Table of contents for Language, society, and power / an introduction / [edited by] Linda Thomas ... [et al.].


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of illustrations	
Newspapers	
Notes on contributors	
Preface
Acknowledgements
1 What is language and what does it do? 
Shân Wareing 
1.1       Introduction       
1.2       Why study language?     
1.3       What is language?
1.3.1	Language: a system
1.3.2	Language: the potential to create new meanings
1.3.3	Language: multiple functions
1.3.4	Language diversity
1.4	Power
1.5	Summary       
2 Language, Thought and Representation 
Ishtla Singh 
2.1 Introduction 
2.2 Saussure and language as a representational system 
2.3 The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis 
2.4 One language, many worlds 
2.5 Summary	
3 Language and politics  
Jason Jones and Jean Peccei
3.1 Introduction	
3.2 What is meant by politics?	
3.3 Politics and ideology
3.3.1 Language as thought control: Newspeak and political correctness
3.4 The implications of implications
3.4.1 Presupposition
3.4.2 Implicature	
3.5 Persuasive language - the power of rhetoric
3.5.1 Metaphor
3.5.2 Euphemism
3.5.3 'The rule of three'
3.5.4  Parallelism
3.5.5 Pronouns
3.6 Summary
4 Language and the media
Joanna Thornborrow
4.1 Introduction				
4.2 The function of the media		
4.3 Media, language and power		
4.4 Commonsense discourses		
4.4.1 The power to change?
4.5 Media voices: accent and register
4.5.1 Variation in register
4.6 Public participation in the media	
4.7 Language, society and virtual power	
4.8 Summary
5 Language and gender
Shân Wareing
5.1	Introduction
5.2	How is English sexist?
5.2.1	Symmetry and asymmetry
5.2.2	Unmarked and marked terms
5.2.3	Semantic derogation
5.2.4 Sexism in discourse
5.2.5	Other explicit examples of sexism
5.2.6	Sexism against men?
5.3	Do men and women talk differently?
5.3.1	How much talk?
5.3.2	Turn construction and interruption
5.3.3	Back channel support
5.3.4	Mitigated and aggravated forms 
5.3.5	Topic development
5.4	Possible explanations
5.4.1	Dominance
5.4.2	Difference
5.4.3	Analysis of gender
5.5	Summary
6 Language and Ethnicity
Ishtla Singh
6.1. Introduction
6.2. What is ethnicity? 
6.3 The language of prejudice
6.3.1 marking  us and them
6.3.2 Negative labelling
6.4 Language use as a marker of ethnic identity
6.4.1. Language policy in the USA
6.5 Summary
7	Language and age
	Jean Stilwell Peccei
7.1	Introduction: what has age got to do with language?	
7.2	How can a language reflect the status of children and older people?	
7.2.1	Age as an important cultural category	
7.2.2	Labelling age groups	
7.2.3	Talking about age groups: underlying evaluations of early childhood and old 
age
7.3	Talking to young children and the elderly	
7.3.1	Language characteristics of the under-5s and over-65s
7.3.2	Child Directed Language	
7.3.3	Similarities between Child Directed Language and 'Elder Directed' Language
7.3.4	Why might these similarities occur?
7.4	Conclusion
7.5	Summary
8 Language and class	
Jason Jones
8.1 Introduction	
8.2 Linguistic variation and social class
8.2.1 Accent and dialect: regional and social variation
8.2.2 Accent and dialect: a clue to social information
8.3 Does social class really affect language?
8.4 The problem of defining social class
8.5 Research into the relationship between language and social class
8.5.1 William Labov: the social stratification of 'r' in New York City department 
stores	
8.5.2 Peter Trudgill: the social differentiation of English in Norwich
8.5.3   Williams & Kerswill: dialect levelling in three British towns
8.6	Summary
9	Language and identity
	Joanna Thornborrow
9.1	Introduction	
9.2	What do we mean by linguistic identity?	
9.3	Language and the construction of personal identities	
9.3.1	Names and naming practices	
9.3.2	Systems of address	
9.4	Language and the construction of group identities	
9.4.1	Identity and representation	
9.4.2	Ingroups and outgroups	
9.5	Linguistic variation and the construction of identity	
9.5.1	Stylistic variation and language choice	
9.5.2	Power and linguistic imperialism	
9.6	Summary
	
10	The standard English debate
	Linda Thomas
10.1	Introduction	
10.2	What is standard English?	
10.2.1	Beginning a definition	
10.2.2	Standard English, history and society	
10.3	The linguistic definition of standard English	
10.3.1	Linguistic variation	
10.3.2	Logic and correctness	
10.3.3	So what is standard English?	
10.4	Standard English and education	
10.4.1	Standard English in the school	
10.4.2	Standard English and social equality	
10.5	Summary	
 
11	Attitudes to language	
	Linda Thomas
11.1	Introduction	
11.2	The evidence	
11.2.1	Whole languages	
11.2.2	Varieties of a language	
11.2.3	Words and interaction	
11.2.4	Pronunciation and accent	
11.3	The effects	
11.4	Summary	
Glossary	
References	
Index
 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Language and languages, Sociolinguistics