Priming Object-based Negative Priming Ease of Selection and Degree of Negative Priming Inhibition Accounts of Negative Priming Episodic Retrieval Accounts of Negative Priming Inhibition of Thought and Action Intentional Forgetting Suppression Processes in Reading Responding to a Signal to Stop Stopping Times The Nature of the Stopping Process Summary Chapter 6: Multiple-Task Performance Managing Attentional Resources Setting Goals and Intentions Goal Setting Task-set Switching Control of Multi-step Tasks Intentional Control and Multitasking Attention and Skill A Closer Look at Dual-task Performance The Psychological Refractory Period Effect The Response-selection Bottleneck Model Modifications of the Response-selection Bottleneck model Effects of Practice on the PRP Effect Alternatives to Bottleneck Models Summary Chapter 7: Memory and Attention with Mark Nieuwenstein Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory Working Memory The Phonological Loop The Visuo-spatial Sketchpad The Central Executive The Role of Attention in Encoding and Retrieval Memory Consolidation and Attention Short-Term Conceptual Memory The Attentional Blink Change Blindness The Bottleneck Model Revisited The Attentional Blink and the PRP Effect Do Memory Operations Occupy the Central Bottleneck? Procedural Memory Implicit Learning Attention, Memory, and Skill Summary Chapter 8: Attention and Displays with Kim-Phuong L. Vu Visual Displays Visual Search Search Patterns Computer Menus Multifunctional and Gaze-contingent Multiresolutional Displays Organization of Displays Grouping Principles Object Displays and Emergent Features Display-control Relations Salience of Display and Control Features Auditory and Multisensory Displays Auditory Displays Warning and Alerting Signals Alerting Signals for Mode Changes Multisensory Interfaces Supervisory Control Mental Models Ecological Interface Design Memory-related factors Complex Tasks and Display Arrangements Cognitive Load and Instructional Learning Vehicle Control and Operation Head-up Displays Intelligent Transport Systems and In-vehicle Navigation Aids Virtual Reality Environments Sustained Attention and Vigilance Summary Chapter 9: Mental Workload and Situation Awareness Processing Resources Arousal and Workload Multiple-resources Framework Processing Strategies Measuring Mental Workload Physiological Measures Performance-based Measures Performance Operating Characteristics Subjective Measures Criteria for Selecting and Evaluating Workload Measures Situation Awareness Cognitive Factors in Situation Awareness Situation Awareness and Mental Workload Measurement of Situation Awareness Improving Situation Awareness Human Error Initiating and Maintaining Action Plans The Supervisory Attention System Summary Chapter 10: Individual Differences in Attention Attentional Ability Attention and Intelligence Intra-individual Differences in Attention Arousal and Circadian Rhythms Energetical Arousal and Performance Attention Across the Lifespan Attentional Control in Children Attentional Control and Aging Inhibition and Aging Frontal Lobe Function and Monitoring Performance Training and Attention Controlling Attention Automaticity and Training Attention and Working Memory Capacity Attention, Memory, and Emotion Mood-congruent Memory Memory and Depression Attention, Memory, and Anxiety Summary Chapter 11: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Robert Melara Tools of the Cognitive Neuroscientist Measurement Strengths and Limitations The Oddball Paradigm Mismatch Negativity: The Automatic Detection of Change Involuntary Orienting Neural Generators of Change Detection Selective Attention The Dual-Channel Oddball Task Channel Separation Filtering Unidimensional Stimuli Filtering Multidimensional Stimuli The Duality of Selection Inhibition Revealed by Attentional Training The Sources of Selective Control The Logic of Lesion Studies Divisions of the Prefrontal Cortex Effects of Prefrontal Damage on Channel Separation Prefrontal Control of Selection Duality Role of Prefrontal Cortex in Attention Disorders The Anterior Cingulate Cortex The Sites of Selective Control The Spatial Mapping of Selective Attention Selection of Object-Based Representations Target versus Distractor Activation in Lateral Intraparietal Cortex Attentional Networks Posner's Orienting Network Mesulam's Attentional System Büchel and Friston's Path Network Dynamic Filtering: A General Purpose Attentional Network Summary Chapter 12: Disorders of Attention with Edward de Haan and Roy Kessels Developmental Attention Disorders Attention Deficits Due to Focal Lesions and Hemorrhage Neglect Extinction Balint's syndrome Attention Deficits Following Diffuse Injury Head Trauma Whiplash Measuring Attention Deficits Dementia Cortical Dementias Subcortical Dementias Attention Deficits in Psychiatric Patients Schizophrenia Depression Treatment of Attention Deficits Summary References Index About the Authors
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Attention, Information processing, Memory