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Preface viii Acknowledgments x Introduction xi About the Authors xii UNIT I Foundations of Intravenous Infusion Therapy Practice 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Intravenous Infusion Therapy 2 Accountability and Infusion Therapy / 3 Intravenous Infusion Therapy / 8 Chapter 2 Fluid and Electrolyte Fundamentals Related to Intravenous Infusion Therapy 12 Fluids and Homeostasis / 13 The Composition of Body Fluids / 15 The Movement of Body Fluids / 16 Body Systems: Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation / 28 Acid-Base Balance / 29 Electrolyte Balances and Imbalances / 36 Chapter 3 Legal Implications of Intravenous Infusion Therapy 46 Law / 47 Classifications of Law / 48 Liability and Infusion Therapy / 49 The Law: Implications for IV Nursing Practice / 50 Avoiding Litigation / 57 Chapter 4 Infection Control Related to Intravenous Infusion Therapy 60 Epidemiology and Infection / 61 Infection / 62 Infection Control / 66 Unit II The Practice of Intravenous Infusion Therapy 80 Chapter 5 Risks, Complications, and Adverse Reactions Associated With Intravenous Infusion Therapy 81 Local Problems and Complications / 82 Systemic Complications of Infusion Therapy / 97 Chapter 6 Intravenous Infusion Preparations 107 Osmolality and Osmolarity / 108 Determination of Fluid Balance / 110 Classifications of Infusates / 110 Determining Tonicity / 110 Infusates: Categories of Tonicity / 112 Chapter 7 Patient Preparation and Site Selection for Peripheral Intravenous Infusion Therapy 128 Peripheral Infusion Therapy: Advantages and Disadvantages / 129 Anatomy Review / 129 Patient Preparation / 136 Intravascular Site Selection / 140 Chapter 8 Equipment and Supplies Employed in the Preparation and Administration of Intravenous Infusion Therapy 146 Infusate Containers / 147 Infusate Administration Sets / 150 Needleless Systems and Needle Stick Safety Systems / 163 Venous Access Devices / 163 Vein Illumination Devices / 167 Infusion Site Preparation and Maintenance Materials / 170 Infusion Regulation Systems / 173 Labels / 178 Hanging Devices for IV Equipment / 178 Chapter 9 The Delivery, Care, Maintenance, and Discontinuation of Intravenous Infusion Therapy 181 Preparation Guidelines for Infusion Therapy / 182 Initiation of Infusion Therapy / 190 Peripheral Infusion Therapy: Maintenance and Monitoring / 202 Discontinuation of Peripheral Infusions While Retaining Venous Patency / 205 Discontinuation of Peripheral Infusion Lines / 206 Medication Administration by Direct Intravenous Delivery / 207 Chapter 10 Mathematical Calculations for the Administration, Regulation, and Maintenance of Intravenous Infusion Therapy 210 Basic Mathematical Review / 211 Systems of Weights and Measures / 214 Intravenous Infusion Calculations / 216 Adjustment and Recalculation of Flow Rates / 220 Calculating With Accuracy / 221 Chapter 11 Pharmacologic Principles Related to the Preparation and Administration of Intravenous Medications 223 Pharmacokinetics and Mechanisms of Drug Action / 224 Drug Names / 227 Intravenous Drug Classifications / 227 Drug Compatibility and Interactions / 251 Chapter 12 Central and Peripherally Placed Vascular Access Devices and Advanced Medication Delivery Systems 253 Central Venous Therapy / 254 Centrally Inserted Single and Multilumen Nontunneled Central Venous Access Catheters / 260 Central Venous Tunneled Catheters / 275 Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters / 280 Midline Catheters / 293 Implantable Subcutaneous Vascular Access Devices / 294 Hemodynamic Monitoring / 305 Advanced Medication Delivery Systems / 307 Chapter 13 Intravenous Nutritional Support 315 Indications for Intravenous Nutrition / 316 Composition of Parenteral Nutrition Products / 317 Total Parenteral Nutrition / 323 Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition / 324 Preparation of Parenteral Nutrition / 325 Compounding Parenteral Nutrition Formulas / 325 Risks and Complications Associated with Parenteral Nutrition Administration / 326 Chapter 14 Blood and Blood Product Administration 333 Basic Immunology / 334 Basic Immunohematology / 334 Blood Typing and Crossmatching / 336 Blood and Blood Components / 336 Nonblood-Product Volume Expanders / 349 Blood and Blood Product Transfusion / 350 Blood Transfusion Reactions / 354 Transfusion Administration / 361 UNIT III Intravenous Infusion Needs of the Pediatric and Gerontologic Populations 368 Chapter 15 Intravenous Infusion Therapy for the Pediatric Patient 369 Body Fluids / 370 Physiologic Differences: Adult versus Pediatric Patients / 370 Principles of Growth and Development / 370 Conditions Causing Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances / 371 Implementing the Nursing Process / 379 Complications of Infusion Therapy / 388 Medication Administration / 388 Intravenous Therapy in Home Care / 389 Children with Cancer / 389 Chapter 16 Intravenous Therapy for the Elderly Patient: Special Considerations 395 Gerontology / 396 Physiologic Changes of Aging / 396 Intravenous Therapy / 398 Procedures for the Elderly / 401 Complications of Intravenous Therapy / 401 Medications / 403 Common Nursing Concerns / 404 Common Disorders of the Elderly / 406 Case Management / 409 APPENDICES Appendix A: Abbreviations / 412
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Infusion therapy, Nursing, Infusions, Intravenous methods Nurses' Instruction