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Contents Preface xi Chapter 1 Electoral Reform and American Politics 1 Electoral Reform and American History 2 The Primary Role of Electoral Rules 5 Election Rules: Process and Outcome 8 Where Have Majorities Gone? 9 A Tale of Two Elections: 1996 and 2000 10 The Range of Reforms Considered in This Book 14 Notes 14 Chapter 2 Is America's System of Elections Broken? The Public's Attitudes 17 The Roots of Discontent 20 A Portrait of the Disconnected: Independents and Moderates 25 Does Cynicism about Government Matter? 28 Why Institutions Matter to Citizens: Effects on Attitudes and Behavior 31 What to Do: More Democracy or Less? 33 Notes 36 Chapter 3 Pathologies of Congressional Elections 39 Problems with Contemporary Congressional Elections 40 Few Seats Are Competitive 40 Incumbents, Margins, and Money 42 House Election Outcomes Fail to Represent Many (Most?) Voters 46 Majoritarian Politics in an Era of Social Diversity 51 Public Contempt for Congress 53 Can House Elections Engage Voters? 54 A Partial Defense of U.S. House Elections 55 A Need for Reform? 56 Notes 56 Chapter 4 Are There Better Ways to Elect Congress? 59 Term Limits 60 What Would Happen if We Had Term Limits for Congress? 62 Evidence from the States 62 Proportional Representation 63 Methods of PR Elections That Might Apply in the United States 65 What Would Happen if We Began Electing Congress via PR? 69 More Parties and "Fair" Outcomes 69 More Polarization, or Less? 70 Unstable Coalition Governments? 72 More Candidate Campaign Activity? 72 More Descriptive Representation 73 Changes in Citizen Attitudes and Behavior 74 Increasing the Size of the U.S. House 75 What Would Happen if Congress Had More Members? 78 Conclusions 79 Notes 80 Chapter 5 Electing the President 83 The Logic of the Electoral College 84 What Do We Expect from Presidential Elections? 86 What Is Gained by Having More than Two Candidates? 87 Why the Electoral College Fails 88 Reforming the Electoral College 89 Winner-Take-All by Congressional District 90 Proportional Allocation of Electors, by State 90 Direct Election of the President 93 Runoff Elections 93 Alternative Vote/Preference Voting 94 What if Preference Voting Were Used in the United States? 100 Discussion 102 Notes 103 Chapter 6 The Nomination Process, or Who Gets on the Ballot? 106 The Power of Nomination Rules 106 Presidential Nominations before 1972 107 The "Post-Reform" Nomination Process 108 Initial Fears about the Post-Reform Nomination Process 108 Party Officials Lose Control? 109 Increased Fragmentation of Parties? 109 With Hindsight, Initial Fears Proved Wrong 110 Contemporary Problems with Presidential Primaries 111 The Wealth Primary 111 Party Control Is Alive and Well 111 Front-Loading and the Power of Early Money 112 Institutions Trump Momentum: The 2000 Nomination Contests 113 The Democrats 113 The Republicans 114 The Death of Post-Iowa/New Hampshire Momentum 116 The Deck Is Stacked against Challengers 118 What Do We Expect from Presidential Primaries? 120 Opening Primary Elections 121 Closing Primary Elections 121 Fixing the Primary Schedule 122 Party Control of Nominations Outside the United States 125 Nomination by Party in the Legislature 126 Party Members Select Nominee 126 Party Organizations Select Nominees 127 Conclusions 129 Notes 129 Chapter 7 Direct Democracy 131 What Is Direct Democracy? 131 The Referendum 131 The Initiative 132 Growing Popularity of Direct Democracy 132 Why Citizens Like Direct Democracy 134 Aggregating Preferences: Direct versus Representative Democracy 136 Criticisms of Direct Democracy 137 Original Intent 137 Laws Are Poorly Written 138 Too Much Money and "Special-Interest" Influence 138 Voters Are Incompetent 140 Minority Rights 140 Lessons from the American States 142 Effects on Policy 142 Effects on Politics 143 Major Forms of Direct Democracy 143 National Legislative Referendum 143 Advisory Initiatives 144 Indirect Initiative 145 A National Initiative 146 Conclusions 147 Notes 148 Chapter 8 Campaign Finance 152 Why Is the Public Cynical about Campaign Finance? 152 Campaign Finance in America 154 Hard Money 154 Soft Money 157 Dirty Money and Dirty Politics 160 Campaign Finance and Participatory Inequality 163 Reforming Campaign Finance: Can Campaigns Be Run with "Clean" Money? 164 Modes of Campaign Finance in Other Nations 164 Public Subsidy: The Case for It 165 Public Subsidy: The Case Against It 168 Limits on Expenditures and Contributions 169 Transparency 170 Experience with Campaign Finance Rules in the American States 171 Campaign Finance Reform in the 107th Congress 173 Conclusions 174 Notes 176 Chapter 9 The Mechanics of Running Elections 179 Voter Registration 181 Registering to Vote 181 Record Keeping 182 Provisional Voting 183 What Went Wrong in Florida: Voting Technology 184 Voting from Home and Abroad 187 Vote by Mail 187 Internet Voting 189 A National Holiday? 191 Conclusions 191 Election-Related Reports 192 Notes 193 Chapter 10 Conclusions 195 A Menu, but Don't Order Everything 196 Prospects for Electoral Reform in the United States 197 Barriers to Adoption of Reforms 200 Notes 201 Index 202
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Elections United States, Political campaigns United States, Proportional representation United States, Representative government and representation United States