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TABLE OF CONTENTS List of illustrations Newspapers Notes on contributors Preface Acknowledgements 1 What is language and what does it do? Shân Wareing 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Why study language? 1.3 What is language? 1.3.1 Language: a system 1.3.2 Language: the potential to create new meanings 1.3.3 Language: multiple functions 1.3.4 Language diversity 1.4 Power 1.5 Summary 2 Language, Thought and Representation Ishtla Singh 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Saussure and language as a representational system 2.3 The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis 2.4 One language, many worlds 2.5 Summary 3 Language and politics Jason Jones and Jean Peccei 3.1 Introduction 3.2 What is meant by politics? 3.3 Politics and ideology 3.3.1 Language as thought control: Newspeak and political correctness 3.4 The implications of implications 3.4.1 Presupposition 3.4.2 Implicature 3.5 Persuasive language - the power of rhetoric 3.5.1 Metaphor 3.5.2 Euphemism 3.5.3 'The rule of three' 3.5.4 Parallelism 3.5.5 Pronouns 3.6 Summary 4 Language and the media Joanna Thornborrow 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The function of the media 4.3 Media, language and power 4.4 Commonsense discourses 4.4.1 The power to change? 4.5 Media voices: accent and register 4.5.1 Variation in register 4.6 Public participation in the media 4.7 Language, society and virtual power 4.8 Summary 5 Language and gender Shân Wareing 5.1 Introduction 5.2 How is English sexist? 5.2.1 Symmetry and asymmetry 5.2.2 Unmarked and marked terms 5.2.3 Semantic derogation 5.2.4 Sexism in discourse 5.2.5 Other explicit examples of sexism 5.2.6 Sexism against men? 5.3 Do men and women talk differently? 5.3.1 How much talk? 5.3.2 Turn construction and interruption 5.3.3 Back channel support 5.3.4 Mitigated and aggravated forms 5.3.5 Topic development 5.4 Possible explanations 5.4.1 Dominance 5.4.2 Difference 5.4.3 Analysis of gender 5.5 Summary 6 Language and Ethnicity Ishtla Singh 6.1. Introduction 6.2. What is ethnicity? 6.3 The language of prejudice 6.3.1 marking us and them 6.3.2 Negative labelling 6.4 Language use as a marker of ethnic identity 6.4.1. Language policy in the USA 6.5 Summary 7 Language and age Jean Stilwell Peccei 7.1 Introduction: what has age got to do with language? 7.2 How can a language reflect the status of children and older people? 7.2.1 Age as an important cultural category 7.2.2 Labelling age groups 7.2.3 Talking about age groups: underlying evaluations of early childhood and old age 7.3 Talking to young children and the elderly 7.3.1 Language characteristics of the under-5s and over-65s 7.3.2 Child Directed Language 7.3.3 Similarities between Child Directed Language and 'Elder Directed' Language 7.3.4 Why might these similarities occur? 7.4 Conclusion 7.5 Summary 8 Language and class Jason Jones 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Linguistic variation and social class 8.2.1 Accent and dialect: regional and social variation 8.2.2 Accent and dialect: a clue to social information 8.3 Does social class really affect language? 8.4 The problem of defining social class 8.5 Research into the relationship between language and social class 8.5.1 William Labov: the social stratification of 'r' in New York City department stores 8.5.2 Peter Trudgill: the social differentiation of English in Norwich 8.5.3 Williams & Kerswill: dialect levelling in three British towns 8.6 Summary 9 Language and identity Joanna Thornborrow 9.1 Introduction 9.2 What do we mean by linguistic identity? 9.3 Language and the construction of personal identities 9.3.1 Names and naming practices 9.3.2 Systems of address 9.4 Language and the construction of group identities 9.4.1 Identity and representation 9.4.2 Ingroups and outgroups 9.5 Linguistic variation and the construction of identity 9.5.1 Stylistic variation and language choice 9.5.2 Power and linguistic imperialism 9.6 Summary 10 The standard English debate Linda Thomas 10.1 Introduction 10.2 What is standard English? 10.2.1 Beginning a definition 10.2.2 Standard English, history and society 10.3 The linguistic definition of standard English 10.3.1 Linguistic variation 10.3.2 Logic and correctness 10.3.3 So what is standard English? 10.4 Standard English and education 10.4.1 Standard English in the school 10.4.2 Standard English and social equality 10.5 Summary 11 Attitudes to language Linda Thomas 11.1 Introduction 11.2 The evidence 11.2.1 Whole languages 11.2.2 Varieties of a language 11.2.3 Words and interaction 11.2.4 Pronunciation and accent 11.3 The effects 11.4 Summary Glossary References Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Language and languages, Sociolinguistics