Table of contents for Reforming the republic : democratic institutions for the new America / Todd Donovan, Shaun Bowler.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Preface xi
Chapter 1
Electoral Reform and American Politics 1
Electoral Reform and American History 2
The Primary Role of Electoral Rules 5
Election Rules: Process and Outcome 8
Where Have Majorities Gone? 9
A Tale of Two Elections: 1996 and 2000 10
The Range of Reforms Considered in This Book 14
Notes 14
Chapter 2
Is America's System of Elections Broken? The Public's Attitudes 17
The Roots of Discontent 20
A Portrait of the Disconnected: Independents and Moderates 25
Does Cynicism about Government Matter? 28
Why Institutions Matter to Citizens: Effects on Attitudes and Behavior 31
What to Do: More Democracy or Less? 33
Notes 36
Chapter 3
Pathologies of Congressional Elections 39
Problems with Contemporary Congressional Elections 40
Few Seats Are Competitive 40
Incumbents, Margins, and Money 42
House Election Outcomes Fail to Represent Many (Most?) Voters 46
Majoritarian Politics in an Era of Social Diversity 51
Public Contempt for Congress 53
Can House Elections Engage Voters? 54
A Partial Defense of U.S. House Elections 55
A Need for Reform? 56
Notes 56
Chapter 4
Are There Better Ways to Elect Congress? 59
Term Limits 60
What Would Happen if We Had Term Limits for Congress? 62
Evidence from the States 62
Proportional Representation 63
Methods of PR Elections That Might Apply in the United States 65
What Would Happen if We Began Electing Congress via PR? 69
More Parties and "Fair" Outcomes 69
More Polarization, or Less? 70
Unstable Coalition Governments? 72
More Candidate Campaign Activity? 72
More Descriptive Representation 73
Changes in Citizen Attitudes and Behavior 74
Increasing the Size of the U.S. House 75
What Would Happen if Congress Had More Members? 78
Conclusions 79
Notes 80
Chapter 5
Electing the President 83
The Logic of the Electoral College 84
What Do We Expect from Presidential Elections? 86
What Is Gained by Having More than Two Candidates? 87
Why the Electoral College Fails 88
Reforming the Electoral College 89
Winner-Take-All by Congressional District 90
Proportional Allocation of Electors, by State 90
Direct Election of the President 93
Runoff Elections 93
Alternative Vote/Preference Voting 94
What if Preference Voting Were Used in the United States? 100
Discussion 102
Notes 103
Chapter 6
The Nomination Process, or Who Gets on the Ballot? 106
The Power of Nomination Rules 106
Presidential Nominations before 1972 107
The "Post-Reform" Nomination Process 108
Initial Fears about the Post-Reform Nomination Process 108
Party Officials Lose Control? 109
Increased Fragmentation of Parties? 109
With Hindsight, Initial Fears Proved Wrong 110
Contemporary Problems with Presidential Primaries 111
The Wealth Primary 111
Party Control Is Alive and Well 111
Front-Loading and the Power of Early Money 112
Institutions Trump Momentum: The 2000 Nomination Contests 113
The Democrats 113
The Republicans 114
The Death of Post-Iowa/New Hampshire Momentum 116
The Deck Is Stacked against Challengers 118
What Do We Expect from Presidential Primaries? 120
Opening Primary Elections 121
Closing Primary Elections 121
Fixing the Primary Schedule 122
Party Control of Nominations Outside the United States 125
Nomination by Party in the Legislature 126
Party Members Select Nominee 126
Party Organizations Select Nominees 127
Conclusions 129
Notes 129
Chapter 7
Direct Democracy 131
What Is Direct Democracy? 131
The Referendum 131
The Initiative 132
Growing Popularity of Direct Democracy 132
Why Citizens Like Direct Democracy 134
Aggregating Preferences: Direct versus Representative Democracy 136
Criticisms of Direct Democracy 137
Original Intent 137
Laws Are Poorly Written 138
Too Much Money and "Special-Interest" Influence 138
Voters Are Incompetent 140
Minority Rights 140
Lessons from the American States 142
Effects on Policy 142
Effects on Politics 143
Major Forms of Direct Democracy 143
National Legislative Referendum 143
Advisory Initiatives 144
Indirect Initiative 145
A National Initiative 146
Conclusions 147
Notes 148
Chapter 8
Campaign Finance 152
Why Is the Public Cynical about Campaign Finance? 152
Campaign Finance in America 154
Hard Money 154
Soft Money 157
Dirty Money and Dirty Politics 160
Campaign Finance and Participatory Inequality 163
Reforming Campaign Finance: Can Campaigns Be Run with "Clean" Money? 164
Modes of Campaign Finance in Other Nations 164
Public Subsidy: The Case for It 165
Public Subsidy: The Case Against It 168
Limits on Expenditures and Contributions 169
Transparency 170
Experience with Campaign Finance Rules in the American States 171
Campaign Finance Reform in the 107th Congress 173
Conclusions 174
Notes 176
Chapter 9
The Mechanics of Running Elections 179
Voter Registration 181
Registering to Vote 181
Record Keeping 182
Provisional Voting 183
What Went Wrong in Florida: Voting Technology 184
Voting from Home and Abroad 187
Vote by Mail 187
Internet Voting 189
A National Holiday? 191
Conclusions 191
Election-Related Reports 192
Notes 193
Chapter 10
Conclusions 195
A Menu, but Don't Order Everything 196
Prospects for Electoral Reform in the United States 197
Barriers to Adoption of Reforms 200
Notes 201
Index 202

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Elections United States, Political campaigns United States, Proportional representation United States, Representative government and representation United States