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Contents Acknowledgments 000 Introduction 000 A. Definition, the Argument, and Six Historical Controversies B. Structure Chapter I. Early Ethical Contributions to Human Rights 000 A. Religious and Secular Universalism: The Ancient Legacy B. "Liberty": The Origins of Tolerance and Justice C. "Equality:" Early Notions of Economic and Social Justice D. How to Promote Justice? E. "Fraternity," or Human Rights for Whom? Conclusion Chapter II. Human Rights and the Enlightenment: the Development of a Liberal and Secular Perspective on Human Rights 000 A. From Ancient Civilizations to the Rise of the West B. Fight for Freedom of Religion and Opinion C. Right to Life (Including the Abolition of Torture and the Death Penalty) D. The Struggle for the Right to Private Property E. The State and Natural Law as vehicles to Promote Human Rights: from Just War Theory to the Revolutionary Wars F. Human Rights for Whom? Chapter III. Human Rights and the Industrial Age: the Development of a Socialist Perspective of Human Rights 000 A. Nineteenth Century Revolutions and the Industrial Age B. Challenging the Liberal Vision of Rights: Toward a Universal and Historical Interpretation of Rights. C. The Struggle for Universal Suffrage, Economic Equity and other Social Rights D. Challenging the State and Capitalism as the Main Vehicles to Promote Human Rights E. Human E. Rights for Whom? Chapter IV. The World Wars: the Institutionalization of International Rights and the Right to Self-Determination 000 A. Fragmentation of Great Empires and Decolonization: World War I and World War II. B. The Right to Self-Determination C. How to Promote Human Rights? The Bolshevik Revolution, the Rise of the Welfare State and the Establishment of International Organizations during the World Wars. D. Human Rights For Whom? Chapter V. Globalization and its Impact on Human Rights 000 A. Globalization and Protest Movements: From 1968 to the Present B. Defining Rights in the Era of Globalization C. Promoting Human Rights After 9/11: Security vs. Human Rights? D. Human Rights For Whom? Chapter VI. Promoting Human Rights in the Twenty First Century: the Changing Arena of Struggle 000 A. Medievalism and the Absence of Civil Society B. The Emergence of Civil Society during the Democratic Revolutions of the 18th Century C. The Expansion of Civil Society during the Industrial Revolution D. Nationalism: The Anti-Colonial Struggle in Weak and Divided Civil Societies E. Globalization and the Assault against the Private Realm: Toward a New Medievalism? Conclusion Appendices 000 Bibliography 000 Index 000
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Human rights History