Table of contents for New forces at work in refining : industry views of critical business and operations trends / D.J. Peterson, Sergej Mahnovski.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Preface	iii
List of Figures	vii
List of Tables	ix
Executive Summary	xi
Acknowledgements	xi
Acronyms and Abbreviations	xxiii
Glossary	xxv
1. Introduction: A Critical Infrastructure	1
Petroleum Products in the U.S. Economy	1
Change and Challenges in Refining	1
A Critical Infrastructure	5
About the Study	7
The Report	13
2. The Refining Industry and Petroleum Products Markets	15
Industry Segments and business Models	15
Economic Hardship and Restructuring	17
Is the Downstream Enjoying an Economic Recovery?	20
Product Slate	23
Higher Performance Fuels	25
Regionalization of Products Markets	27
Future Demand	32
Imports	35
3. Refinery Operations and Technologies	39
Current Operations Trends	39
Current Trends in Technologies	49
Longer-Term Trends in Technologies and Operations	54
Environment for Technology Innovation	59
Human Capital	65
4. Regulatory and Financial Environment	68
Return on Investment	69
Capital Constraints	74
Regulatory Flexibility	79
Regulatory Uncertainty	82
Implications for Future Product supplies	86
Industry Views of Policy and Regulation	91
5. The Refining Industry in a New Era: Key Findings and Policy Issues
Key Findings	93
Policy Issues of Importance	103
Appendix A. RAND Discussion Participants	106
Appendix B. Discussion Protocol	112
Appendix C. Petroleum Refining Processes and Products	113
Crude Oil Inputs	113
Separation	115
Conversion	115
Combination	118
Reformulation	119
Treating	120
Support Operations	121
Bibliography	125
List of Figures
Operating Costs and Margins for Medium and Large U.S. 
Refiners, 1979/2001	21
U.S. Refining Industry Product Slate	24
Major Refineries and Refined Products Pipe Lines	28
Regional Summer Gasoline Requirements	30
One Company's View of Potential Gasoline Demand	34
U.S. Net Imports of Crude Oil and Intermediate and Finished 
Petroleum Products, 1970-2002	36
Principal Refinery Processes and Outputs	40
U.S. Crude Distillation Capacity and Input at Operable 
Refineries, 1970/2001	41
U.S. Refineries and Capacity Utilization, 1950/2002	42
Company R&D Spending in the United States	61
Range of Products in Light and Heavy Crude Oils Prior to 
Refining and the Market Demand for Refined Products	114
List of Tables
The U.S. Refining Industry at a Glance, 2002	2
Key Recommendations from the National Energy Policy Regarding 
Petroleum Products Manufacturing and Distribution	5
Summary of Major Fuel Specifications	26

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Petroleum industry and trade United States, Petroleum Refining United States